Information about Middle East Oriente Medio
Front Matter

Front Matter

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Published Date:
October 2014
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©2014 International Monetary Fund

October 2014

Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Regional economic outlook. Middle East and Central Asia. – Washington, D.C. :

International Monetary Fund, 2004–

v. ; cm. – (World economic and financial surveys, 0258-7440)

Twice a year.

Began in 2004.

Some issues also have thematic titles.

1. Economic forecasting – Middle East – Periodicals. 2. Economic forecasting – Asia, Central – Periodicals. 3. Middle East – Economic conditions – Periodicals. 4. Asia, Central – Economic conditions – Periodicals. 5. Economic development – Middle East – Periodicals. 6. Economic development – Asia, Central – Periodicals. I. Title: Middle East and Central Asia. II. International Monetary Fund. III. Series: World economic and financial surveys.


ISBN: 978-1-49834-373-2 (Paper)

ISBN: 978-1-49830-232-6 (Web PDF)

The Middle East and Central Asia Regional Economic Outlook is published annually in the fall to review developments in the Middle East and Central Asia. Both projection and policy considerations are those of the IMF staff and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.

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Tel.: (202) 623-7430 Fax: (202) 623-7201



The Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (REO) is prepared annually by the IMF’s Middle East and Central Asia Department (MCD). The analysis and projections contained in the MCD REO are integral elements of the department’s surveillance of economic developments and policies in 31 member countries. It draws primarily on information gathered by MCD staff through their consultations with member countries.

The analysis in this report was coordinated under the general supervision of Masood Ahmed (Director of MCD). The project was directed by Alfred Kammer (Deputy Director of MCD), Natalia Tamirisa (Chief of MCD’s Regional Studies Division), and Harald Finger (Deputy Chief of MCD’s Regional Studies Division). The primary contributors to this report are Alberto Behar, Sami Ben Naceur, Amr Hosny, and Pritha Mitra.

Other contributors include Gohar Abajyan, Abdullah Al-Hassan, Anja Baum, Robert Blotevogel, Mauricio Calani, Martin Cerisola, Mark Fischer, Davide Furceri, Gregory Hadjian, Mark Horton, Inutu Lukonga, Amine Mati, Gohar Minasyan, Tokhir Mirzoev, Francisco Parodi, Gaelle Pierre, Haonan Qu, Hossein Samiei, Carlo Sdralevich, Martin Sommer, Bruno Versailles, SeokHyun Yoon, Younes Zouhar, and Roman Zytek.

Gohar Abajyan, Gregory Hadjian, and Brian Hiland provided research assistance and managed the database and computer systems, with support from Mandana Dehghanian, Soledad Feal-Zubimendi, Mark Fischer, Juan Carlos Flores, and Jonah Rosenthal. Sanaa Farid and Cecilia Prado de Guzman were responsible for word processing and document management. Yasser Abdih, Giorgia Albertin, Faisal Alotaibi, Saad Alshahrani, Aidyn Bibolov, Carolin Geginat, Claire Gicquel, Mbaye Gueye, Fuad Hasanov, Amgad Hegazy, Sarah Knight, Amina Lahreche, Edouard Martin, Gohar Minasyan, Tokhir Mirzoev, Gaelle Pierre, Haiyan Shi, Anna Unigovskaya, and Bruno Versailles reviewed the translations. Kia Penso edited the manuscript and helped manage the production of the publication in close collaboration with Joanne Johnson of the Communications Department, assisted by Katy Whipple and Martha Bonilla.

Assumptions and Conventions

A number of assumptions have been adopted for the projections presented in the Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia. It has been assumed that established policies of national authorities will be maintained, that the price of oil1 will average US$102.7 a barrel in 2014 and US$99.4 in 2015, and that the six-month London interbank offered rate on U.S.-dollar deposits will average 0.4 percent in 2014 and 0.7 percent in 2015. These are, of course, working hypotheses rather than forecasts, and the uncertainties surrounding them add to the margin of error that would in any event be involved in the projections. The 2014 and 2015 data in the figures and tables are projections. These projections are based on statistical information available through early September 2014.

The following conventions are used in this publication:

  • In tables, ellipsis points (…) indicate “not available,” and 0 or 0.0 indicates “zero” or “negligible.” Minor discrepancies between sums of constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
  • An en dash (–) between years or months (for example, 2011–12 or January–June) indicates the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months; a slash or virgule (/) between years or months (for example, 2011/12) indicates a fiscal or financial year, as does the abbreviation FY (for example, FY2012).
  • “Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.
  • “Basis points (bps)” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ of 1 percentage point).

As used in this publication, the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.

The boundaries, colors, denominations, and any other information shown on the maps do not imply, on the part of the International Monetary Fund, any judgment on the legal status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

1 Simple average of prices of U.K. Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate crude oil.

Country Groupings

The October 2014 Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (REO), covering countries in the Middle East and Central Asia Department (MCD) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), provides a broad overview of recent economic developments in 2014 and prospects and policy issues for 2015. To facilitate the analysis, the 31 MCD countries covered in this report are divided into two groups: (1) countries of the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP)—which are further divided into oil exporters and oil importers; and (2) countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA). The country acronyms used in some figures are included in parentheses.

MENAP oil exporters (MENAPOE) comprise Algeria (ALG), Bahrain (BHR), Iran (IRN), Iraq (IRQ), Kuwait (KWT), Libya (LBY), Oman (OMN), Qatar (QAT), Saudi Arabia (SAU), the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen (YMN).

MENAP oil importers1 (MENAPOI) comprise Afghanistan (AFG), Djibouti (DJI), Egypt (EGY), Jordan (JOR), Lebanon (LBN), Mauritania (MRT), Morocco (MAR), Pakistan (PAK), Somalia (SOM), Sudan (SDN), Syria (SYR), and Tunisia (TUN).

MENA comprises Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

MENA oil importers comprise Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia.

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) comprises Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

The non-GCC oil-exporting countries are Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and Yemen.

The Maghreb comprises Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.

The Mashreq comprises Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.

The Arab Countries in Transition (ACTs) are Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen.

The Arab World comprises Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

CCA countries comprise Armenia (ARM), Azerbaijan (AZE), Georgia (GEO), Kazakhstan (KAZ), the Kyrgyz Republic (KGZ), Tajikistan (TJK), Turkmenistan (TKM), and Uzbekistan (UZB).

CCA oil exporters comprise Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

CCA oil importers comprise Armenia, Georgia, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Georgia, Mongolia, and Turkmenistan, though not members of the CIS, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.

1 Because of the uncertain economic situation, Syria is excluded from the projection years of REO aggregates.

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