Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Reda Cherif, Fuad Hasanov, and Min Zhu
Published Date:
April 2016
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Index

  • Abdesselam, Belaid, 49–50

  • Acemoglu, D., 120, 125

  • The Achieving Society (McClelland), 59

  • Advanced countries

    • competition in, 170

    • growth model for, 131

    • productivity growth in, 118–19

  • Affirmative action, in Malaysia, 87

  • Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), in Singapore, 69, 74

  • Aghion, Philippe, 118, 121, 124, 125, 170

  • Airbus, 30

  • Akcigit, U., 120, 121

  • Alcoa, 30

  • Algeria, 94

    • El Hajdar in, 55

    • human capital in, xvi, 51, 168

    • industrialization in, 37–38, 49–54

    • manufacturing in, 51f, 56f

    • oil exports of, 15

    • World Trade Organization and, 56

  • Alp, K., 120, 121

  • Amsden, Alice, 20

  • Apprenticeship programs, 32

  • Arab Barometer, 60

  • Arabization, of Algeria, 54

  • Arezki, Rabah, 13

  • Argentina, 104

  • Askenazy, P., 119

  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 41

  • A*STAR. See Agency of Science, Technology and Research

  • Automobile industry, in Mexico, 18, 42

  • Badawi, Tun Abdullah Ahmad, 85

  • Bahrain, 3, 10–11, 11f, 13–14, 37

    • export structure of, 12f

    • GDP per capita in, 8

    • output composition in, 5

  • Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social. See Brazilian Development Bank

  • Banks, 53–54, 53t

    • in Korea, 99

    • in MENA, 60, 61t

    • See also Brazilian Development Bank

  • Barbados, 21

  • Bartelsman, E., 121

  • El Beblawi, H., 12–13

  • Beck, T., 121n2

  • Bendjedid, Chadli, 50

  • Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen (BJTU), 142

  • Big Push, 21, 29, 99–100

  • Biomedical sciences industry, in Singapore, 73–74

  • Biopolis, 77

  • Biosimilars, 150, 150n3

  • BJTU. See Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen

  • Bloom, D., 120

  • Blundell, R., 118

  • BNDESPAR. See BNDES Participações

  • BNDES Participações (BNDESPAR), 152

  • Boeing, 30

  • Boumediene, Houari, 37–38, 50, 94

  • Boustan, L., 118

  • Branco, Castello, 98

  • Brasil Maior Plan, 147

  • Brazil, 98

    • industrialization in, xvii, 145–53

    • industrial policy in, 145–47

    • manufacturing in, 146–47, 146f

    • R&D in, 147

    • SOEs in, 146

    • technological innovation in, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170

  • Brazilian Development Bank (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social), xvii, 145–53

    • industrial policy and, 149–51

    • pharmaceuticals and, 150, 170

    • software industry and, 151, 151f, 170

    • sugarcane industry and, 150–51, 170

    • venture capital from, 152

  • Cable, Vincent, 123

  • Canada, 15, 21, 140

  • Capital-to-labor ratio, 27

  • Carbon price, 125

  • Cette, G., 119

  • Chang, Ha-Joon, 20, 28

  • Chemicals industry, in Singapore, 72–73

  • Cherif, Reda, 8, 14n9, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98

  • Chile, 36f, 104, 105, 106

  • China, 95, 122, 124

  • Clean innovations, 125–26

  • Climate change, 122–23

  • Colombia, 36f, 106

  • Comparative-advantage sectors, 4, 27–33, 65–77

  • Competition, 124

    • in advanced countries, 170

    • frontier innovations and, 126

    • industrial policy and, 125

    • productivity growth and, 118

    • R&D and, 111

  • Concept Plan, of Singapore, 67

  • Conglomerates (zaibatsu), 97–98

  • Consumption per capita, xiv, 19, 19f

  • Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. See Gulf Cooperation Council

  • Coordination failures, 20–21, 29

  • Corporation Law, in Korea, 96

  • Creative destruction, 110, 118, 146n1

  • Crespi, G., 108

  • Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 121n2

  • Denmark, 17

  • Destanne de Bernis, Gérard, 49

  • Development Decade, in Algeria, 50

  • Di John, Jonathan, 38

  • Dirty innovations, 125

  • Discouragement effect, 118

  • Diversification

    • in Algeria, xvi

    • capital supply and, 132

    • data on, 135–36

    • in Dubai, 3, 95

    • empirical findings on, 137, 138t

    • entrepreneurship and, xvii

    • in GCC, xv, 3–43, 173–74

    • GDP and, xvii, 131–32

    • GDP per capita and, 8

    • government and, 139–42, 174–75

    • for growth, xv

    • in Indonesia, 41–42

    • key policies for, xvii

    • in Korea, 93–101, 162f

    • lack of, xiii–xiv

    • in Latin America, xvii, 102–12

    • in Malaysia, 39–40, 83–91

    • to manufacturing, 8

    • measurement of, 136–37

    • in MENA, 47–61

    • in Mexico, 42–43

    • OECD and, 133f, 139–42, 140t

    • in oil exporters, 36–43

    • oil prices and, 36–38

    • patterns of, 133–34, 133f

    • poverty reduction and, xvii

    • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 54–58

    • sustainable employment and, 48–49

    • sustainable growth from, 8

    • technological innovation and, xvii, 132

    • as top policy agenda, xv

    • in tradable sector, 95

    • women’s empowerment and, xvii

    • worldwide, 135f

    • Zhu on, 171–72

  • Dolton, Peter, 26–27

  • Dow Chemical, 30

  • Dubai, 3, 37, 95, 169–70

  • expatriate labor in, 48

  • Dutch disease, 4n2

    • in Canada, 21

    • in GCC, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22–23, 22n15, 33, 167–68

    • learning externality and, 22

    • market failure from, xvi

    • non-oil tradables and, 168

    • in Norway, 16, 21

  • Early childhood education, in GCC, 26–27, 26f

  • Ease of Doing Business Index, 83

  • East Asia, xvi–xvii

  • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia of the United Nations, 60

  • Economic Development Board (EDB), in Singapore, 65–66, 68

  • Economic Development Institute, of World Bank, 70

  • Economic Development Plan for the Eighties, in Singapore, 68–69

  • Economic Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90

  • EDB. See Economic Development Board

  • Education

    • in Algeria, 51–52, 54

    • in GCC, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59 2

    • in Korea, 159–60, 169

    • in Malaysia, 90, 169

    • in MENA, 59–60

    • productivity growth and, 118

    • in Saemaul Undong, 159–60, 169

    • in Saudi Arabia, 57–58

    • in Singapore, 76, 76f

    • Zhu on, 177

  • Electronics industry

    • in Saudi Arabia, 177

    • in Singapore, 71

  • Employment

    • by expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74

    • in Korea, 160t

    • in private sector, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58

    • in public sector, 3, 6, 24

    • sustainable, 48–49, 91

    • unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t

  • Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 147

  • Energy subsidies, in GCC, 24

  • The Entrepreneurial State (Mazzucato), 173

  • Entrepreneurship, xvii, 136, 175–76

  • EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, 135, 136f

  • Equity investment program, in Germany, 142

  • Escape competition effect, 118

  • European Union, 29, 30

  • Expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74

  • Export credits, in Korea, 100

  • Export sophistication, 10n8

    • in Denmark, 17

    • in GCC, 10, 10f

    • in Indonesia, 17–18

    • for late-late developers, 47

    • in Latin America, 106

    • in Malaysia, 15, 17, 169

    • manufacturing in, 20n13

    • in MENA, 61

    • in Mexico, 14, 18

    • in Norway, 16–17

  • EXPY, 10n8, 14n9

  • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 58

  • Fally, T., 121

  • FDI. See Foreign direct investment

  • Feenstra, Robert, 14n9

  • Finance sector

    • in GCC, 13–14

    • See also Banks

  • FINEXPO. See Fondo de Exportaciones

  • Fiscal policy, xiv, 6, 23–27

    • for oil rents, 12

  • Fondo de Exportaciones (FINEXPO), 38

  • Foreign direct investment (FDI), 136, 137

    • in Dubai, 169–70

    • in Malaysia, 17, 85

    • in Mexico, 18, 42

    • in Singapore, 68

  • Frankel, J., 122

  • Free trade zones, 18, 169–70

  • Freire, Paulo, 176

  • Frontier innovations, 118, 126

  • Fuentes, R. F., 105

  • Garicano, L., 121

  • GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council

  • GDP. See Gross domestic product

  • GDP per capita, 21, 104f, 117, 118, 120

    • in GCC, 6–8, 7f

    • in Latin America, 105

  • Gelb, Alan, 41

  • Germany, 96, 123, 142

  • Gini index, 135, 158

  • Global Innovation Index, 83

  • Global Science and Innovation Advisory Council, in Malaysia, 91

  • Good governance, in Korea, 156

  • Good Jobs First, 30

  • Gough, I., 156

  • Government, xiv, xv, 23, 95–96, 139–42, 174–75

    • climate change and, 122–23

    • in GCC, 27–33

    • of Indonesia, 17–18, 41–42

    • in Latin America, 108–10

    • of Norway, 29

    • R&D and, 42–43

    • of Singapore, 29–30, 29n20

    • SMEs and, 32–33

    • See also Saemaul Undong

  • Government Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90

  • Gredig, R., F., 105

  • Gross domestic product (GDP), xvii, 131–32

    • of Bahrain, 11f

    • growth sources for, 105f

    • of Latin America, 105f

    • of Malaysia, 87

    • relative income and, 8

    • of Singapore, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t

    • See also GDP per capita

  • Growth decomposition, 9f, 36f

  • Growth model

    • for advanced countries, 131

    • in GCC, 4–8

    • for middle-income countries, 117–28

  • Guaranteed Business Loan Program, of SBA, 141

  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), xiii, 3–43, 3n1, 133f, 134

    • Dutch disease in, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22n15

    • early childhood education in, 26–27, 26f

    • education in, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59

    • entrepreneurship in, 175–76

    • expatriate labor in, 173–74

    • export sophistication in, 10, 10f

    • GDP per worker in, 6–8, 7f

    • government in, 27–33

    • growth model in, 4–8

    • incentives in, xvi, 12

    • infrastructure in, 21, 22f

    • Korea and, 93, 100

    • life expectancy in, 6, 7f

    • market failures in, 20–23, 167–68

    • non-oil tradables in, 3, 5–6

    • nontradable sector in, 23

    • oil rents in, 47

    • oil reserves in, 47

    • PPP in, 9f

    • productivity growth in, 168

    • relative income in, xv, 6–8

    • schooling years in, 6, 6f, 25, 25f

    • sustainable growth in, 8–14

    • technological innovation in, xvii

    • TFP in, 8, 9f, 11

    • top industries in, 134f

    • value-added sectors in, 27–33

  • Hadeed, 55

  • Al-Haj, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, 85

  • El Hajdar, 55

  • Hajj, 60

  • Haltiwanger, J., 121

  • Hasanov, Fuad, 8, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98

  • Hausmann, Ricardo, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 37, 106

  • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan, in Korea, 99, 100

  • Heckman, James, 25

  • Henry, Clement M., 37–38

  • Henry, Peter Blair, 21

  • Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), 133–34, 133f, 133n2, 137

  • Hirschman, Albert O., xiii, 96

  • Horizontal diversification, 29–30, 84, 84f, 168

  • Housing and Development Board, of Singapore, 67

  • Hsieh, C.-T., 119

  • Human capital, 9, 32

    • in Algeria, xvi, 51, 168

    • in GCC, 8

    • in Latin America, 106

    • in Malaysia, 40, 85

    • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 168

    • in Singapore, 76, 76f

    • See also Employment

  • Human development index, 6

  • Human Resources Development Fund, 40

  • Hvidt, Martin, 11–12

  • Hwang, Jason, 8, 10n8, 14n9

  • ICT. See Information and communication technologies

  • Imitative innovations, 118

  • Import substitution strategy, 39–40, 122, 163

  • India, 119–20

  • Indonesia, 8, 21, 41–42

    • export sophistication in, 17–18

    • manufacturing in, 17–18, 56f

    • oil exports in, 5, 15

  • Industrial, Technology, and Trade Policy, in Brazil, 147

  • Industrial deepening, 95–96, 98, 100

  • Industrialization

    • in Algeria, 37–38, 49–54

    • in Brazil, xvii, 145–53

    • in GCC, 13

    • in Korea, xvi–xvii, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169

    • in Malaysia, 85

    • in Singapore, 65–77

    • in Venezuela, 38

    • See also Manufacturing

  • Industrial Master Plan, in Malaysia, 87

  • Industrial policy, 123–24

    • in Brazil, 145–47

    • Brazilian Development Bank and, 149–51

    • in China, 122

    • competition and, 125

  • Industry clusters, 32, 41–43

  • Infant mortality, in GCC, 6

  • Information and communication technologies (ICT), 118, 119

  • Infrastructure

    • in GCC, 21, 22f

    • in India, 119

    • in Korea, 161–62

    • in Malaysia, 87

    • in Singapore, 77

  • Innovation. See Technological innovation

  • Intellectual property rights, 118

  • Intergenerational equity, xiv, xv

  • International Country Risk Guide, 21

  • INTSOK foundation, 29

  • Investment, 28n18, 126–27

    • in Korea, 99–100

    • in Latin America, 104

    • in Malaysia, 40, 90

    • in Singapore, 71

    • See also Venture capital

  • Ireland, 32–33

  • Irish Development Agency, 32

  • Islamic finance, 60

  • Jamaica, 21

  • Japan, 93–98, 119, 122, 123, 158

  • Jarreau, Joachim, 8, 14n9

  • Al Jasser, Muhammad, xviii, 171–77

  • Jomo, K. S., 17–18, 20, 40, 41

  • Jurong Island, 72–73

  • Jurong Town Corporation, 31

  • Kammer, Alfred, 171–77

  • Kazushige, Ugaki, 97

  • Klenow, P., 119

  • Klette, T., 120

  • Knowledge spillovers, 123

  • Koch, W., 119

  • Koh, W., 162

  • Korea, xvi–xvii, 27, 36f, 162f

    • banks in, 99

    • Corporation Law in, 96

    • education in, 159–60, 169

    • good governance in, 156

    • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan in, 99, 100

    • import substitution strategy in, 163

    • industrial deepening in, 100

    • industrialization in, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169

    • land reform in, xvii, 157–60, 158n2

    • National Investment Fund in, 99–100

    • poverty reduction in, 159–60, 161, 161t

    • unemployment in, 100, 163t

    • U.S. and, 98–99

    • See also Saemaul Undong

  • Kortum, S., 120

  • Krugman, Paul, 27

  • Kuwait, 3, 31, 48

  • Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations (LSVCCs), 140

  • Lall, Sanjaya, 20

  • Land reform, in Korea, xvii, 157–60, 158n2

  • Larraín, M., 105

  • Late-late developers, 47, 47n1

  • Latin America, xvii, 102–12, 105f

    • government in, 108–10

    • human capital in, 106

    • import substitution strategy in, 122

    • investment in, 104

    • market failures in, 108

    • R&D in, 109–11

    • savings in, 104

    • technological innovation in, 107–11

  • Learning externality, 20–21, 20n14, 22, 27

  • Lee Kuan Yew, 167

  • Lelarge, C., 121

  • Lerner, J., 142

  • Lerner index, 124

  • Liassine, Mohammed, 50

  • Life expectancy, 6, 7f, 172

  • Lin, Justin, 28

  • Loan guarantees, OECD and, 140–41

  • Loan Guarantee Scheme, in United Kingdom, 142

  • Looney, R. E., 12

  • Lopez, J., 119

  • LSVCCs. See Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations

  • Lucas, Robert E., 8–9, 131

  • Machinery real exports per capita, 15f, 16f

  • Mairesse, J., 119

  • “Making a Miracle” (Lucas), 8–9

  • Maksimovic, V., 121n2

  • Malaysia, 83–91

    • education in, 90, 169

    • export sophistication in, 15, 17, 169

    • FDI in, 17

    • horizontal diversification in, 84, 84f

    • human capital in, 40, 85

    • import substitution strategy in, 39–40

    • International Country Risk Guide for, 21

    • investment in, 40, 90

    • manufacturing in, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85

    • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy in, 90–91

    • oil exports in, 5, 15

    • palm oil in, 86, 169

    • rubber in, 86, 169

    • savings in, 40

    • TFP in, 8

    • value-added industries in, 40

    • vertical diversification in, 29, 84f

  • Manufacturing, 8

    • in Algeria, 51f, 56f

    • in Bahrain, 11

    • in Brazil, 146–47, 146f

    • in export sophistication, 20n13

    • in GCC, 4, 5

    • horizontal diversification in, 29–30

    • in Indonesia, 17–18, 56f

    • in Malaysia, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85

    • SABIC and, 55

    • in Saudi Arabia, 56f

    • in Singapore, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169

    • in Tunisia, 56f

  • Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar D., 26–27

  • Market distortions, xiv, xv

  • Market failures, 20n14

    • from Dutch disease, xvi

    • in GCC, 20–23, 167–68

    • in Latin America, 108

  • Matsuyama, Kiminori, 20

  • Mazzucato, Mariana, 173

  • McClelland, David, 59

  • MDGs. See Millennium Development Goals

  • Medical technology, in Singapore, 73–74

  • MENA. See Middle East and North Africa

  • Mexico, 5, 8, 14, 15, 18, 32, 42–43

  • Middle East and North Africa (MENA), xvi, 47–61, 133f

    • banks in, 60, 61t

    • HHI for, 134

    • sustainable employment in, 48–49

    • women’s education in, 59

    • work ethic in, 60

  • Middle-income countries

    • growth model for, 117–28

    • productivity growth in, 117–21

  • Middle-income trap, xvii

  • Migrant labor. See Expatriate labor

  • Millennium Development Declaration, 156

  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 156

  • Miller, Conrad, 21

  • Modernization theory, 93

  • Mohamad, Tun Dr Mahathir, 85

  • Monopolies, 20, 22f, 38, 96, 100, 175

  • Moretti, Enrico, 30

  • Morocco, 51f

  • Multimedia Super Corridor, in Malaysia, 89

  • Mutual Security Act, 99

  • Nabli, Mustapha, 13

  • National Industrial Policy, in Malaysia, 87

  • National Investment Fund, in Korea, 99–100

  • Nationalization, in oil exporters, 36–37

  • National Key Results Areas, in Malaysia, 89–90

  • National Linkage Promotion Program, in Ireland, 32–33

  • National Principles (Rukun Negara), of Malaysia, 90

  • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, in Malaysia, 90–91

  • National Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89

  • Netherlands, 142

  • New Economic Policy, in Malaysia, 87

  • New Village Movement. See Saemaul Undong

  • Nigeria, 15

  • Nixon, Richard, 99

  • Nokia, 30

  • Non-oil GDP, in GCC, 11

  • Non-oil tradables, 37

    • Dutch disease and, 168

    • in GCC, xv–xvi, 3, 5–6, 20, 27

  • Nontradable sector, viii, xiii–xiv, 30

    • in GCC, 3, 4–5, 13, 14n9, 23

  • North American Free Trade Agreement, 18, 42

  • Norway, 5, 15, 16–17, 21, 29, 36f

  • Nunn, N., 123, 124

  • Ocampo, Jose Antonio, 20

  • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

  • Oil exports and exporters, 5f, 35t, 36–43

    • economic indicators of, 34t

    • in GCC, 5

    • SOEs in, 36–37

  • Oil prices

    • collapse of, viii, ix, 17, 37, 41

    • consumption per capita and, 19f

    • decline of, xiv

    • fiscal policy and, 6

    • peak of, 8n4, 36–37

    • rise of, 38

    • volatility of, 47

  • Oil rents, 12, 47, 47n2, 48t

  • Oil reserves, 14n12, 35t

    • in Bahrain, 3

    • in GCC, 47

    • in Oman, 3

    • in Saudi Arabia, 3

  • Oman, 3, 6, 15

  • OPEC. See Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 119, 132, 133f, 133n1, 139–42, 140t

  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 41

  • Palm oil, in Malaysia, 86, 169

  • Papageorgiou, Chris, 8

  • Park Chung Hee, 94, 98, 163–64

  • Patents, 75f, 136, 136f

  • The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire), 176

  • Peru, 106

  • Peters, M., 120, 121

  • Petronas, 29, 39

  • Pharmaceuticals, 73–74, 150, 170

  • Pinto, Rodrigo, 25

  • Polytechnic institute, in Mexico, 32, 42

  • Poncet, Sandra, 8, 14n9

  • Portfolio diversification, 48–49, 60

  • Poverty reduction, xvii

    • in Korea, 159–60, 161, 161t

    • MDGs and, 156

  • PPP. See Purchasing power parity

  • Precision engineering industry, in Singapore, 72

  • “The Principle of the Hiding Hand” (Hirschman), xiii

  • Private sector, banks and, 53–54, 53t

  • Private sector employment, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58

  • Productive Development Policy, in Brazil, 147

  • Productivity growth

    • in advanced countries, 118–19

    • in emerging markets, 119–20

    • in GCC, 168

    • in India, 119–20

    • in middle-income countries, 117–21

    • tariffs and, 123

    • vertical targeting for, 122–26

  • Public sector employment, 3, 6, 24

  • Purchasing power parity (PPP), 9f, 9n5, 10f, 19f, 34t, 36f

  • Qatar, 3, 6, 8, 37, 48

  • Quah, D., 132

  • Quality ladder, 9, 11

  • Rajan, R., 121

  • Ramey, G., 131–32

  • Ramey, V. A., 131–32

  • Razak, Tun Abdul, 85

  • R&D. See Research and development

  • Realo Plano (Real Plan), 147, 147n2

  • Redistribution, xiv, xv

  • Relative income, xv, 6–8, 14n9

  • Research and development (R&D), 31, 31f, 118

    • in Brazil, 147

    • in Latin America, 109–11

    • in Mexico, 42–43

    • in Singapore, 69, 73–74, 74f

    • TFP and, 110–11

    • in U.S., 141, 141f

  • Risk-return trade-off channel, 23, 24, 30

  • Rodriguez, Francisco, 37

  • Rodrik, Dani, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 22

  • Romer, D., 122

  • Romero, Javier Martínez, 42

  • Rubber, 86, 169

  • Rukun Negara (National Principles), of Malaysia, 90

  • S2A. See Science to Action

  • SABIC. See Saudi Basic Industries Corporation

  • Sachs, Jeffrey, 156

  • Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), xvii, 27, 101, 155–65, 159t

    • education in, 159–60, 169

    • land reform in, xvii, 157–60

    • policy implications for, 164–65

    • poverty reduction in, 159–60

    • for social inclusion, 160–62

  • Saudi Advanced Electronics Company, 177

  • Saudi Arabia, xvi, 8, 21, 54–58, 168

    • education in, 57–58

    • electronics industry in, 177

    • life expectancy in, 172

    • manufacturing in, 56f

    • public sector employment in, 3

    • R&D in, 31

    • venture capital in, 175

  • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), 13, 37, 54–58, 172–73

  • Savelyev, Peter, 25

  • Savings

    • in Latin America, 104

    • in Malaysia, 40

  • SBA. See Small Business Administration

  • SBIR. See Small Business Innovation Research Program

  • Scarpetta, S., 121

  • Schooling years, in GCC, 6, 6f, 25, 25f

  • Schumpeter, Joseph, 110, 146, 146n1

  • Schumpeterian paradigm, 117, 118, 120, 123

  • Science Park, in Taiwan, 30

  • Science to Action (S2A), in Malaysia, 91

  • Second Industrial Revolution, in Singapore, 68–69

  • Service sector, 13, 40, 53, 57

  • Singapore, xvi, 10–11, 11f, 12f, 31, 36f, 66f, 75f

    • in 1960s, 65–67

    • in 1970s, 68

    • in 1980s, 68–69

    • in 1990s and 2000s, 69

    • A*STAR in, 74

    • biomedical sciences industry in, 73–74

    • chemicals industry in, 72–73

    • EDB of, 65–66, 68

    • education in, 76, 76f

    • electronics industry in, 71

    • GDP of, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t

    • government in, 29–30, 29n20

    • human capital in, 76, 76f

    • industrialization in, 65–77

    • manufacturing in, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169

    • precision engineering industry in, 72

    • R&D in, 73–74, 74f

    • system integrators in, 29–30

    • technological innovation in, 75–77

    • Urban Redevelopment Authority of, 67

    • value-added in, 68–69

  • Singapore Institute of Management, 68

  • Singapore River, 67

  • Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 23, 30, 32–33

  • Small Business Administration (SBA), 141

  • Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170

  • SMEs. See Small and medium-sized enterprises

  • Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures (Sonatrach), 52

  • SOEs. See State-owned enterprises

  • Software industry, Brazilian Development Bank and, 151, 151f, 170

  • Solow, R., 117

  • Sonatrach. See Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures

  • Spatafora, Nicola, 8

  • Special economic zones, 31

  • State monopolies, 38

  • State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 36–37

    • in Brazil, 146

    • in Singapore, 29

    • in Venezuela, 37, 38

  • Stern, N., 20

  • Strategic retreat, in Indonesia, 17, 41–42

  • Subsidies, 30, 124

    • in Germany, 32

    • in Kuwait, 48

    • in nontradable sector, viii

  • Sugarcane industry, 150–51, 170

  • Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, in Korea, 163

  • Sustainable employment, 48–49, 91

  • Sustainable growth, xiv–xv, 4

    • in Brazil, 147, 149–50

    • in GCC, 8–14

    • from industrialization, 160–61

    • in tradable sector, 167

    • tradable sector for, 19

  • System integrators, 29–30, 42–43

  • Taiwan, 30

  • Tariffs, xv, 17, 18, 39, 97, 123, 146

  • Tax breaks, 30, 42, 118, 140

  • Technical Development Credits Scheme, in Netherlands, 142

  • Technological innovation, xvii, 118, 127, 132

    • in Brazil, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170

    • clean, 125–26

    • GDP per capita and, 117

    • in Latin America, 107–11

    • in Malaysia, 90–91

    • by SABIC, 56–57

    • in Singapore, 69, 75–77

    • See also Research and development

  • Total factor productivity (TFP), 110–11, 124

    • in GCC, 8, 9f, 11

    • in Latin America, 103, 104–6

  • Tourism, 13, 60, 85

  • Tradable sector, 31f, 95

    • in GCC, 23

    • investment in, 28n18

    • market failure in, 22

    • relative wage in, 14n9

    • in Singapore, 29

    • for sustainable growth, 19, 167

    • venture capital for, 30–31

  • Trefler, D., 123, 124

  • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 60

  • Tunisia, 51f, 56f

  • Turkey, 36f

  • UAE. See United Arab Emirates

  • Unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t

  • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 3, 6, 13, 15, 24

  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 133, 135

  • United Nations Millennium Project, 156

  • United States (U.S.), 6–8, 133f

    • ICT in, 119

    • Korea and, 98–99

    • R&D in, 141, 141f

    • SBA in, 141

    • SBIR in, xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170

  • Urban Redevelopment Authority, of Singapore, 67

  • U.S. See United States

  • Value-added

    • equation for, 70n2

    • in GCC, 4, 27–33

    • in Malaysia, 40

    • in Singapore, 68–69

    • technological innovation and, 170

  • Van Reenen, J., 120, 121

  • Venezuela, 15, 37, 38

  • Venture capital, viii, xvii, 4, 17, 27, 30–31, 170

    • from Brazilian Development Bank, 152

    • in Canada, 140

    • OECD and, 139

    • in Saudi Arabia, 175

  • Vertical diversification, 29, 84f, 168

  • Vertical greenery, in Singapore, 67

  • Vertical targeting, for productivity growth, 122–26

  • Volatility management, xv

  • Wacziarg, R., 122

  • Wagner, Rodrigo, 37

  • Women

    • education of, in MENA, 59, 59f

    • empowerment of, xvii, 136

  • Woo, Meredith, 170

  • Wood, G., 156

  • Work ethic, 60, 169

  • World Bank, 70, 83, 122, 135, 136f, 137

  • World Development Indicators, 135, 136f, 137

  • World Economic Forum, 57t, 83, 106

  • World Trade Organization, 30, 55–56

  • Young, Alwyn, 27

  • Zahlan, A. B., 57

  • Zaibatsu (conglomerates), 97–98

  • Zhu, Min, 171–77

  • Zingales, L., 121

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