Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Thailand

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 1996
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Table 1.Thailand: Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product at Current Prices, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In billions of baht)
GDP2,507.02,827.23,163.93,597.44,162.2
Consumption1,623.71,832.32,056.62,333.72,681.8
Private1,392.61,552.11,740.61,983.02,276.3
Government231.1280.2316.0350.7405.5
Gross fixed investment1,043.81,112.61,272.51,474.11,780.6
Private862.8882.81,022.71,172.51,423.5
Public181.0229.8249.8301.6357.1
Government91.8124.3141.5185.7213.7
State enterprises89.1105.5108.2115.8143.4
Change in stocks27.217.95.28.713.8
Foreign balance-176.5-121.1-137.1-179.3-286.7
Exports of goods and services885.81,031.81,176.31,381.01,727.6
Imports of goods and services1,062.31,152.91,313.41,560.32,014.3
Statistical discrepancy-11.2-14.6-33.3-39.9-27.3
Net factor income from abroad-40.1-56.5-68.7-78.4-91.1
GNP2,466.92,770.73,095.33,519.04,071.1
(As percent of GDP)
GDP100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Consumption64.864.865.064.964.4
Private55.554.955.055.154.7
Government9.29.910.09.79.7
Gross fixed investment41.639.440.241.042.8
Private34.431.232.332.634.2
Public7.28.17.98.48.6
Government3.74.44.55.25.1
State enterprises3.63.73.43.23.4
Change in stocks1.10.60.20.20.3
Foreign balance-7.0-4.3-4.3-5.0-6.9
Exports of goods and services35.336.537.238.441.5
Imports of goods and services42.440.841.543.448.4
Statistical discrepancy-0.4-0.5-1.1-1.1-0.7
Net factor income from abroad-1.6-2.0-2.2-2.2-2.2
GNP98.498.097.897.897.8
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 2.Thailand: Aggregate Demand and Supply at 1988 Prices, 1991-95
1991199219931994Est.

1995
(In billions of baht)
GDP2,110.92,282.12,470.82,687.82,920.9
Consumption1,365.91,469.71,591.21,718.31,852.3
Private1,183.31,275.51,387.01,504.91,632.8
Government182.6194.3204.2213.4219.5
Gross fixed in vestment856.5914.41,011.31,136.61,279.7
Private711.7731.2819.9913.91,031.0
Public144.8183.2191.4222.7248.7
Government72.697.0107.6136.0147.8
State enterprises72.286.283.886.7100.9
Change in stocks25.314.14.48.211.7
Foreign balance-102.4-59.0-74.6-107.6-138.7
Exports of goods and services804.3918.01,031.01,181.51,368.2
Imports of goods and services906.7977.01,105.61,289.11,506.9
Statistical discrepancy-34.4-57.2-61.6-67.7-84.1
GDP2,110.92,382.12,470.82,687.82,920.9
Agriculture281.0298.0292.3304.6314.7
Nonagriculture1,829.81,984.12,178.52,383.22,606.2
Of which: Manufacturing604.4672.7747.5837.2940.3
(Percent change)
GDP8.48.18.38.88.7
Consumption6.67.68.38.07.8
Private6.67.88.78.58.5
Government6.56.45.14.52.9
Gross fixed investment12.66.810.612.412.6
Private10.12.712.111.512.8
Public26.826.54.516.411.7
Government30.133.610.926.48.7
State enterprises23.619.4-2.83.516.4
Exports of goods and services15.014.112.314.615.8
Imports of goods and services13.07.813.216.616.9
GDP8.48.18.38.88.7
Agriculture6.06.0-1.94.33.3
Nonagriculture8.88.49.89.49.4
Of which: Manufacturing12.211.311.112.012.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 3.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin at Current Prices, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In billions of baht)
GDP2,507.02,827.23,163.93,597.44,162.2
Agricultural316.8348.0322.7377.8455.7
Crops183.2198.8170.7200.1246.2
Livestock37.434.932.335.141.0
Fisheries43.155.758.875.682.4
Forestry6.05.75.24.73.5
Agricultural services10.911.310.911.513.2
Simple agricultural processing products36.241.644.850.869.4
Nonagricultural2,190.22,479.22,841.23,219.63,706.5
Mining and quarrying39.442.347.049.8.51.8
Manufacturing707.9779.1893.31,025.91,216.3
Construction168.3190.5222.5254.5295.0
Electricity and water supply53.565.575.883.395.4
Transportation and communications177.0204.9238.1269.7307.1
Trade427.6473.2527.0590.8667.5
Banking, insurance, and real estate134.2182.8231.7277.3324.8
Ownership of dwellings71.075.481.288.197.7
Public administration and defense86.9105.4117.7125.8147.4
Other services324.5360.0406.8454.3503.7
(In percent of GDP)
GDP100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agricultural12.612.310.210.510.9
Crops7.37.05.45.65.9
Livestock1.51.21.01.01.0
Fisheries1.72.01.92.12.0
Forestry0.20.20.20.10.1
Agricultural services0.40.40.30.30.3
Simple agricultural processing products1.41.51.41.41.7
Nonagricultural87.487.789.889.589.1
Mining and quarrying1.61.51.51.41.2
Manufacturing28.227.628.228.529.2
Construction6.76.77.07.17.1
Electricity and water supply2.12.32.42.32.3
Transportation and communications7.17.27.57.57.4
Trade17.116.716.716.416.0
Banking, insurance, and real estate5.46.57.37.77.8
Ownership of dwellings2.82.72.62.42.3
Public administration and defense3.53.73.73.53.5
Other services12.912.712.912.612.1
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 4.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin at Constant 1988 Prices, 1991-95(Percent change)
19911992199319941995
GDP8.48.18.38.88.7
Agricultural6.06.0-1.94.23.3
Crops4.25.9-3.73.93.8
Livestock0.73.44.34.14.0
Fisheries24.37.82.28.03.8
Forestry-20.7-4.0-12.5-19.0-29.4
Agricultural services-1.4-1.1-5.32.20.0
Simple agricultural processing products9.310.6-0.34.83.4
Non agricultural8.88.49.89.49.4
Mining and quarrying16.15.36.86.91.4
Manufacturing12.211.311.112.012.3
Construction13.64.79.58.28.9
Electricity and water supply10.410.28.98.710.7
Transportation and communication7.210.59.410.410.0
Wholesale and retail trade6.73.28.57.87.9
Banking, insurance, and real estate5.330.822.714.010.7
Ownership of dwellings3.94.15.34.64.8
Public administration and defence6.41.42.91.82.2
Other services4.72.44.54.95.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 5.Thailand: Investment and Saving at Current Prices, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In billions of baht)
Gross domestic investment1,071.01,130.51,277.61,482.81,794.4
Private sector862.8882.81,022.71,172.51,423.5
Public sector181.0229.8249.8301.6357.1
Government91.8124.3141.5185.7213.7
State enterprises89.1105.5108.2115.8143.4
Change in inventories27.217.95.28.713.8
Financing1,071.01,130.51,277.61,482.81,794.4
Gross national savings851.7957.21,059.21,239.81,431.4
Net national savings617.1674.4722.8841.6961.5
Private sector342.9410.2416.8463.8527.0
Households242.9272.7254.5261.0299.8
Businesses100.0137.5162.3202.8227.2
Public sector274.5264.2306.1377.8434.6
Government231.3218.5253.5320.0370.8
State enterprises42.945.752.657.963.7
Depreciation allowance234.6282.8336.4398.1469.9
Statistical discrepancy-11.2-14.6-33.3-39.9-27.3
Foreign savings208.0158.7185.2203.1335.7
(In percent of GDP)
Gross domestic investment42.740.040.441.243.1
Private sector34.431.232.332.634.2
Public sector7.28.17.98.48.6
Government3.74.44.55.25.1
State enterprises3.63.73.43.23.4
Change in inventories1.10.60.2020.3
Financing42.740.040.441.243.1
Gross national savings34.033.933.534.534.4
Net national savings24.623.922.823.423.1
Private sector13.714.513.212.912.7
Households9.79.68.07.37.2
Businesses4.04.95.15.65.5
Public sector10.99.39.710.510.4
Government9.27.78.08.98.9
State enterprises1.71.61.71.61.5
Depreciation allowance9.410.010.611.111.3
Statistical discrepancy-0.4-0.5-1.1-1.1-0.7
Foreign savings8.35.65.95.68.1
Memorandum item:
GDP2,507.02,827.23,163.93,597.44,162.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 6.Thailand: Manufacturing Production, 1991-95(Percent change)
Weights19911992199319941995
Total100.010.211.811.612.112.3
Food6.914.39.7-10.06.510.0
Rice mill1.98.05.2-4.72.54.6
Sugar2.219.220.5-24.88.930.9
Milk and daily products0.310.612.36.612.96.0
Canned pineapple0.74.917.62.2-4.0-20.4
Canned seafood1.817.2-3.81.39.40.3
Beverage7.10.77.420.312.317.6
Liquor4.2-4.51.315.9-0.621.4
Beer1.27.814.527.725.923.8
Soft drinks0.87.07.05.415.15.3
Electrolyte beverage0.1-9.6-27.238.89.68.1
Energy drink0.72.419.535.114.65.2
Juice0.14.66.26.1101.96.7
Tobacco3.54.02.53.37.9-5.2
Textiles20.115.85.82.34.42.9
Jute products0.2-10.4-3.5-9.8-1.4-35.4
Synthetic fiber0.527.717.615.612.615.8
Spinning3.012.018.5-12.00.41.9
Weaving4.78.67.43.02.83.2
Knitting1.218.72.42.61.62.9
Textile products10.518.72.14.85.62.2
Petroleum products6.16.720.614.014.315.8
Construction materials3.05.512.219.618.312.3
Cement2.06.113.321.113.813.8
Steel0.75.212.016.431.26.1
Galvanized iron sheet0.31.23.014.923.120.5
Transportation equipment8.1-6.116.728.06.520.8
Cars6.2-7.214.429.63.221.3
Motorcycles1.3-6.529.129.520.720.0
Tires0.610.120.25.315.716.4
Other products45.214.313.712.916.113.3
Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.
Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.
Table 7.Thailand: Selected Manufacturing Industries-Production and Capacity Utilization, 1991-95
ProductionRatio of Actual Output to

Capacity Output in Percent
1991199219931994199519911992199319941995
Manufacturing production index 1/150.1167.8187.3209.6235.678.575.876.878.881.7
Jute products (thousands metric tons)1371321191177656.954.950.649.932.3
Synthetic fiber (thousands metric tons)30636041646854295.294.692.095.690.4
Woven fabric (millions square yards)3,7924,0724,1634,2784,41488.184.687.688.088.0
Knitted fabric (millions square yards)1,3141,3451,3801,4031,44479.874.978.880.080.0
Sugar (thousands metric tons)4,0314,8573,6513,9745,202
Cement (thousands metric tons)19,16421,71126,30029,92934,05191.978.587.292.596.7
Galvanized iron sheets (thousands metric tons)21121725030737081.874.773.954.463.3
Paper (thousands metric tons)16520721225130191.289.787.773.590.9
Major petroleum products (millions liters)15,15818,27520,83923,94727,72697.8100.099.4100.093.2
Beer (millions liters)28432541552364797.166.358.055.656.6
Integrated circuits (millions pieces)1,4201,5001,7632,2913,14380.569.267.888.197.9
Tin metal (thousands metric tons)111188829.626.818.818.028.1
Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

Covers about 60 percent of total manufacturing sector.

Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

Covers about 60 percent of total manufacturing sector.

Table 8.Thailand: Agricultural Production, 1991-95(Index 1988=100)
Weights19911992199319941995
Total 1/100.0155.0120.1120.4126.7131.0
Crops68.4115.0120.8118.8123.6127.5
Paddy30.695.8100.896.098.4100.6
Rubber7.8137.4153.9159.3178.2187.7
Tapioca roots4.886.788.386.277.470.2
Maize4.480.075.673.386.790.2
Sugarcane3.4148.0167.9125.4138.7180.5
Sorghum2.9116.3116.397.0106.1111.0
Soybean1.785.585.3100.6105.188.2
Coconut1.4100.1102.5106.1104.1102.6
Mungbean1.291.378.469.476.776.1
Oil palm0.9148.7152.7206.6217.2241.4
Coffee0.8134.9118.3120.9144.7137.8
Garlic0.680.786.882.683.484.2
Chilli0.646.248.656.776.778.0
Tobacco leaves0.5152.6195.1213.9116.1111.4
Other crops6.9183.6189.0194.5198.6200.5
Forest products3.021.514.414.111.49.3
Animal products16.8114.0119.5124.9130.1135.1
Fish catch11.8140.5144.5150.8170.2176.8
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Covers about 90 percent of total agricultural production.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Covers about 90 percent of total agricultural production.

Table 9.Thailand: Mining Production, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
Nonenergy (thousands of metric tons)
Tin concentrates14.911.56.43.92.2
Tunsten0.40.20.20.20.1
Lead ore39.227.914.218.722.8
Antimony ore0.10.61.51.40.5
Zinc ore496.0407.2445.8349.6135.2
Manganese ore
Battery grade2.51.71.51.20.8
Metallurgical ore8.56.24.95.32.7
Iron ore240.1427.2208.9142.834.5
Gypsum7,196.47,111.17,454.88,142.88,533.2
Fluorite ore62.156.548.423.724.1
Energy
Crude oil (million barrels)8.59.18.59.18.2
Natural gas (billion cubic feet)285.6304.7343.6378.8401.2
Condensate (million barrels)7.99.710.511.110.9
Lignite (millions of metric tons)14.715.615.617.118.4
Source: Data provided by the Department of Mineral Resources.
Source: Data provided by the Department of Mineral Resources.
Table 10.Thailand: Production, Consumption, and Import of Primary Commercial Energy, 1991-95(Barrels per day of crude oil equivalence)
19911992199319941995
Production290,800309,389331,788368,043391,928
Crude24,50326,31724,94026,55323,766
Condensate19,79924,14626,19227,86327,271
Hydroelectricity19,99918,41116,03619,54829,267
Lignite85,89491,08595,873107,600114,097
Natural gas140,605149,430168,747186,479197,527
Import373,264427,976500,501542,278641,428
Crude and petroleum366,334420,878487,648521,728610,089
Coal5,8716,24711,70419,00130,101
Electricity1,0598511,1491,5491,238
Consumption664,611718,552804,947899,8791,009,071
Crude and petroleum410,794451,899509,873566,109636,099
Coal5,8716,24711,70419,00130,101
Hydroelectricity21,05819,26217,18521,09730,505
Lignite86,28391,71497,438107,193114,839
Natural gas140,605149,430168,747186,479197,527
Import/consumption (percent)56.259.662.260.363.6
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).
Table 11.Thailand: Areas Permitted for Construction in Bangkok, 1991-95(In thousand square meters)
19911992199319941995
Total32,70727,23729,72026,10825,376
Housing14,31312,98416,29718,50917,259
Commercial16,21012,18711,7025,3616,412
Industrial170521843385
Services and transportation1,1696117401,211410
Other8459348989931,211
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 12.Thailand: Private Sector Investment in Nonagricultural Sector, 1991-95(In millions of baht; except where otherwise indicated)
19911992199319941995
Investment and promotion
Applications submitted250,498212,989278,768593,608901,400
Applications approved178,382284,335177,300281,500580,058
Investment certificates issued178,647446,566176,775210,100327,200
Commencement of operation81,16696,772129,153101,600133,100
New business registration62,06269,75860,443155,887138,862
Capital increase122,803149,299186,509175,460312,015
Production and other investment indicators
Construction areas permitted (thousand sq. meters)
Whole country41,32636,22738,09336,13736,758
Bangkok Metropolis32,70727,23729,72026,10825,376
Import value of capital goods422,996443,607540,782659,420874,043
Sales of cement (thousand tonnes, incl. portland cement imports)22,14722,79525,89328,88833,323
Foreign equity inflow37,75654,47951,44147,62958,680
Outstanding credits received by construction and industrial firms925,4461,092,9881,351,7561,692,6502,162,259
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 13.Thailand: Promotional Activities of the Board of Investment, 1991-95(In millions of baht; except where otherwise indicated)
19911992199319941995
Number of applications received6314441,2551,5381,407
Value of investment250,498212,989278,768593,608901,400
Number of applications approved6043948561,1911,197
Value of investment278,382 1/284,335177,300281,500580,058
Number of promotion certificates issued528359477946971
Value of investment178,647446,566176,775210,100327,200
Number of firms starting operations433440375314323
Value of investment81,16696,772129,153101,600133,100
Number of Thai employees84,26886,22888,75190,86994,326
Value of approved investments by sector
Agriculture and agricultural products8,3263,23911,26423,53420,429
Minerals, metals, and ceramics2,70824,43210,11350,918146,868
Light industry118,3046,47319,54410,76210,855
Metal products, machinery, and transport equipment19,71234,07912,90923,71953,075
Electronics and electrical products24,7849,80218,92058,52444,543
Chemical products, paper, and plastics32,383156,66314,20452,088226,621
Services and public utilities71,16549,65690,29161,9557,668
Ownership of approved investments
Total278,382284,385177,300281,500580,058
Domestic149,82720,83768,200129,600169,159
Foreign18,9667,78213,90019,90035,226
Joint venture109,589255,76695,200132,000375,673
Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

Includes B 156,000 for expressway project of Hopewell Thailand Ltd.

Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

Includes B 156,000 for expressway project of Hopewell Thailand Ltd.

Table 14.Thailand: Population, Labor Force, and Employment by Major Economic Sectors, 1991-95
1991199219931994Est.

1995
(In millions of persons)
Population56.9657.7958.3459.1059.80
Labor force 1/31.7932.4232.9033.2333.62
Open unemployed 2/0.160.180.200.180.18
Passive unemployed 3/0.830.790.670.690.68
Employment 1/30.7931.4532.0332.3632.77
Agriculture18.6718.8618.8418.3418.31
Nonagriculture12.1212.5913.2013.8214.46
Mining, electricity, and water supply0.160.170.170.170.18
Manufacturing3.373.383.854.114.37
Construction1.161.251.371.491.63
Transportation and communication0.780.810.840.860.89
Commerce and banking, insurance, and real estate3.353.403.493.553.60
Services and public administration3.303.383.493.643.79
(In percent)
Participation rate76.576.675.072.4
Rate of unemployment3.13.02.62.62.5
(Percent change)
Population1.21.51.01.31.2
Labor force 1/2.02.01.51.01.2
Open unemployed 2/-37.213.211.1-10.00.0
Passive unemployed 3/-12.4-4.8-15.23.0-1.4
Employment 1/2.72.11.81.01.3
Agriculture1.91.0-0.1-1.6-1.2
Nonagriculture4.03.84.84.74.6
Mining, electricity, and water supply0.21.20.00.05.9
Manufacturing6.46.37.56.86.3
Construction15.47.79.68.89.4
Transportation and communication4.73.33.72.43.5
Commerce and banking, insurance, and1.11.72.61.71.4
real estate
Services and public administration1.12.43.34.34.1
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Thirteen years of age and above.

Includes persons, 13 years of age and above, who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons, 13 years of age and above, who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Thirteen years of age and above.

Includes persons, 13 years of age and above, who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons, 13 years of age and above, who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Table 15.Thailand: Average Earnings, Classified by Manufacturing Categories, 1991-95 1/
19911992199319941995
(In baht per month)
Manufacturing for whole kingdom6,7867,4808,3089,19610,278
Food, beverage, and tobacco4,4874,9445,2115,7456,412
Textiles and wearing apparel4,4344,8595,3035,9706,640
Construction materials12,01012,56813,52914,92316,693
Wood and cork furniture4,2934,6435,1845,5766,180
Nonmetallic, pottery, and glass14,41915,00215,95317,86720,175
Iron and steel12,02613,54615,06916,23517,722
Paper and chemical products6,6467,0028,5269,31910,409
Paper and paper products10,36712,16612,92213,96815,257
Chemical, rubber, and plastic6,3016,9107,4948,2119,205
Machinery and equipment6,9267,7959,42510,30711,279
Other manufacturing industry4,6035,4855,8536,4247,126
(Percent change)
Manufacturing for whole kingdom10.210.211.110.711.8
Food, beverage, and tobacco9.210.25.410.211.6
Textiles and wearing apparel9.99.69.112.611.2
Construction materials4.14.77.610.311.9
Wood and cork furniture5.18.111.77.610.8
Nonmetallic, pottery, and glass2.14.06.312.012.9
Iron and steel14.412.611.27.79.2
Paper and chemical products10.55.421.89.311.7
Paper and paper products6.117.36.28.19.2
Chemical, rubber, and plastic11.79.78.59.612.1
Machinery and equipment21.312.620.99.49.4
Other manufacturing industry13.919.26.79.810.9
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 16.Thailand: Minimum Wage Rates by Region, 1991-93(In baht per day)
Effective DateApr.

1991
Apr.

1992
Apr.

1993
Apr.

1994
Oct.

1994
July

1995
Bangkok 1/100115125132135145
Ranong and Pan Nga93107
Chonburi110116118126
Saraburi
Nakhon Ratchasima
Chiang Mai88101
Other provinces8294102108110118
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including five metropolitan provinces (Nonthaburi, Pathumthani, Samutprakarn, Nakhonpathom, and Samutsakom) and the province of Phuket.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including five metropolitan provinces (Nonthaburi, Pathumthani, Samutprakarn, Nakhonpathom, and Samutsakom) and the province of Phuket.

Table 17.Thailand: Output (GDP at 1988 Prices) Per Employment, Classified by Sector, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In baht per person)
Agriculture15,05215,80315,51716,43417,186
Nonagriculture150,924157,606165,088172,467180,285
Mining, electricity, and water supply535,976572,892604,706637,931674,157
Manufacturing172,241187,695194,005203,744214,577
Construction114,126110,960111,038110,195110,239
Transportation and communication201,279215,347227,632244,019260,678
Commerce and banking, insurance, and real estate161,584173,339186,096202,792216,477
Services and public administration93,12192,87093,83193,98394,147
(Percent change)
Agriculture3.95.0-1.85.94.6
Nonagriculture4.64.44.74.54.5
Mining, electricity, and water supply12.76.95.65.55.7
Manufacturing5.59.03.45.05.3
Construction-1.5-2.80.1-0.80.0
Transportation and communication2.47.05.77.26.8
Commerce and banking, insurance, and real estate5.07.37.49.06.7
Services and public administration3.5-0.31.00.20.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 18.Thailand: Consumer Prices, 1991-95 1/(1990 = 100)
All

Items
FoodNonfood 2/Housing
Weights100.0039.3060.7025.65
1991105.7107.0104.8103.0
I103.2103.3103.2101.9
II105.4106.4104.8102.8
III106.3107.9105.2103.4
IV107.8110.3106.0103.9
1992110.0111.8108.8105.3
I108.1110.7106.2104.5
II109.6111.8108.1105.0
III111.4113.6109.8105.3
IV111.1111.0111.1106.3
1993113.7114.2113.4107.8
I111.6111.0112.0107.3
II113.1113.7112.8107.6
III114.7116.1113.8107.7
IV115.4116.1114.9108.8
1994119.5122.1117.7111.4
I116.9117.8116.3110.3
II118.8121.1117.2110.7
III120.6124.3118.1111.4
IV121.5125.1119.0113.2
1995126.4132.0122.7116.8
I122.5126.4119.9114.2
II125.2129.9122.1115.9
III127.9133.7124.0117.9
IV130.1138.1124.8119.1
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consumer price index for the Kingdom. Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes clothing, housing, personal and medical care, transportation, recreation, reading and education, tobacco and alcoholic beverages.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consumer price index for the Kingdom. Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes clothing, housing, personal and medical care, transportation, recreation, reading and education, tobacco and alcoholic beverages.

Table 19.Thailand: Wholesale Price Index by Groups, 1991-95 1/(1985 = 100)
All

Commodities
Agricultural

Products and

Foodstuffs 2/
Agricultural

Products
FoodsManufactured

Products
Special Index

for Exported

Products
Weights100.034.412.415.965.6100.0
1991132.0144.6154.3138.5124.1121.8
I131.2139.9146.3136.1125.3120.9
II132.0142.7154.7133.8125.1120.8
III132.9149.0159.5143.0123.3123.9
IV131.8146.8156.6140.9122.8121.3
1992132.3147.2157.9140.8123.4124.3
I131.6145.9155.9139.3123.0122.2
II133.3150.0163.7142.1123.5125.7
III133.6150.9163.1143.9123.5126.7
IV130.6142.1148.8137.6123.4122.5
1993131.7141.3145.1140.0125.4121.7
I130.9141.7148.4138.3124.0121.5
II131.5139.5144.6137.4126.0120.2
III131.7140.2143.7137.5126.0120.6
IV132.8143.8143.6146.6125.8124.6
1994136.8150.6155.3150.3128.5135.4
I136.1153.1155.2156.7126.2130.6
II135.6149.5154.2149.0127.2132.2
III137.0148.6153.6146.8129.6136.1
IV138.6151.1158.4148.6130.8142.8
1995148.2169.6183.7162.2135.9157.6
I143.1159.0170.2153.8133.6153.4
II146.9165.4179.7156.9136.1157.5
III150.5176.1190.2167.9136.3158.1
IV152.2178.0192.8170.3137.8161.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes agricultural products, foods, beverages and animal foods.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes agricultural products, foods, beverages and animal foods.

Table 20.Thailand: Producer Price Index by Stage of Processing, 1991-95 1/(1985 = 100)
Finished

Goods
Intermediate

Materials
Crude

Materials
1991131.3126.6144.5
I129.9128.9136.3
II131.5127.0140.7
III132.3125.4151.4
IV131.4125.2149.7
1992133.0126.6144.1
I131.2125.8141.9
II133.6126.5147.7
III135.8127.1148.7
IV131.6126.8138.0
1993135.9126.3132.3
I132.3126.6135.4
II136.5126.6132.0
III135.9126.7129.7
IV138.8125.4132.2
1994141.9127.9147.1
I143.8125.2141.9
II141.4126.8141.9
III140.6127.9148.8
IV141.7131.4155.6
1995149.1138.8178.0
I145.8134.5170.6
II147.8137.9178.7
III151.2140.3179.3
IV151.8142.6183.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Table 21.Thailand: Selected Energy Prices, 1991-95 1/
19911992199319941995
Average import price of crude oil (baht/barel)
Index (1978 = 100)185.5181.4163.3156.2165.0
Electricity (baht/kwh) 2/1.711.671.681.681.69 3/
Index (1978 = 100)220.0214.8216.1216.1217.4
Premium gasoline (baht/liter) 4/10.079.299.058.639.16
Index (1978 = 100)208.1191.8186.9178.2189.2
Tax (baht/liter)4.293.363.363.363.36
High-speed diesel (baht/liter) 4/8.057.837.877.407.60
Index (1978 = 100)304.9296.6298.1280.3287.9
Tax (baht/liter)2.882.312.312.313.31
Fuel oil (baht/liter) 4/3.443.553.303.564.05 5/
Index (1978 = 100)210.0220.5205.0221.1251.6
Tax (baht/liter) 6/0.770.660.440.580.49
Kerosene (baht per liter)8.828.938.208.528.70
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA).

Preliminary data.

Retail price for Bangkok.

Fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

Since 1993, tax rate of fuel oil is 17 percent of ex-refinery value.

Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA).

Preliminary data.

Retail price for Bangkok.

Fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

Since 1993, tax rate of fuel oil is 17 percent of ex-refinery value.

Table 22.Thailand: Rice and Paddy Prices, 1991-95(Baht per metric ton)
19911992199319941995
IIIIIIIV
Rice 1/5%6,9366,2325,2195,8746,4406,7557,9758,206
25%5,7645,6104,6255,3106,0906,4757,5297,742
Paddy 2/Grade 1 (5%)4,1583,8583,2153,8483,6923,8894,8144,721
Grade 2 (10-15%)3,9453,6113,0133,6073,4713,6654,6294,540
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Average wholesale prices in Bangkok metropolis.

Average farm prices.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Average wholesale prices in Bangkok metropolis.

Average farm prices.

Table 23.Thailand: Central Government Fiscal Accounts, 1990/91-1995/96
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Rev.

1994/95
Proj.

1995/96
(In billions of baht)
Total revenue and grants469.4501.4563.8659.0763.0868.9
Revenue464.4497.9560.2655.1760.0866.3
Tax428.5440.8504.9593.6697.3796.0
Nontax35.957.155.361.562.770.3
Grants5.03.53.63.93.02.6
Total expenditure and net lending355.7427.0500.4598.1658.2753.4
Current expenditure274.1312.0358.5393.0437.6476.8
Capital expenditure78.9109.1140.0194.4216.8275.8
Net lending2.75.91.910.73.80.8
Overall balance113.774.463.460.9104.8115.5
Financing-113.7-74.4-63.4-60.9-104.8-115.5
External3.6-10.83.67.57.28.1
Domestic-117.3-63.6-67.0-68.4-112.0-123.6
Bank 1/-109.9-68.7-64.6-57.1-107.7-120.8
Nonbank-14.3-13.5-14.3-28.5-19.6-2.5
Float6.918.611.917.215.3-0.3
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and grants19.318.318.318.919.018.9
Revenue19.118.118.218.818.918.9
Tax17.616.016.417.017.317.3
Nontax1.52.11.81.81.61.5
Grants0.20.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending14.615.516.217.116.416.4
Current expenditure11.311.411.611.310.910.4
Capital expenditure3.24.04.55.65.46.0
Net lending0.10.20.10.30.10.0
0.0
Overall balance4.72.72.11.72.62.5
Financing-4.7-2.7-2.1-1.7-2.6-2.5
External0.1-0.40.10.20.20.2
Domestic-4.8-2.3-2.2-2.0-2.8-2.7
Bank 1/-4.5-2.5-2.1-1.6-2.7-2.6
Nonbank-0.6-0.5-0.5-0.8-0.5-0.1
Float0.30.70.40.50.40.0
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 2/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 24.Thailand: Comal Government Revenue and Grants, 1991/92-1995/96(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95Proj.

1995/96
Total revenue and grants469.4501.4563.8659.0763.0868.9
Total revenue464.4497.9560.2655.1760.0866.3
Tax revenue428.5440.8504.9593.6697.3796.0
Taxes on income and profits123.7137.2159.1199.4241.8283.4
Personal47.650.354.264.783.199.3
Corporate76.186.9104.9134.7158.7184.1
Taxes on property11.211.413.216.116.316.4
Taxes on consumption186.9191.3212.5248.7295.6340.0
Business tax/VAT102.195.992.9114.4141.8170.4
Excise taxes84.895.4119.6134.3153.8170.0
Beer and spirits19.618.821.728.534.539.0
Tobacco15.615.415.319.320.522.4
Petroleum products41.740.343.043.353.057.3
Motor cars0.015.233.936.537.842.6
Other7.95.75.76.78.08.7
Profits on tobacco monopoly2.23.12.93.03.93.2
Taxes on international trade91.283.5103.8115.2127.9140.9
Import duties90.482.3102.5113.8126.5139.2
Export duties0.81.21.31.41.41.7
License fees and other taxes13.314.313.411.211.812.1
Nontax revenue35.957.155.361.562.770.3
Profits20.328.133.840.341.246.7
State lottery3.64.24.24.34.34.3
Bank of Thailand4.66.19.610.310.210.3
State enterprises12.117.820.025.726.732.1
Other15.629.021.521.221.523.6
Grants5.03.53.63.93.02.6
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 1/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 25.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure by Economic Classification, 1990/91-1995/96(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Rev.

1994/95
Proj.

1995/96
Total expenditure and net lending355.7427.0500.4598.1658.2753.4
Total expenditure353.0421.1498.5587.4654.4752.6
Current expenditure274.1312.0358.5393.0437.6476.8
Wages and salaries 1/121.1144.0170.9183.6221.9239.5
Interest35.329.624.921.914.811.0
Other goods and services94.1111.5129.0145.5153.7176.2
Subsidies and current transfers23.626.933.742.047.250.1
Of which:
Local government5.86.37.58.69.77.5
Public enterprises2.73.13.95.45.55.8
Households 2/15.117.522.328.032.036.8
Capital expenditure78.9109.1140.0194.4216.8275.8
Acquisition of fixed assets71.799.8122.5179.4199.6247.0
Capital transfers7.29.317.515.017.228.8
Of which:
Local government3.94.55.47.07.914.0
Public enterprises2.23.510.36.46.712.0
Households1.11.31.81.62.62.8
Net lending2.75.91.910.73.80.8
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 3/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration, annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration, annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 26.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure, Classified by Purpose, 1990/91-1995/96(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Rev.

1994/95
Proj.

1995/96
Total expenditure353.0421.1498.5587.4654.4752.6
Current expenditure274.1312.0358.5393.0437.6476.8
General public services16.619.823.025.529.532.7
Defense62.273.279.888.399.5109.1
Public order and safety16.119.524.727.430.834.1
Education63.976.189.198.7114.0126.2
Health23.028.434.839.244.148.8
Social security and welfare12.616.320.724.626.429.2
Housing and community amenities4.14.86.27.78.08.9
Recreational, cultural, and religious1.41.32.43.32.93.2
Economic services26.332.637.941.248.353.6
Fuel and energy0.40.60.80.91.01.1
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries16.419.723.625.629.833.0
Mining and mineral0.70.81.41.61.61.8
Transportation and communication4.54.86.37.47.98.8
Road transport2.32.73.64.04.44.9
Water transport0.10.10.10.20.20.2
Railway and other transport1.81.82.32.93.03.3
Communication0.30.20.30.30.30.4
Other4.36.75.85.78.08.9
Other47.940.039.937.134.131.0
Interest payments35.329.624.921.914.811.0
Domestic29.824.120.316.810.36.2
External5.55.54.65.14.54.8
Unclassified12.610.415.015.219.320.0
Capital expenditure78.9109.1140.0194.4216.8275.8
General public services5.84.65.56.98.510.8
Public order and safety2.63.74.26.57.09.0
Education9.613.516.222.525.732.7
Health2.94.25.810.89.812.5
Housing and community amenities4.66.711.218.717.221.9
Recreational, cultural, and religious0.51.21.72.62.63.4
Economic services52.374.493.9123.7143.6182.6
Fuel and energy1.91.61.51.72.53.1
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries20.632.335.245.156.471.7
Mining and mineral0.30.91.00.91.41.8
Transportation and communication25.034.448.566.072.392.0
Road transport22.430.343.960.665.383.1
Water transport0.91.31.62.02.43.0
Railway and other transport1.72.72.93.24.55.7
Communication0.00.10.10.20.20.2
Other4.55.27.710.011.014.0
Other0.60.81.52.72.42.9
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 1/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 27.Thailand: Government Debt, 1990/91-1993/96 1/(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Rev.

1994/95
Proj.

1995/96
Total central government debt329.2309.8270.0224.6195.6176.3
(In percent of fiscal year GDP)(13.6)(11.3)(8.8)(6.4)(4.9)(3.8)
Central government domestic debt235.2210.6164.0110.474.651.4
Bank of Thailand33.833.221.78.23.83.5
Commercial banks87.376.756.044.532.912.5
Government Savings Bank81.572.662.740.729.829.3
Other financial institutions22.621.218.213.37.05.1
Other10.06.95.43.71.11.0
Central Government external debt94.099.2106.0114.2121.0124.9
Memorandum items:
Government guaranteed external debt187.7203.8228.2242.7266.2294.2
Central government and government-
guaranteed external debt (US$ billion)11.012.013.214.615.416.7
Fiscal year GDP (in billions of baht) 2/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

As of the end of the fiscal year

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

As of the end of the fiscal year

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 28.Thailand: Accounts of Nonfinancial State Enterprises, 1990/91-1995/96
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95Proj.

1995/96
(In billions of baht)
Retained income 1/77.184.887.9106.4130.1147.1
Capital expenditure99.2120.4127.7122.0139.1164.3
Overall balance (deficit -)-22.1-35.6-39.8-15.6-9.0-17.2
Financing22.135.639.815.69.017.2
External financing (net)5.516.2-0.80.9-2.218.6
Domestic financing (net)16.619.440.614.711.2-1.4
Banking system 2/26.94.121.76.4-10.414.0
Central government2.75.22.58.02.10.8
Others 3/-13.010.116.40.319.5-16.2
(In percent of GDP)
Retained income 1/3.23.12.93.03.23.2
Capital expenditure4.14.44.13.53.53.6
Overall balance (deficit -)-0.9-1.3-1.3-0.4-0.2-0.4
Financing0.91.31.30.40.20.4
External financing (net)0.20.60.00.0-0.10.4
Domestic financing (net)0.70.71.30.40.30.0
Banking system 2/1.10.10.70.2-0.30.3
Central government0.10.20.10.20.10.0
Others 3/-0.50.40.50.00.5-0.4
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 4/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Defined as net operating profits (which include current transfers from the central government) plus capital transfers from the central government, plus depreciation, plus accounting losses arising from devaluation less revaluation gains, less divident payments and bonuses, plus other receipts (net).

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Include changes in working capital, equity, other financial assets, and borrowing from the Government Savings Bank and other nonbank sources.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Defined as net operating profits (which include current transfers from the central government) plus capital transfers from the central government, plus depreciation, plus accounting losses arising from devaluation less revaluation gains, less divident payments and bonuses, plus other receipts (net).

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Include changes in working capital, equity, other financial assets, and borrowing from the Government Savings Bank and other nonbank sources.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 29.Thailand: Operating Profits/Losses of Nonfinancial State Enterprises, 1990/91-1995/96 1/(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95Proj.

1995/96
Total66.467.969.575.387.395.6
Power28.830.232.335.044.649.0
Electricity Generating Authority11.712.311.412.019.020.5
Metropolitan Electricity Authority2.52.32.73.34.55.6
Provincial Electricity Authority5.87.79.811.412.012.6
Petroleum Authority6.17.17.77.57.88.8
Other2.70.80.90.81.31.5
Transport and Communication26.126.424.627.331.236.6
Thai Airways International3.53.10.03.13.24.0
Expressway and Rapid Transit Authorit0.80.01.00.00.00.0
State Railways of Thailand-0.8-1.2-1.4-0.7-1.70.2
Bangkok Mass Transit Authority-0.20.1-0.6-0.9-1.7-2.4
Port Authority of Thailand3.02.42.83.23.64.1
Telephone Organization10.411.512.811.815.517.3
Communication Authority of Thailand6.06.05.55.96.97.4
Others 2/3.44.54.54.95.46.0
Manufacturing5.04.54.55.45.35.1
Tobacco Monopoly4.03.53.74.54.34.1
Others1.01.00.80.91.01.0
Agriculture0.1-0.1-0.1-0.2-0.1-0.1
Government Lottery Bureau3.74.44.54.54.64.5
Others2.72.53.73.31.70.5
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP (in billions of baht) 3/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

GDP for fiscal year 1991/92 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1992 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

GDP for fiscal year 1991/92 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1992 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 30.Thailand: Grow Fixed Capital Expenditure of Nonfinancial State Enterprises, 1990/91-1995/96(In billions of baht)
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95Proj.

1995/96
Total99.2120.4127.7122.0139.1164.3
Power46.749.055.753.962.571.9
Electricity Generating Authority 1/31.923.931.827.630.632.3
Metropolitan Electricity Authority4.04.64.35.35.76.1
Provincial Electricity Authority6.27.98.19.312.014.9
Petroleum Authority1.37.56.87.410.013.8
Other3.35.14.74.34.24.8
Transport and communications43.259.959.853.258.874.6
Thai Airways International20.430.113.212.824.226.1
Airports Authority of Thailand1.01.92.62.84.34.6
Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority2.77.325.316.26.915.8
Metropolitan Rapid Transit0.00.00.11.82.83.2
State Railways of Thailand2.02.25.05.14.85.2
Port Authority of Thailand2.21.41.40.31.01.5
Telephone Organization12.18.47.68.55.612.9
Communication Authority of Thailand2.42.73.24.76.93.5
Others 2/0.45.91.41.02.31.8
Manufacturing 3/3.72.11.12.02.13.2
Agriculture 4/0.10.30.20.20.20.1
Others5.59.110.912.715.514.5
National Housing Authority2.94.44.73.34.85.1
Metropolitan Water Works Authority1.53.34.14.05.25.6
Provincial Water Works Authority1.11.32.03.94.12.8
Others0.00.10.11.51.41.0
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 5/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by Thai authorities.

Includes irrigation expenditure implemented by EGAT.

Includes the Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and other.

Includes Thai Tobacco Monopoly, Thai Plywood Company, Thai Mining Organization, and Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand.

Includes Forest Industry Organization and Rubber Estate Organization.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by Thai authorities.

Includes irrigation expenditure implemented by EGAT.

Includes the Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and other.

Includes Thai Tobacco Monopoly, Thai Plywood Company, Thai Mining Organization, and Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand.

Includes Forest Industry Organization and Rubber Estate Organization.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 31.Thailand: Summary of Local Government Operations, 1990/91-1995/96
1990/911991/921992/931993/941994/95Proj.

1995/96
(In billions of baht)
Total revenue and grants34.739.147.355.062.677.5
Taxes and other revenue25.028.334.439.445.056.0
Transfers from central government9.710.812.915.617.621.5
Total expenditure32.439.244.452.661.576.3
Current expenditure17.120.024.427.933.837.7
Capital expenditure15.319.220.024.727.738.6
Overall balance2.3-0.12.92.41.11.2
Overall balance excluding transfers
from the central government-7.4-10.9-10.0-13.2-16.5-20.3
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and grants1.41.41.51.61.61.7
Taxes and other revenue1.01.01.11.11.11.2
Transfers from central government0.40.40.40.40.40.5
Total expenditure1.31.41.41.51.51.7
Current expenditure0.70.70.80.80.80.8
Capital expenditure0.60.70.60.70.70.8
Overall balance0.10.00.10.10.00.0
Overall balance excluding transfers
from the central government-0.3-0.4-0.3-0.4-0.4-0.4
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 1/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 32.Thailand: Consolidated Nonfinancial Public Sector Operations, 1990/91-1995/96
1990/911991/921992/931993/94Rev.

1994/95
Proj.

1995/96
(In billions of baht)
Public sector overall balance96.643.929.055.899.0100.3
Total revenue and grants566.6607.9671.9793.0925.91,054.2
Total revenue561.6604.4668.3789.1922.91,051.6
Central government464.4497.9560.2655.1760.0866.3
Local government 1/25.028.334.439.445.056.0
Public enterprises 2/72.278.273.794.6117.9129.3
Grants to central government5.03.53.63.93.02.6
Total expenditure and net lending470.0564.0642.9737.2826.9953.9
Current expenditure282.7322.6371.5406.8456.3501.2
Central government 3/265.6302.6347.1379.0422.5463.5
Local government17.120.024.427.833.837.7
Capital expenditure187.3240.7272.0327.7368.9452.7
Central government 4/72.8101.1124.3181.0202.1249.8
Local government15.319.220.024.727.738.6
Public enterprises99.2120.4127.7122.0139.1164.3
Net lending 5/0.00.7-0.62.71.70.0
Financing (net)-96.6-43.9-29.0-55.8-99.0-100.3
External 6/9.15.42.88.45.026.7
Domestic-105.7-49.3-31.8-64.2-104.0-127.0
Banking system 7/-110.8-66.2-44.0-53.9-121.8-108.0
Other5.116.912.2-10.317.8-19.0
(In percent of GDP)
Public sector overall balance4.01.60.91.6-2.52.2
Total revenue and grants23.322.121.822.723.023.0
Total revenue23.122.021.722.623.022.9
Central government19.118.118.218.818.918.9
Local government 1/1.01.01.11.11.11.2
Public enterprises 2/3.02.82.42.72.92.8
Grants to central government0.20.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending19.420.520.921.120.620.8
Current expenditure11.611.712.111.711.310.9
Central government 3/10.911.011.310.910.510.1
Local government0.70.70.80.80.80.8
Capital expenditure7.78.88.89.49.29.9
Central government 4/3.03.74.05.25.05.4
Local government0.60.70.60.70.70.8
Public enterprises4.14.44.13.53.53.6
Net lending 5/0.00.00.00.10.00.0
Financing (net)-4.0-1.6-0.9-1.6-2.5-2.2
External 6/0.40.20.10.20.10.6
Domestic-4.4-1.8-1.0-1.8-2.6-2.8
Banking system 7/-4.6-2.4-1.4-1.5-3.0-2.4
Other0.20.60.4-0.30.4-0.4
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP 8/2,428.02,747.23,079.73,489.04,021.04,593.0
Source: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities.

Total revenue and grants of local government leas transfers from central government.

Retained income of nonfinancial state enterprises less transfers from central government.

Excludes current transfers to local government and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Excludes capital transfers to local government and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Net lending of central government less domestic financing of public enterprises by central government.

External financing of central government plus external financing of nonfinancial public enterprises.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Source: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities.

Total revenue and grants of local government leas transfers from central government.

Retained income of nonfinancial state enterprises less transfers from central government.

Excludes current transfers to local government and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Excludes capital transfers to local government and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Net lending of central government less domestic financing of public enterprises by central government.

External financing of central government plus external financing of nonfinancial public enterprises.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

GDP for fiscal year 1990/91 is estimated as 25 percent of calendar year 1990 GDP plus 75 percent of calendar year 1991 GDP. Other fiscal years’ GDP are estimated in a similar fashion.

Table 33.Thailand: Summary of the Tax System(as of January 1996)
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionRates
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
1. Taxes on net income and profits
1.1Taxes on companies

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1991)
a. Companies, registered partnerships, and limited partnerships are taxed from sources within or without Thailand. Foreign companies, not registered or not residing in Thailand, are subject to tax only on income from sources within Thailand.a. Taxable net profits are determined after business expenses and depreciation allowances, ranging from 5% to 20% of original cost for most types of assets. Net losses may be carried forward to five consecutive years. No allowance for carrying back losses to previous years.a. Tax rate is 30% on net profit.
Intercorporate dividends are exempted for 50% of dividends received. For holding companies and companies listed in SET, dividends are completely exempted, provided the shares are held 3 months prior to and after the receipt of dividends.
b. Companies incorporated abroad are also subject to a withholding tax on income from Thailand in the form of dividends, property rights, rentals, interest, and fees for certain services.b. Withholding tax is calculated on gross income. Exemptions or reduced tax rates are provided for companies in a country which has the double tax treaty with Thailand.b. Withholding tax is 15% except on dividends which are taxed at 10%.
c Foreign companies carrying on international transport.c. 3% of fares, fees, and other income for passenger transport; 3% of freight fees, and other income for freight transport.
d. Nonprofit foundations and associationsd. A tax of 10% is levied on gross revenue before deduction of any expenses. The computation of gross revenue does not include registration or subscription fees or any money or property received by way of donation or gift.
1.2Tax on individuals

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1973)
Individuals (and ordinary partnerships) residing for 180 days or more in Thailand in any calendar year are subject to tax on income derived from sources within or without Thailand. Non-resident persons are subject to tax only on income derived from sources within Thailand. Incomes from different sources are taxed differently.The following types of income are exempted: superannuation and insurance policies; gifts and income from bequests; proceeds from sales of movable property acquired through inheritance or for a purpose other than profit; income received from companies operating under the Promotion of Investment Act; prizes, awards, and lottery winnings; workers’ compensation, insurance claims medical benefits, income from rice farming, profits received from business already subject to individual income tax. Also, income of nonresidents, residing m the country which has a double taxation treaty with Thailand is exempted or subject to reduced tax rates.
Tax on employment and business income is imposed at progressive rates on net income (after deductions and allowances). But it cannot be less than the minimum tax on gross income.Taxable net income is determined after the following deductions from gross income: standard deduction of 40% of gross income not in excess of B60,000 from earned income (from employment or services rendered and copyright); standard deduction ranging from 10% to 30% of gross income (depending on the type of asset rented) or actual expenses, from rental income; standard deduction of 30% to 40% of gross income, or actual expenses, from income from liberal professions; and standard deduction ranging from 40% to 85% of gross income (depending on type of business activity), or actual expenses, from all other business income (industrial, agricultural, and construction activities). In addition, the following allowances are permitted: personal allowances of B30,000 for taxpayer, B30,000 for spouse, B15,000 for each child, B2,000 for the education of each child (not exceeding 3 children); B30,000 for an estate that is property of the taxpayer, and B30,000 for each member of ordinary partnership, totalling not more than B60,000; an allowance of up to B10,000 for life insurance premium payments to an insurance company operating in Thailand for at least ten years, with respect to the life insurance policy of the taxpayer and his spouse; up to B10,000 for contributions to approved provident funds, and actual insurance fund and up to B10,000 for interest paid on mortgage loans for housing; and allowance for the amount of charitable contributions up to 10 percent of the remaining taxable income after deductions of all preceding allowances.Net income bracketTax Rate
up to B100,0005%
B100,001-B500,00010%
B500,001-B1,000,00020%
B1,000,001-B4,000,00030%
over B4,000,00037%
Gross income (for minimum tax)
B60,000 or more0.5%
Tax credit

Dividends or share of profits received from domestic companies are entitled to a tax credit at a rate of three-seventh of the amount received.
Tax on interest incomeExemptions are given on:



a. Demand deposits with Government Savings Bank and savings deposits with cooperatives and the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives.



b. Savings deposit with any banks in Thailand not exceeding B20,000.
Withholding tax at a rate of 15%
Tax on dividends or share of profit received from domestic companies and mutual funds when the income earner does not claim a tax refund or tax credit.Final withholding tax at the rate of 10%.
Tax on income from sale or transfer of immovable property, other than exempt.Final withholding tax of a graduated rate structure with a maximum of 20% of sale price after deductions granted in accordance with the nature of the transfer and years of ownership.
2. Social Security Contributions
None
3. Employers’ Payroll or Manpower Taxes
None
4. Taxes on property
4.1Real estate transfer tax

(Land Code Act of 1954, amended in 1973).
Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the properly.2% of the assessed value; 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.
5. Taxes on goods and services
5.1Value-Added Tax

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1991)
VAT replaced Business Tax on January 1, 1992. All goods and services are subject to VAT.Exemptions include:



- Business with annual turnover not more than B600,000



- Agricultural products and related inputs e.g., fertilizer, animal feed, medicine and chemicals



- Newspaper magazines, textbooks



- Education



- Arts and crafts



- Medical practices, auditing, legal practices and other professional services



- Hospitals



- Research or technical services



- Library, museum, zoo



- Labor contract



- Sports (non-professional)



- Acting, performance



- Domestic transport



- International transport



(excluding air and sea transport)
- General rate, 7%



- For business with annual turnover of B600,000 - B1,200,000, the business operator has a choice between a gross turnover tax at a rate of 1.5% or the normal VAT.



- For export: 0%
5.2 Specific business taxSpecific business tax is imposed in lieu of VAT on the following businesses:



- Commercial banks

- Finance firms and credit fonciers

- Insurance companies

- Pawn shops

- Other business with similar operations as commercial banking

- Sales of non-movable properties

- Stock exchange

- Other as decreed
Following businesses are exempted:



- BOT, GSB, GHB, BAAC

- Saving Cooperatives

- Provident Fund

-NHA

- Others as decreed (e.g., Stock Exchange)

- Banking and financial institutions
  • = interest 3% earning
  • = profit 3%
- Insurance
  • = interest 2.5%
  • = premiums 3%
- Pawnshop 2.5%

- Sales of properties 3%

- Sale of stocks and shares 0.1%

(currently exempted)
5.3Selective excises on goods



(Liquor Act of 1991,

Tobacco Act of 1991,

Playing Cards Act of 1991, and Excise Tax Act of 1991)
Excises are levied on selected locally produced and imported goods, petroleum products, cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, playing cards, electrical appliances, automobiles, crystal wares, yacht, cosmetics and race course.



The value of domestic goods is based on exfactory price plus excise duty but sometimes the value is based on the price which Director General has published in the Royal Gazette from time to time. In the case of imported goods the value is based on CIF price plus import duty and excise duty.
Diplomatic sales and sales of fuel to ships and international airlines are exempted. Tax is refunded when an excisable item is exported.Typical rate. Most excisable goods are subject to specific or ad valorem rates, whichever is higher.
  • 1. Petroleum and petroleum products
    • 1.1 Gasoline and similar fuel
      • a) Gasoline (lead content more than 0.15 g/l) 36% or 3.35 B/liter
      • b) Gasoline (lead content not more than 0.15 g/l) 32% or 3.05 B/liter
      • c) Unleaded gasoline 25% or 2.35 B/liter
    • 1.2 Kerosene 23% or 3.00 B/liter
    • 1.3 Fuel for jet aircraft 1% or 0.20 B/liter
    • 1.4 Diesel and similar fuel
      • a) Diesel (sulphur content more than 0.5%) 28% or 2.10 B/liter
      • b) Diesel (sulphur content not more than 0.5%) 26% or 2.00 B/liter
    • 1.5 Fuel oil 17%
    • 1.6 LPG 23% or 2.17 B/Kg
    • 1.7 Natural gas liquid 36% or 3.15 B/liter
  • 2. Spirits
    • 2.1 Fermented spirits
      • - Beer (100 degrees) 48% or 100 B/liter
      • -other beer (100 degrees) 20% or 100 B/liter
    • 2.2 Distilled spirits
      • -Whisky (100 degrees) 24% or 100 B/liter
      • -Brandy (100 degrees) 20% or 100 B/liter
      • -Other whisky and brandy (100 degrees) 28% or 100 B/liter
      • -Samtab (100 degrees) 10% or 6 B/liter
      • - Samtab which have been transformed or used for medical scientific purposes 0.05 B/liter
  • 3. Tobacco
    • 3.1 Shredded tobacco 0.01 B/10 gm
    • 3.2 Tobacco
      • -cigars 0.1% or 0.12 B/gm
      • -cigarettes 62%
      • - others 0.1% or 0.02 B/5 gm
      • -blended shredded 0.1% or 0.09 B/gm
      • -chewing tobacco 0.1% or 0.09 B/gm
  • 4. Beverages
    • - Soda water 25% or 0.77 B/440 cc.
    • - Soft drinks 18% or 0.45 B/440 cc.
  • 6. Electrical appliances
    • - Air conditioners: 14%
    • - Chandeliers: 2%
  • 7. Automobiles
    • -under 2,400 cc: 32.5%
    • - 2,400 - 3,000 cc: 38%
    • -over 3,000 cc: 45%
    • - off-road: 27%
  • 8. Crystal: 2%
  • 9. Yacht: 5%
  • 10. Cosmetics: 12%
  • 11. Race Course: 13%
5.4 Profits of fiscal monopoliesCentral Government is recipient of the profits of the following fiscal monopolies: the Thai Tobacco Monopoly, the State Lottery, and the production of playing cards by the Excise DepartmentNoneRates are negotiated between the Ministry of Finance and individual monopolies.
6. Taxes on international trade and transactions
6.1Import duties

(Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987)
Ad valorem (on c.i.f. value) and/or specific duties are imposed on imports, classified according to the Harmonized System. In additions, special duties are levied on certain commodities, and surcharges on imports competing with the output of promoted firms.Exemption is granted to personnel of United Nations Organizations and of accredited diplomatic missions. Companies operating under the Promotion of Investment Act are exempted on machinery, re-exported. Also, they are granted reduction of up to 90 percent of the duty on raw materials for not more than one year. Re-exports of goods that have been imported within the preceding two years and have not undergone change in character or form are exempted. Companies operating under the Petroleum Act, and Industrial Authority of Thailand Act (bonded warehouses and export processing zones) are exempted. Crude oil, fertilizers, fish and fish products, jewelry, munitions of war, are zero rated. Duties on inputs used in the production of exports are refunded.The current tariff structure is undergoing a reform aiming to lower tariff barriers and reduce number of rates to 6 basic rates and 2 special rates as follows:



- Special policy goods: 0%

-Raw material: 1%

- Primary goods and machinery: 5%

- Intermediate goods: 10%

- Finished goods: 20%

- Highly protected goods: 30%

- Passenger cars capacity not exceeding 2,400 cc: 42%,

- Passenger cars capacity exceeding 2,400 cc: 68.5%
6.2 Export taxes
(Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987)Ad valorem or specific duties are imposed on exports of the following items; rice, metal scrap, hides (tanned, raw), rubber, wood, wood articles, raw silk and fish (unfit for human consumption)Because of exporting promotion, most export taxes are exempted, except rawhides, wood and raw silk.-Rawhides. 5 B/kg

-Wood: 40%

-Wood: 3.40 per kg

-Raw Silk: B100/kg
7. Other taxes
7.1Stamp duties

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1973)
Stamp duties are imposed on documents (government forms, legal contracts, and other instruments), on an ad valorem basis or per transaction.Rates range from B1.0 per B1,000 (on lease of property, contractor’s services, insurance policy, transfer of securities, arbitrator’s award) to B100 (on articles of association of a United company).
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS:
Provinces (changwats) municipalities (tesabans), sanitary districts (sukhapibans) and tambon administration organization. (Municipal Income Act of 1954, Sukhapiban Revenue Act of 1955, Royal Decree on Changwat Income of 1956, and Tambon Council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994)
1. Taxes on net income and profits
None
2. Social security contribution
None
3. Employers’ payroll or manpower taxes
None
4. Taxes on property
4.1 Real estate taxes
4.1.1House and rent tax

(House and Land Tax Act of 1932)
The house and rent tax is levied annually on buildings rented or used for other commercial purposes. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Owner-occupied dwellings are exempted. Also exempted are buildings used by government agencies, public hospitals,
4.12 Land development tax
(Land Development Act of 1965)The land development tax is levied annually on the value of unimproved land not subject to the house and rent tax. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Land occupied by owner or used for annual crops is fully or partially exempted. A person who owns land in several provinces is allowed exemption only on land in one province, although his land holdings are taxed separately in each province. Land owned by government agencies, public hospitals, schools, public utilities, and religious organizations are also exempted.34 different rates ranging from B0.50 per rai with an assessed value of under B200 to B70 per rai with an assessed value of over B30,000 and B25 per rai for each additional B10,000 (one rai is equivalent to 0.16 hectare).
4.1.3Real estate transfer tax

(For Tambon Administration Organization)
Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value; 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.
5. Taxes on goods and services
5.1 VAT surchargeSurcharge on the VAT imposed by the Central Government (see A.5.1). The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10 percent of the VAT. (VAT rate of 7% is inclusive of the local surcharge of 0.7%)
5.2 Surcharge on selected excises
  • Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages
  • Petroleum and petroleum products
  • Electrical appliances
  • Crystals
  • Automobiles
  • Yachts
  • Horse Racing courses
Surcharge on selected excises imposed by the Central Government (See A.5.3). The surcharge is collected by the Excise Department and allocated to local governments.10% of excise tax.
5.3 Profits of fiscal monoplies
None
5.4 Taxes on specific services
None
5.5 Taxes on use of goods and property, and permission to perform activities
5.5.1 Licenses and fees
  • - Slaughtering, posting signboards, and various other activities, are subject to taxes and license fees, which are allocated to all levels of local government.
  • - Bird nest, ground water, fishery, forestry, petroleum and mineral resources (For Tambon Administration Organization)
Multiple
5.5.2Motor vehicle registration fee

(Motor Vehicle Act of 1979 Inland Transport Act of 1979)
Motor vehicles (passenger cars, motorcycles and special vehicles; buses and trucks) are subject to an annual registration fee. The fee is collected by the Central Government (Inland Transport Department) and allocated to local government in the following proportions: 25% to provinces; 50% to municipalities; and 25% to sanitary districts.Automobiles belonging to government departments and local authorities are exempted. Tractors used in agriculture, ambulances and automobiles belonging to Red Cross are also exempted.For passenger cars carrying 7 passengers or less, the fee is based on cylinder capacity:



B0.50 per cc for portion of the cylinder capacity under 600 cc.



B1.50 per cc for the portion between 600 cc-1,800 cc.



B4.00 per cc for the portion over 1,800 cc.



For passenger cars carrying more than 7 passengers, the fee is based on weight ranging from B150 to B3,600.



For motorcycle, the fee is B100 per unit.



For passenger cars registered for more than 5 years, the fee is reduced at a rate of 10% increments per year, e.g., 10% reduction is given on the 6th year, 20% reduction on the 7th year to 50% reduction after the 9th year.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 34.Thailand: Monetary Survey, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Net foreign assets4144494543342672411485664118
Assets5386178078138529189289171,0691,1061,172
Liabilities1241683534795856777808611,0051,0961,164
Net domestic assets1,4191,6692,0532,1392,2722,4072,6822,7912,9623,1253,303
Net domestic credit1,7692,0872,5602,6922,8523,0103,3013,4793,6703,8204,060
Government (net)-87-148-206-211-266-288-290-297-352-395-396
Private sector1,8552,2352,7662,9033,1183,2973,5913,7764,0224,2154,456
Businesses/households1,6982,0462,5382,6822,8663,0483,3053,5013,7113,8954,086
Claims on NFPEs 1/4553778391959498100106117
Other financial institutions113136152137162154191178211213252
Capital and other items-350-418-507-553-580-603-619-688-708-695-757
Broad money1,8322,1182,5072,4742,5402,6482,8292,8473,0263,1353,311
Narrow money222250296307291315347352364368388
Currency149180209208208213242249254247284
Deposits7370889983102105104110121104
Quasi-money1,6101,8682,2112,1662,2492,3332,4832,4952,6622,7682,922
Savings deposits421494622620629634691647667653682
Time deposits1,1841,3701,5831,5381,6101,6931,7851,8371,9872,1042,229
Other deposits54799661181111
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Nonfinancial public enterprises.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Nonfinancial public enterprises.

Table 35.Thailand: Monetary Survey, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
(Percent change)
Net foreign assets34.78.51.1-67.4-83.3-75.9-95.6-99.9
Net domestic assets16.117.623.030.630.530.329.823.2
Net domestic credit15.518.022.728.929.328.726.923.0
Government (net)-595.4-70.5-39.0-41.0-41.1-32.4-37.4-36.6
Private sector22.520.623.829.830.129.027.824.1
Capital and other items-13.0-19.5-21.3-22.1-24.6-22.1-15.3-22.2
Broad money19.815.618.412.915.119.218.417.0
Narrow money13.812.318.617.014.525.216.612.1
Quasi-money20.716.018.412.315.218.418.617.7
(Contribution to change over previous period in the stock of broad money, in percentage points)
Net foreign assets7.01.90.2-12.2-11.3-8.0-8.7-5.0
Net domestic assets12.813.718.225.126.327.227.122.0
Net domestic credit15.417.522.429.631.832.230.626.8
Government (net)-6.8-3.3-2.7-3.4-3.5-3.4-4.1-3.8
Private sector22.320.925.132.935.335.634.630.6
Capital and other items-2.7-3.8-4.2-4.5-5.5-5.1-3.5-4.9
Broad money19.815.618.412.815.119.218.417.0
Narrow money1.81.52.22.01.82.92.01.5
Quasi-money18.114.116.210.813.316.316.415.5
Memorandum items:
Income velocity 1/1.491.421.261.271.25
Money multiplier 2/8.708.548.708.588.318.448.478.19
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Ratio of GDP to broad money, average for year ended December.

Ratio of broad money to reserve money.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Ratio of GDP to broad money, average for year ended December.

Ratio of broad money to reserve money.

Table 36.Thailand: Financial Survey, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets365.8385.0369.2248.9174.5145.644.7-47.9
Net domestic assets1,880.62,277.82,817.92,976.53,151.93,361.83,703.23,865.2
Domestic credit2,324.12,801.63,502.83,746.43,968.04,207.24,597.84,832.1
Government (net)22.7-60.3-121.9-132.6-158.0-187.1-184.4-195.0
Private sector2,301.42,861.93,624.73,879.04,126.04,394.34,782.25,027.1
Public enterprises67.184.5130.8140.1148.1161.8162.3166.4
Businesses/households2,234.32,777.43,493.93,738.93,977.94,232.54,619.94,860.7
Capital and other items-443.5-523.8-684.9-769.9-816.1-845.4-894.6-966.9
Liquid liabilities to private sector2,246.42,662.93,187.13,225.43,326.43,507.53,747.83,817.4
Currency148.7179.3207.4207.0206.4212.0240.6247.1
Demand deposits51.552.966.478.570.278.584.786.7
Savings and time deposits1,748.22,017.52,371.72,344.52,429.62,519.32,675.22,707.3
Promissory notes298.0413.2541.6595.4620.2697.7747.3776.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 37.Thailand: Accounts of the Bank of Thailand, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Net foreign assets465.0538.9648.9758.8744.3861.1898.2931.6
Assets465.1539.0649.1758.9744.4861.2898.3931.7
Liabilities0.10.10.20.10.10.10.10.1
Net domestic assets-254.6-290.8-360.8-428.9-401.9-502.4-527.9-527.3
Net claims on Government-119.1-141.0-163.0-203.2-194.4-265.2-287.6-285.4
Claims46.951.640.220.040.722.920.828.7
Liabilities169.6196.2208.6227.9238.0291.7313.0319.9
Net currency holdings of the Government-3.6-3.6-5.4-4.7-2.9-3.6-4.6-5.8
Government currency holdings4.45.45.17.810.19.99.38.5
Treasury coin issue8.09.010.512.513.013.513.914.3
Claims on NFPEs 1/0.00.00.00.02.55.06.98.4
Claims on commercial banks38.037.121.115.125.013.311.013.0
Claims on other financial institutions18.622.425.233.039.837.833.542.1
Other assets (net)-192.1-209.3-244.1-273.8-274.8-293.3-291.7-305.4
Reserve money210.5248.1288.1329.8342.4358.7370.2404.3
Currency outside banks149.3180.2208.6241.9248.5252.2246.7285.8
Currency in commercial banks23.525.029.436.430.933.631.339.2
Bankers’ deposits34.639.444.943.554.559.171.269.3
Private sector deposits0.50.50.60.71.10.71.51.0
Nonbank financial intermediaries2.63.04.67.37.413.119.59.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Nonfinancial public enterprises.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Nonfinancial public enterprises.

Table 38.Thailand: Accounts of the Bank of Thailand, 1991-95(Twelve-month change as percent of the stock of reserve money)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Net foreign assets56.335.144.338.124.553.749.252.4
Net domestic assets-43.0-17.2-28.2-23.6-8.6-28.9-28.6-29.8
Net domestic credit-35.1-9.0-14.2-13.3-1.2-20.5-21.8-20.2
Claims on Government-33.2-10.4-8.9-14.0-8.8-21.3-23.7-24.9
Claims on commercial banks-2.7-1.3-6.4-2.12.3-0.7-0.2-0.6
Claims on other financial institutions0.82.71.12.74.4-0.2-0.22.8
Claims on NFPE0.00.00.00.00.81.72.22.5
Other assets (net)-8.0-8.2-14.0-10.3-7.3-8.4-6.8-9.6
Reserve money13.317.916.114.515.924.820.622.6
Currency in circulation10.015.413.214.015.318.313.714.1
Deposits held by private sector3.32.52.90.50.66.56.98.5
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 39.Thailand: Rediscount by the Bank of Thailand, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Outstanding at end of period21.623.215.718.227.327.921.225.6
Export20.721.312.71.51.71.61.51.5
Manufacturing0.30.30.30.40.40.40.30.4
Agriculture0.50.40.60.60.60.60.50.5
Crop financing0.01.22.11.72.32.60.22.1
Finance companies0.10.00.00.00.00.10.10.1
Exim banks0.00.00.014.022.322.618.621.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 40.Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Total assets2,1702,5563,2054,0654,2294,5594,7715,045
Cash and claims on the Bank of Thailand60617480838899118
Claims on commercial banks2325333525403529
Claims on other financial institutions94113127158138174180214
Foreign assets7378158169172208208240
Claims on Government8370503622422925
Claims on nonfinancial public enterprises45537794969599108
Claims on businesses and households1,6972,0452,5373,3043,5003,7103,8944,085
Other95111151189194203228226
Total liabilities2,1702,5563,2054,0654,2294,5594,7715,045
Credit from the Bank of Thailand383621142212915
Liabilities to commercial banks2328344131524637
Borrowings from other financial institutions1015205679696686
Total deposits of nongovernment sector1,6801,9342,2932,5792,5902,7592,8683,017
Demand deposits70668297959710094
Savings deposits421494622691647667653682
Time deposits1,1841,3701,5831,7851,8371,9872,1042,229
Foreign currency deposits4366118910
Marginal deposits11111111
Foreign liabilities1241683527808611,0051,0961,164
Government deposits517793123125129136136
Capital account144170221306330342386395
Other101128171166193192164196
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 41.Thailand: Bills, Loans, and Overdrafts of Commercial Banks, Classified by Purpose, 1991-95 1/(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Total1,807.62,182.42,695.03,457.74,250.8
Agriculture126.4135.5149.0152.3158.9
Mining8.412.116.715.725.0
Manufacturing457.6517.9647.3836.21,097.3
Construction72.188.4103.7142.0185.9
Real estate business207.1251.1303.8364.2400.2
Imports71.587.089.3115.7140.0
Exports95.3116.7135.3166.5182.7
Wholesale and retail trade314.8371.5477.2627.7756.8
Public utilities30.140.961.386.3108.1
Banking and other financial business99.3132.8163.0245.2339.2
Services123.2159.1208.7268.4333.3
Personal consumption201.8269.4339.7437.5523.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including interbank and BIBF transactions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including interbank and BIBF transactions.

Table 42.Thailand: Loans and Interest Rates in Interbank Markets, 1994-95
Interest
LoansRates
(In billions of baht)(Percent per
VolumeOutstandingAnnum)
1994
January300.2751.346.94
February123.8521.137.36
March81.7216.977.74
April122.4224.915.40
May156.4123.406.92
June195.5522.2310.25
July129.2230.389.23
August174.5017.345.12
September252.6622.646.30
October223.6730.426.59
November362.4659.547.17
December281.8673.787.22
1995
January201.4330.6410.12
February121.5427.4912.65
March142.8160.9013.32
April135.4515.7812.58
May179.7321.849.65
June366.0325.608.57
July348.1824.406.29
August367.8023.488.17
September228.0320.6711.02
October300.6920.238.50
November213.4913.5211.24
December258.7417.7411.15
Source: Data provided by the Bank of Thailand.
Source: Data provided by the Bank of Thailand.
Table 43.Thailand: Operations of Finance Companies, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Assets5026909311,2231,2481,3661,4391,588
Credit to the private sector4165487331,0081,0191,1171,1761,301
Investments466998132147158176188
Government securities2733515959646672
Domestic private securities203747738794110115
Cash and balance at the Bank of Thailand13456678
Cash balance at banks812161611161321
Cash balance at other financial institutions01101
Foreign assets11111
Other3159816164676669
Liabilities5026909311,2241,2481,3661,4391,588
Borrowing4025497399909971,0941,1531,277
Bank of Thailand114422100
Banks in Thailand37536999749097147
Foreign liability164159717694104117
Private sector338415559763791851887932
Others36495555596582
Capital accounts5277101146165174189197
Others48649288869897114
Number of finance companies9492929191919191
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 44.Thailand: Lending of Finance Companies, Classified by Purpose, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSeptDec.
Total lending415.5547.6733.11,008.01,018.61,117.11,176.21,301.4
Agriculture, forestry, mining4.36.37.46.27.28.89.610.9
Manufacturing68.184.3104.5137.7129.0149.7163.5185.7
Construction11.016.222.230.029.934.935.439.8
Real estate business99.8120.7163.8239.7257.1283.5301.9325.9
Imports7.29.512.914.714.016.617.420.1
Exports4.44.45.98.98.99.38.810.0
Wholesale and retail trade32.140.852.569.763.176.081.594.5
Public utilities and services32.741.056.576.974.282.388.1100.0
Banking and other financial institutions23.543.766.4105.3105.8111.4109.7129.9
Personal consumption132.4180.7241.0318.9329.4344.6360.3384.6
Number of finance companies9292919191919191
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 45.Thailand: Interest Rate Structure, 1991-95(In percent per annum; end-of-period)
19911992199319941995
Dec.Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Government securities
Government bonds10.7510.7510.7510.7510.7510.7510.7510.75
Average repurchase rates (7 days)6.885.103.776.5611.3710.079.709.49
Bank of Thailand
Bank rate (loan rates)11.0011.009.009.5010.5010.5010.5010.50
Rediscount rates3.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.003.00-5.00
Commercial banks
Interbank lending rates 1/9.517.954.387.2213.328.5711.02n.a.
Minimum overdraft rates 2/14.0011.5010.5011.7513.00-13.2513.50-13.7513.50-13.7514.00-14.25
Minimum loan rates 2/14.0011.5010.5011.7513.0013.5013.50-13.7513.75
Saving deposits 2/8.506.00-6.505.005.005.00-6.005.005.005.00
3-6 months time deposit10.50-11.507.50-9.506.50-7.008.75-10.0010.00-11.5010.25-12.0010.50-11.5010.50-12.50
Government Savings Banks 3/
Savings deposits8.505.75-6.004.75-5.004.75-5.004.75-5.004.75-5.004.75-5.004.75-5.00
6 months time deposits10.00-10.507.50-8.006.50-7.009.38-9.8810.25-10.7511.38-11.8810.25-10.7510.25-10.75
Finance companies
Three-month borrowing rate11.5310.116.50-8.008.25-11.0010.25-12.5010.25-13.009.00-12.009.75-13.25
Minimum loan rate15.9814.8711.1711.8213.0513.4013.2713.55
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Weighted average.

As offered by four big commercial banks.

Higher rates applicable to private deposits and lower rates to government deposits.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Weighted average.

As offered by four big commercial banks.

Higher rates applicable to private deposits and lower rates to government deposits.

Table 46.Thailand: Interest Rate Differentials and Forward Discount, 1994-96(In percent per annum at end-of-period)
Eurodollar

Rate
Domestic Interest

Rate
Uncovered

Differential
Forward Premium (+)

Discount (-)
1994
January3.155.10+1.63-2.78
February3.386.38+2.66-3.37
March3.637.19+3.20-2.97
April3.846.62+2.40-2.95
May4.347.52+2.75-3.39
June4.408.33+3.49-3.50
July4.558.91+3.90-3.70
August4.708.17+3.00-1.96
September4.937.58+2.16-2.37
October5.046.821.28-2.08
November5.487.01+0.98-2.20
December6.087.72+1.031.88
1995
January5.938.54+2.02-0.45
February6.1210.05+3.32-5.26
March6.1311.37+4.63-7.74
April6.1111.91+5.19-6.72
May6.0711.48+4.80-5.57
June6.0810.49+3.80-6.98
July5.958.54+1.99-2.26
August5.899.07+2.59-2.64
September5.799.56+3.19-4.03
October5.699.11+2.85-3.86
November5.659.35+3.13-4.50
December5.689.28+3.03-4.94
1996
January5.408.82+2.88-2.47
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 47.Thailand: Credit from the Monetary System and Net Capital Inflow to Private and Public Enterprises, 1991-95(In billions of baht)
1991199219931994199419951995
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV
Total credit621.2579.0711.665.0216.2219.6278.4779.2154.7353.8284.5338.01,131.0
Private businesses577.8559.8674.547.0197.7215.7275.3735.7135.9341.4277.5306.71,061.5
Public enterprises43.419.237.118.018.53.93.143.518.812.47.031.369.5
Financial7.6-0.52.19.411.21.42.024.013.16.82.416.739.0
Nonfinancial35.819.735.08.67.32.51.119.55.75.64.614.630.5
Credit from banking system (increase)340.9379.5531.1136.6215.8179.0293.2824.6185.9245.9192.4240.8865.0
Private businesses309.0371.7504.6120.7197.6173.3292.1783.7169.6240.8188.8218.4817.6
Public enterprises31.97.826.515.918.25.71.140.916.35.13.622.447.4
Financial7.2-0.53.29.210.41.42.123.112.53.2-2.711.624.6
Nonfinancial24.78.323.36.77.84.3-1.017.83.81.96.310.822.8
Foreign credit (net inflow)280.3199.5180.5-71.60.440.6-14.8-45.4-31.2107.992.197.2266.0
Private businesses268.8188.1169.9-73.70.142.4-16.8-48.0-33.7100.688.788.3243.9
Public enterprises11.511.410.62.10.3-1.82.02.62.57.33.48.922.1
Financial0.40.0-1.10.20.80.0-0.10.90.63.65.15.114.4
Nonfinancial11.111.411.71.9-0.5-1.82.11.71.93.7-1.73.87.7
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 48.Thailand: Net Repurchase Position (+ Net Sale - Net Purchase) and Seven-Day Repurchase Rate, 1994-95(In billions of baht)
19941995
Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.MayJuneJulyAug.Sept.Oct.Nov.Dec.
Commercial banks0.11.24.35.725.516.317.812.73.7-1.3-0.26.58.64.414.516.1
Finance companies6.76.15.23.95.75.76.15.05.33.73.66.58.49.08.65.6
Bank of Thailand0.00.00.00.0-23.5-15.0-14.8-7.6-0.50.00.00.00.00.00.0-13.3
Other-6.8-7.3-9.5-9.6-7.7-7.0-9.1-10.1-8.5-2.4-3.4-13.0-17.0-13.4-23.1-8.4
Seven-day repurchase rate (percent per annum)6.865.846.256.568.4010.5011.3611.9211.2310.077.868.839.708.919.869.48
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 49.Thailand: Foreign Investor Participation in the Securities Exchange of Thailand, 1991-95
1991199219931994199419951995
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV
Turnover involving foreign investors
In billions of baht130.2268.0746.9280.7149.9262.6192.0885.2206.0238.1201.8162.5808.4
In percent of total turnover8.27.217.020.219.919.925.121.029.723.624.330.126.3
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Table 50.Thailand: Stock Market Indicators, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
Number of quoted companies276320369450485
Capitalization (billions of baht) 1/897.21,485.03,325.43,300.83,564.6
Percent of GDP35.852.5105.191.885.9
New capital raisings (billions of baht) 1/55.155.755.1137.2122.9
Trading value (billions of baht)793.11,860.12,201.12,113.91,535.0
Percent of capitalization88.4125.366.264.043.1
Foreign/total turnover (percent) 2/8.27.217.021.026.3
SET index (1975 = 100)711.4893.41,682.91,360.11,280.8
Percent change16.125.688.4-19.2-5.8
Average dividend yield (percent)3.592.912.011.862.25
Average price/earnings ratio15.5916.2926.0919.5119.75
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At market prices.

Since 1993, including transactions through sub-brokers.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At market prices.

Since 1993, including transactions through sub-brokers.

Table 51.Thailand: Balance of Payments, 1991-95(In millions of U.S. dollars)
19911992199319941995
Current account balance-7,383-6,088-6,126-7,801-13,127
Trade balance-9,507-7,871-8,516-8,730-14,845
Exports, f.o.b.28,33032,24436,55344,64956,036
Imports, c.i.f.37,83740,11545,06953,37970,881
Of which: Oil3,4293,2923,4083,6344,519
Services (net)1,8251,1371,640-1991,092
Receipts9,49810,82813,21114,21318,790
Payments7,6739,69111,57114,41217,698
Of which: Interest2,1102,2662,2292,7744,185
Transfers (net)2996467501,128626
Of which: Official11342336139
Nonmonetary capital movements (net)11,3379,65210,51512,18321,979
Medium- and long-term4,6974,2637,3964,6069,423
Private sector4,1293,9726,6474,6288,409
Direct investment (equity)1,2191,5481,2328131,137
Loans and credits2,7561,7451,8503,1604,172
Portfolio and other1546793,5656553,100
Public sector568291749-221,014
Public enterprises414501622192810
Central government154-210127-214204
Short-term capital6,6405,3893,1197,57712,556
Errors and omissions199-521-475-207-1,616
Overall balance4,1533,0433,9144,1757,236
Monetary movements-4,153-3,043-3,914-4,175-7,236
Monetary authorities-4,144-2,765-4,258-4,840-6,748
Net IMF accounts (increase -)-177-112-38-43-140
Monetary gold (increase -)6976-14319-16
Holdings of SDRs (increase -)4-4-11-10-13
Foreign exchange (increase -)-4,040-2,725-4,066-4,806-6,579
Valuation changes-9-278344665-488
Gold-69-76143-1916
Other60-202201684-504
Memorandum items:
Current account as percent of GDP-7.5-5.5-5.4-5.6-8.1
Gross reserves
(In billions of U.S. dollars)18.421.225.430.337.0
(In months of imports)5.86.36.86.86.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 52.Thailand: Quarterly Balance of Payments Estimates, 1994-95(In millions of U.S. dollars)
19941995
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV
Current account balance-1,105-2,680-1,859-2,157-2,374-3,923-2,944-3,886
Trade balance-2,106-2,399-1,740-2,485-3,434-3,704-3,172-4,535
Exports, fob.9,95510,66111,65512,37812,95913,73714,38414,956
Imports, c.i.f.12,06113,06013,39514,86316,39317,44117,55619,491
Of which: Oil7701,0069868721,1361,3121,0321,039
Services (net)615-626-26678989-452142413
Receipts3,6743,1443,3404,0554,9714,3394,3845,096
Payments3,0593,7703,6063,9773,9824,7914,2424,683
Of which: Interest6385787767829929491,1901,054
Transfers (net)3863451472507123386236
Of which: Official329713715710
Nonmonetary capital movements (net)2,1704,1133,2742,6263,2937,8565,1835,647
Medium- and long-term-817972,6081,2822,0443,2212,3371,821
Private sector-1538742,4861,4211,8632,8922,3141,340
Direct investment (equity)26014018922427940634418
Loans and credits4594421,0551,2048221,4811,422447
Portfolio and other-8722921,242-77621,005858475
Public sector72-77122-13918132923481
Public enterprises55147-100909925177383
Central government17-224222-2298278-5498
Short-term capital2,2513,3166661,3441,2494,6352,8463,826
Errors and omissions-1,319-2,724-1,765-2,200-3,695-3,243-3,519-4,286
Overall balance8511,3891,509426-4024,6131,6641,361
Monetary movements-851-1,389-1,509-426402-4,613-1,664-1,361
Monetary authorities-1,234-1,667-1,610-329159-4,838-908-1,161
Net IMF accounts (increase -)-1-361-7-123-35171
Monetary gold (increase -)00019000-16
Holdings of SDRs (increase -)-2-3-3-2-5-5-1-2
Foreign exchange (increase -)-1,231-1,628-1,608-339287-4,798-924-1,144
Valuation changes383278101-97243225-756-200
Gold000-1900016
Other383278101-78243225-756-216
Memorandum item:
Gross reserves
(In billions of U.S. dollars)26.728.330.030.330.135.035.937.0
(In months of imports)6.76.87.06.86.36.86.56.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 53.Thailand: Merchandise Exports, 1991-95(All values in millions of U.S. dollars; volumes in thousands of metric tons; and unit values in U.S. dollars per ton)
19911992199319941995
Total merchandise exports (value)28,60932,60937,12545,39657,033
Rice
Volume4,1654,8994,7784,8596,229
Value1,1991,4321,3051,5641,973
Unit value287.9292.3273.1321.8316.7
Rubber
Volume1,2591,4641,4931,7091,734
Value9831,1441,1571,6692,442
Unit value780.8781.4774.9976.51,408.2
Maize
Volume1,234147213145116
Value15421292324
Unit value124.8142.9136.2161.8203.1
Tin (metal)
Volume67433
Value3443221517
Unit value5.76.15.55.06.4
Tapioca products
Volume7,0449,1057,3425,6684,064
Value9601,171863749726
Unit value136.3128.6117.5132.2178.7
Sugar
Volume2,9003,7572,2192,6113,733
Value5837454826861,153
Unit value201.0198.3217.2262.9308.8
Shrimp
Volume114130149175174
Value1,0481,2521,5021,9612,024
Unit value9,193.09,630.810,080.511,208.511,634.0
Manufacturing
Volume (1990 = 100)122.3138.9164.8199.3238.8
Value21,16824,34429,37236,13745,642
Unit value (1990 = 100)104.3105.6107.4109.3115.3
Of which:
Textile products (value)4,3054,4224,6275,3265,709
Integrated circuits (value)9891,1331,4091,8082,426
Other exports (value)2,4802,4572,3932,5913,032
Agriculture1,0031,1261,0361,1651,279
Fishing670678710749841
Mining262226193257297
Re-exports and other545427454420615
Adjustment for BOP basis-279-365-572-746-997
Merchandise exports, f.o.b.28,33032,24436,55344,65056,036
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 54.Thailand: Manufactured Exports, 1991-95(In millions of U.S. dollars)
19911992199319941995
Total21,75125,08929,85436,82346,795
Textile and footwear products5,6315,8966,2457,5378,702
Electrical appliances, etc. 1/3,5694,3335,0986,8188,448
Machinery and mechanical appliance 2/2,4932,9973,8224,9266,908
Precious stones and jewellery1,4121,4471,6271,7832,112
Base metal products5816147649861,388
Furniture and parts536596664779831
Plastic products5106041,5641,2112,553
Canned food 3/1,5211,5361,5701,8471,918
Sugar and molasses6397935057311,222
Rubber products280362451511822
Vehicle parts and accessories145250524797666
Optical appliances and instruments101201311441508
Travel goods268308356421457
Clocks, watches, and parts297337288392469
Toys, games, and sport requisites468623584638712
Others 4/3,3004,1925,4817,0059,079
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes integrated circuits, telecommunications equipment, appliances, transformers, generators and motors, and insulated electrical wires.

Includes computers and parts, and ball bearings.

Includes canned fish, crustaceans, pineapple, and pet food.

Includes chemical products, leather products, artificial flowers, and other manufactured exports.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes integrated circuits, telecommunications equipment, appliances, transformers, generators and motors, and insulated electrical wires.

Includes computers and parts, and ball bearings.

Includes canned fish, crustaceans, pineapple, and pet food.

Includes chemical products, leather products, artificial flowers, and other manufactured exports.

Table 55.Thailand: Value and Volume of Imports by Economic Classification, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total38,50740,93746,01554,83571,843