Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Malaysia

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
November 1996
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Table 1.Malaysia: Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product in 1978 Prices, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of ringgit)
Domestic demand87,87791,725100,203113,292129,787
Consumption56,45058,86562,69167,49375,332
Private43,50745,40147,78851,12157,230
Public12,94313,46414,90316,37218,102
Investment31,42732,86037,51245,79954,455
Private21,33922,74724,78031,09336,062
Public10,01311,13013,13214,52018,229
Change in stocks75-1,017-400186164
Net exports-1,7281,141414-3,377-9,471
Exports72,53576,30387,426105,455122,482
Imports74,26375,16287,012108,832131,953
Gross domestic product86,14992,866100,617109,915120,316
Net factor payments from abroad-4,638-5,199-5,320-5,915-6,787
Gross national product81,51187,66795,297104,000113,529
(Annual percentage change)
Domestic demand15.64.49.213.114.6
Consumption10.24.36.57.711.6
Private9.54.45.37.012.0
Public12.44.010.79.910.6
Investment26.94.614.222.118.9
Private27.76.68.925.516.0
Public9.211.218.010.625.5
Change in stocks 1/1.4-1.20.60.50.0
Net exports 1/-5.93.1-0.7-3.4-5.1
Exports15.25.214.620.616.1
Imports24.51.215.825.121.2
Gross domestic product8.67.88.39.29.5
Net factor payments from abroad35.412.12.311.214.7
Gross national product7.47.68.79.19.2
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities

Annual change as a percent of GDP.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities

Annual change as a percent of GDP.

Table 2.Malaysia: Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product in Current Prices, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of ringgit)
Domestic demand134,327144,690161,291187,676220,689
Consumption88,02195,386104,519115,904133,653
Private69,60976,04682,91391,968106,407
Public18,41219,34021,60623,93627,246
Investment46,30649,30456,77271,77287,036
Private31,43234,04137,48948,71057,652
Public14,74916,65619,86722,74729,143
Change in stocks125-1,393-584315241
Net exports-4,9462,047488-1,984-6,961
Exports104,740114,153132,423166,515201,522
Imports109,686112,106131,935168,499208,483
Gross domestic product129,381146,737161,779185,692213,728
Net factor payments from abroad-6,800-8,006-8,256-9,328-11,255
Gross national product122,581138,731153,523176,364202,473
(Annual percentage change)
Domestic demand18.67.711.516.417.6
Consumption14.18.49.610.915.3
Private14.39.29.010.915.7
Public13.65.011.710.813.8
Investment28.16.515.126.421.3
Private29.88.310.129.918.4
Public11.012.919.314.528.1
Change in stocks 1/1.1-1.00.50.50.0
Net exports 1/-5.74.8-1.0-1.3-2.3
Exports18.59.016.025.721.0
Imports27.72.217.727.723.7
Gross domestic product11.813.410.314.815.1
Net factor payments from abroad34.317.73.113.020.7
Gross national product10.813.210.714.914.8
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Annual change as a percent of GDP.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Annual change as a percent of GDP.

Table 3.Malaysia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin in 1978 Prices, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of ringgit)
Primary sector22,77223,60624,24424,28925,344
Apiculture, forestry, and fishing14,82815,53116,20516,04716,406
Mining and quarrying7,9448,0758,0398,2428,938
Secondary sector27,54730,47834,34739,37145,102
Manufacturing24,30726,85930,32434,78239,825
Construction3,2403,6194,0234,5895,277
Tertiary sector35,83038,78242,02646,25549,870
Electricity, gas, and water1,6971,9312,1762,4742,823
Transport, storage, and communications6,0796,4816,9227,7768,787
Wholesale and retail trade10,06811,19112,42813,42714,568
Business services 1/8,7339,64410,65011,71312,884
Government services8,7689,20110,07311,02211,683
Other services 2/485334-223-157-875
Gross domestic product86,14992,866100,617109,915120,316
(Annual percentage change)
Primary sector0.83.72.70.24.3
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing0.04.74.3-1.02.2
Mining and quarrying2.41.6-0.42.58.4
Secondary sector14.010.612.714.614.6
Manufacturing13.910.512.914.714.5
Construction14.411.711.214.115.0
Tertiary sector10.08.28.410.17.8
Electricity, gas, and water11.213.812.713.714.1
Transport, storage, and communications10.86.66.812.313.0
Wholesale and retail trade14.311.211.18.08.5
Business services 1/12.610.410.410.010.0
Government services3.84.99.59.46.0
Other services 2/-11.7-31.1-166.8-29.6457.3
Gross domestic product8.67.88.39.29.5
(Percent of GDP)
Primary sector26.425.424.122.121.1
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing17.216.716.114.613.6
Mining and quarrying9.28.78.07.57.4
Secondary sector32.032.834.135.837.5
Manufacturing28.228.930.131.633.1
Construction3.83.94.04.24.4
Tertiary sector41.641.841.842.141.4
Electricity, gas, and water2.02.12.22.32.3
Transport, storage, and communications7.17.06.97.17.3
Wholesale and retail trade11.712.112.412.212.1
Business services 1/10.110.410.610.710.7
Government services10.29.910.010.09.7
Other services 2/0.60.4-0.2-0.1-0.7
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Finance, insurance, real estate, and business services.

Community, social and personal services, private nonprofit services to households and domestic services of households, less imputed bank service changes and plus import duties.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Finance, insurance, real estate, and business services.

Community, social and personal services, private nonprofit services to households and domestic services of households, less imputed bank service changes and plus import duties.

Table 4.Malaysia: Composition of Investment and Saving, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of ringgit)
Gross domestic investment46,30649,30456,77271,77287,036
Private grots fixed capital formation31,43234,04137,48948,71057,652
Oil and gas3,0283,2513,1643,6752,825
Other28,40430,79034,32545,03554,827
Public grots fixed capital formation14,74916,65619,86722,74729,143
Federal government4,2884,8385,2945,7137,184
Statutory bodies1,4351,6991,5901,6351,664
State governments2,7413,1872,7903,0863,549
Local governments4265145698411,035
Public enterprises5,8596,4189,62411,47215,711
Change in stocks125-1393-584315241
Gross domestic saving34,66243,68249,38860,77469,221
Private sector14,47823,18426,10231,45739,163
Public sector20,18420,49823,28629,31730,058
(Percent of GDP)
Gross domestic investment35.833.635.138.740.7
Private gross fixed capital formation24.323.223.226.227.0
Oil and gas2.32.22.02.01.3
Other22.021.021.224325.7
Public gross fixed capital formation11.411.412.112.713.6
Federal government3.33.33.33.13.4
Statutory bodies1.11.21.00.90.8
State governments2.12.21.71.71.7
Local governments0.30.40.40.50.5
Public enterprises4.54.45.96.27.4
Change in stocks0.1-0.9-0.40.20.1
Gross domestic saving26.829.830.532.732.4
Private sector11.215.816.116.918.3
Public sector15.614.014.415.814.1
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 5.Malaysia: Production of Major Primary Products, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In thousands of metric tons)
Output
Rubber1,2561,1731,0741,0101,089
Palm oil6,1416,3747,4047,2207,811
Palm kernel oil7828129669781037
Cocoa230220200177.1131.5
Paddy 1/1,9572,0701,9172,095
Tin (concentrate)21141076.4
Tin metal4346403839.4
Bauxite37633167162184.4
Iron ore375320223230182
Copper9811210010687.7
(In thousands of barrels per day)
Crude oil 2/649659648662
(In thousands of cubic meters)
Saw logs39,86043,51137,26035,67231,572
Sawn timber6,1416,3747,4047,2209,056
(In thousands of hectares)
Area under cultivation
Rubber1,8191,7921,7681,7471,727
Palm oil2,0942,1972,3062,3592,516
Paddy 1/738670663689
(In kilogram per hectare)
Yields
Rubber1,0119881,000985980
Palm oil3,5453,4303,7773,4263,505
Paddy 1/2,7343,1452,8932,809
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

1995 and 1996 production is under the purview of the Ministry of Agriculture.

1995 and 1996 production is under the purview of the Prime Minister’s Department.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

1995 and 1996 production is under the purview of the Ministry of Agriculture.

1995 and 1996 production is under the purview of the Prime Minister’s Department.

Table 6.Peninsular Malaysia: Industrial Production Index, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
(Index numbers: 1988 = 100)
Total139.5151.5166.2186.1203.9
Mining118.9122.1123.6128.1136.0
Electricity144.1164.2184.4209.9232.5
Manufacturing150.4166.2187.6215.2246.4260.0
Food118.5130.9139.0145.7151.4148.7
Beverages127.7133.7118.7137.5145.5165.2
Tobacco110.1104.597.696.999.596.2
Textiles141.6164.4214.7267.5298.4320.6
Wearing apparel120.8126.4127.6126.1118.7119.6
Petroleum refineries126.0130.6141.5162.4189.0195.2
Industrial chemicals122.9126.3133.4143.8160.0212.6
Other chemical152.0173.8189.7218.7207.4193.0
Wood products140.4155.7190.1204.5219.1216.2
Rubber products172.1198.8251.3286.4318.9335.0
Nonmetallic minerals185.1203.0212.5237.1257.0278.7
Iron and steel154.9184.2207.5240.6272.6300.8
Nonferrous metal114.1132.9138.0151.7163.7152.1
Fabricated metal137.0196.3309.3412.6582.3617.1
Electrical machinery and electronics203.3226.7264.1317.4383.3399.6
Transport equipment215.0201.7208.7237.9295.2298.2
(Annual percentage change)
Total11.28.69.712.09.6
Mining5.12.71.23.66.2
Electricity13.213.912313.810.8
Manufacturing13.910.512.914.714.513.7
Food13.310.56.24.83.9-1.5
Beverages1.84.7-11.215.85.821.8
Tobacco1.1-5.1-6.6-0.72.71.7
Textiles5.916.130.624.611.616.4
Wearing apparel0.34.60.9-1.2-5.90.1
Petroleum refineries6.33.78.314.816.48.5
Industrial chemicals15.62.85.67.811.349.7
Other chemical10.51439.1153-5.2-1.4
Wood products5.210.922.17.67.112.5
Rubber products19.815.526.414.011313.1
Nonmetallic minerals18.79.74.711.68.411.5
Iron and steel13.418.912.616.013.311.2
Nonferrous metal-1.016.53.89.97.9-2.3
Fabricated metal18.743.357.633.441.124.4
Electrical machinery and electronics28.811.516.520.220.813.0
Transport equipment17.0-6.23.514.024.114.6
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 7.Malaysia: Total Proposed Capital Investment in Approved Manufacturing Projects, by Type of Ownership, 1991–95 1/
19911992199319941995
(In millions of ringgit)
Foreign ownership8,15911,6233,7138,3506,409
Joint ownership18,71514,4816,52010,1178,591
Malaysian majority8,5199,2904,3777,5126,240
Foreign majority9,5265,1252,0842,5102,215
Equal ownership670665995136
Malaysian ownership3,9441,6713,5204,4845,865
Total30,81827,77513,75322,95120,865
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes equity and loans.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes equity and loans.

Table 8.Malaysia: Labor Market Developments, 1991–95
19911992199319941995
(In thousands)
Population18,18118,76219,20719,85020,103
Total labor force7,2047,3707,6277,8468,060
Labor force participant rate (in percent)66.666.766.866.967.0
Unemployment rate (in percent)4.33.73.02.92.8
Total employment6,8917,0967,3967,6187,832
Primary sector1,7161,6211,6141,5561,519
Agriculture, forestry, and fishery1,6801,5151,5771,5181,480
Mining and quarrying3636373839
Secondary sector1,9352,1462,2872,4722,633
Manufacturing1,4701,6391,7421,8781,997
Construction465507545594636
Tertiary sector3,2403,3293,4963,5903,680
Transport, etc.314326344362387
Wholesale and retail services1,3141,3821,2921,3181,347
Business services 1/279300332346362
Government services854858864868872
Electricity, gas and water4647486163
Other services 2/433416616635649
(Annual percentage change)
Total labor force2.32.33.52.92.1
Total employment11.93.04.23.02.8
Primary sector-3.3-5.5-0.5-3.6-2.4
Agriculture, forestry, and fishery-3.3-5.7-0.5-3.7-2.5
Mining and quarrying-2.70.02.82.72.6
Secondary sector10.110.96.68.16.5
Manufacturing10.311.56.37.86.3
Construction9.79.07.59.07.1
Tertiary sector23.32.75.02.12.5
Transport, etc.4.03.85.55.26.9
Wholesale and retail services7.95.2-6.52.02.2
Business services 1/8.17.510.64.34.6
Government services2.22.127.13.3
Electricity, gas and water2.22.127.13.3
Other services 2/-3.948.13.12.2
(Percentage share of total employment)
Total employment100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Primary sector24.922.821.820.419.4
Agriculture, forestry, and fishery24.422.321.319.918.9
Mining and quarrying0.50.50.50.50.5
Secondary sector28.130.230.932.433.6
Manufacturing21.323.123.624.725.5
Construction6.77.17.47.88.1
Tertiary sector47.046.947.347.147.0
Transport, etc.4.64.64.74.84.9
Wholesale and retail services19.119.517.517.317.2
Business services 1/4.04.24.54.54.6
Government services12.412.111.711.411.21
Electricity, gas and water0.70.70.60.80.8
Other services 2/6.35.98.38.38.3
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Finance, insurance, real estate, and business services.

Includes hotels and restaurants, and other services.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Finance, insurance, real estate, and business services.

Includes hotels and restaurants, and other services.

Table 9.Malaysia: Registered Unemployed by Occupation, 1991–95
19911992199319941995
(Number of registered unemployed persons)
Total50,15942,34431,61726,44525,676
Industrial17,51115,15011,3659,1989,371
Agricultural452319193132154
Services1,6701,189835584616
Clerical23,29919,83515,90913,58912,864
Professional and technical5,6074,5212,5582,1492,029
Others1,6201,330757793642
(Percentage share of total registered unemployed)
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Industrial34.935.835.934.836.5
Agricultural0.90.80.60.50.6
Services3.32.82.62.22.4
Clerical46.546.850.351.450.1
Professional and technical11.210.78.18.17.9
Others3.23.12.43.02.5
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 10.Malaysia: Average Wage Rates in Selected Sectors, 1991–95 1/
1991199219931994 2/1995 3/
(In ringgit)
Estate workers17.8317.6419.1021.10
Harvesting12.0013.8013.0017.50
Sorting12.6011.7613.0015.10
Mining
Food manufacturing, beverages, tobacco industries14.0920.5024.01
Textile, weaving, etc., industries15.4019.9631.09
Wood and wood products, paper printing industries16.4821.8023.97
Chemical, petroleum, coal industries19.2117.3032.19
Nonmetallic, mineral industries16.3719.1922.53
Basic metal, metal products18.9914.2225.92
Wood products and other manufactures12.6915.6018.72
Manufacturing average
Hotel and lodging
Bus transport20.68
(Percentage change)
Estate workers-1.1-1.18.310.5
Harvesting-7.615.0-5.834.6
Sorting10.5-6.710.516.2
Mining
Food manufacturing, beverages, tobacco industries45.517.1
Textile, weaving, etc., industries29.655.8
Wood and wood products, paper printing industries32.310.0
Chemical, petroleum, coal industries-9.986.1
Nonmetallic, mineral industries17.217.4
Basic metal, metal products-25.182.3
Wood products and other manufactures22.920.0
Manufacturing average
Hotel and lodging
Bus transport
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

For supervised personnel.

No survey was done in 1994.

Most 1995 survey data are still being processed; 1995 percentage changes are over 1993 levels.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

For supervised personnel.

No survey was done in 1994.

Most 1995 survey data are still being processed; 1995 percentage changes are over 1993 levels.

Table 11.Malaysia: Average Domestic Prices and Taxes on Energy-Related Products, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
(Cents per liter, unless otherwise indicated)
Crude oil
Excise duty0.000.000.000.000.000.00
Import duty0.000.000.000.000.000.00
Gasoline regular 1/
Price106.00106.00106.00106.00106.00106.00
Excise duty47.3351.7254.8558.6258.6258.62
Import duty47.3351.7254.8558.6258.6258.62
Gasoline premium 1/
Price113.00113.00113.00113.00110.00110.00
Excise duty47.3351.7254.8558.6258.6258.62
Import duty47.3351.7254.8558.6258.6258.62
Kerosene 2/
Price66.1066.1066.1066.1066.1066.10
Excise duty7.6211.3313.2917.060.000.00
Import duty7.6211.3313.2917.060.000.00
Diesel oil
Price65.1065.1065.1065.1065.1065.10
Excise duty6.8010.8213.2317.3219.6419.64
Import duty6.8010.8213.2317.3219.6419.64
Fuel oil 2/
Price 3/
Excise duty (in tons)16.7316.7316.7316.730.000.00
Import duty (in tons)16.7316.7316.7316.730.000.00
Natural gas
Price 3/
Excise duty (cents/kg.)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
Import duty (cents/kg.)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Effective from January 1, 1995, there are only two grades of petrol available at petrol stations, i.e., leaded petrol (RON 97).

Duties on kerosene and fuel oil had been abolished on October 10, 1994.

Prices of feul oil and natural gas (liquefied) are not available.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Effective from January 1, 1995, there are only two grades of petrol available at petrol stations, i.e., leaded petrol (RON 97).

Duties on kerosene and fuel oil had been abolished on October 10, 1994.

Prices of feul oil and natural gas (liquefied) are not available.

Table 12.Malaysia: Consumer Price Index, 1991–96 1/
Weights19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2
(Index numbers; 1994=100)
Food34.987.292.895.0100.0104.999.599.199.9101.6103.9104.2104.9106.5108.8110.2
Beverages and tobacco3.676.483.095.3100.0102.499.299.5100.4100.9100.8102.2103.1103.3103.2104.5
Clothing and footwear3.697.4100.3100.8100.0100.0100.099.9100.299.9100.3100.1100.199.499.599.5
Gross rent, fuel, and power21.291.094.497.7100.0103.498.699.6100.3101.6102.3103.0103.7104.5105.4106.3
Furniture and household equipment5.694.697.198.4100.0102.899.699.8100.2100.3100.4102.6103.9104.0103.9103.8
Medical care and health expenses1.988.992.096.7100.0103.198.599.6100.6101.4101.9102.9103.5104.0105.6106.4
Transport and communications17.986.790.595.6100.0101.899.499.8100.2100.7101.0101.5102.1102.7103.1103.5
Recreation, education, cultural services5.896.198.999.3100.0102.599.799.8100.2100.2101.8102.3102.9103.1105.5106.1
Miscellaneous5.693.095.197.7100.0104.298.097.8101.9102.3103.4103.9104.6104.9106.1106.8
Total100.188.993.196.4100.0103.499.299.3100.2101.2102.4103.0103.7104.6105.9106.8
(Average annual percentage change)(12-month percentage change)
Food4.96.42.35.34.86.84.94.75.04.45.15.04.84.75.8
Beverages and tobacco7.88.614.84.92.44.24.45.25.81.62.72.72.42.42.3
Clothing and footwear6.23.00.5-0.80.0-0.8-1.0-0.8-0.50.30.2-0.1-0.5-0.8-0.6
Gross rent, fuel, and power3.03.73.52.43.32.12.22.23.13.83.43.42.93.03.2
Furniture and household equipment4.42.61.41.62.82.31.81.20.90.82.83.73.73.41.1
Medical care and health expenses5.33.55.13.43.03.63.13.33.73.53.32.92.63.63.4
Transport and communications4.24.45.64.61.84.64.74.94.21.61.71.92.02.12.0
Recreation, education, cultural services2.62.90.40.62.60.40.61.10.62.12.52.72.93.63.7
Miscellaneous3.62.32.72.44.21.60.73.63.65.56.22.62.52.62.8
Total4.44.73.63.73.44.13.33.63.83.23.73.53.43.43.6
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

New weights apply in 1995. Figures for 1991–95 have been revised based on 1994 base year.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

New weights apply in 1995. Figures for 1991–95 have been revised based on 1994 base year.

Table 13.Malaysia: Producer Price Index, 1991–96 1/
Weights199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2
(Index numbers, 1989 = 100)
Food14.9105.0111.0113.6109.7110.3111.7112.2113.0112.3114.7114.9116.9119.8
Beverages and tobacco2.1131.0133.7136.7131.4133.5134.9134.9135.8136.4137.1137.5137.4137.4
Crude materials18.0103.1113.4121.3107.6112.9115.6117.4122.5124.2120.0118.4121.9123.1
Mineral fuels18.8104.7100.099.798.598.7101.4101.2100.7100.799.098.9106.9110.0
Animal and vegetable oils8.5102.0121.5153.0110.2119.3126.1130.2156.2156.4150.8148.6145.5147.3
Chemicals4.4106.6107.0109.3106.9106.9106.9107.2108.6109.7109.8109.6110.4110.9
Manufactured goods, n.e.i.10.8109.0112.4112.3112.7112.3112.1112.4111.1112.2112.5113.3113.3113.4
Machinery and transport equipment18.4102.5102.9101.0103.9103.3102.0102.3102.5101.699.8100.3101.3101.2
Miscellaneous goods3.6108.3114.1116.7114.2114.5114.0113.8114.9115.7117.7118.5120.6120.9
Communication and transport0.6111.2113.1112.7113.1112.9113.2113.2112.7112.7112.5112.7113.0113.0
Total100.0105.1109.3113.6107.0108.8110.3111.1114.3114.4113.0112.9115.3116.7
Domestic production79.3105.4110.7115.9107.9110.0111.9112.9116.5116.8115.4115.1118.1119.9
Imports20.7103.7103.9104.6103.7104.1103.9103.8105.5105.0103.8104.0104.2104.5
(Average annual percentage change)(12-month percentage change)
Food5.72.45.14.96.85.93.01.82.22.43.56.7
Beverages and tobacco2.02.31.91.32.62.53.32.21.61.91.20.7
Crude materials10.07.04.37.412.0-6.613.810.03.80.9-0.5-0.9
Mineral fuels-4.5-0.3-8.3-8.6-2.62.22.21.5-2.4-236.29.8
Animal and vegetable oils19.126.00.712.929.135.841.731.119.614.1-6.9-5.8
Chemicals0.42.20.10.40.40.41.62.22.72.71.71.6
Manufactured goods, n.e.i.3.1-0.13.02.82.93.4-1.4-0.10.40.82.01.1
Machinery and transport equipment0.4-1.81.51.0-0.7-0.3-1.4-1.6-2.2-2.0-1.1-0.4
Miscellaneous goods5.42.35.25.65.35.40.61.03.74.15.04.5
Communication and transport1.7-0.43.01.51.01.34.4-0.2-0.6-0.40.30.3
Total4.03.90.82.35.47.86.85.12.41.60.92.0
Domestic production5.04.71.12.86.79.58.06.23.11.91.42.7
Imports0.20.7-0.30.10.40.61.70.9-0.10.7-1.2-0.5
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

New weights apply in 1996. Figures for 1993–95 have been revised based on 1989 base year.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

New weights apply in 1996. Figures for 1993–95 have been revised based on 1989 base year.

Table 14.Malaysia: Federal Government Revenue and Grants, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Tax revenue26,96930,19833,23439,01343,29747,410
Taxes on net income and profits12,39714,38615,66117,40820,13621,170
Oil production companies4,0523,4172,8592,2102,1372,040
Petronas2,7072,2831,9131,4131,6721,582
Other oil companies1,3451,134946797465458
Other companies5,3527,5248,55110,56211,70712,589
Individuals2,9893,4414,2484,5676,2036,462
Other 1/443698979
Taxes on property118231177219281206
Taxes on goods and services7,4698,4109,98611,90514,02016,180
Sales tax2,7633,0823,4684,1324,8685,621
Imported goods9741,1121,3431,5471,6641,977
Domestic goods1,7891,9702,1252,5853,2043,644
Selective excises on goods2,8493,0623,7124,2985,2715,827
Tobacco and alcoholic beverages5907008879131,0551,144
Petroleum products9431,1381,4231,6201,8992,030
Motor vehicle tax1,2491,1451,3261,6972,2802,600
Other677976683753
Selective excises on services1,8572,2662,8063,4753,8814,732
Motor vehicle tax1,0121,0701,1521,3131,4961,785
Taxes on international trade6,1366,0726,0306,8006,4747,383
Import duties4,1074,3834,5665,6425,6216,491
Tobacco and alcoholic beverages315358295332366418
Petroleum products1,0291,1601,4611,7301,5461,698
Other import duties2,7632,6652,8103,5603,7094,375
Export duties2,0291,6891,4641,158853892
Petroleum1,9001,6461,4291,098751790
Palm oil467287446
Other1253728322856
Other tax revenue 2/8491,0991,3802,6812,3862,571
Nontax revenue7,4598,9348,73510,6557,5596,718
Property income6,1067,8167,2058,3275,5534,498
Public financial institutions8201,0105013822
Rent and interest 3/1,8112,9322,8634,5631,7411,565
Dividends paid by Petronas2,6003,1003,1003,1003,1002,000
Petroleum royalties875774741626710931
Administrative fees and charges on sale of goods, fines, and forfeit9089871,4132,1261,6922,075
Contributions to pension fund12300000
Other nontax revenue322131117202314145
Capital revenue305737748695
Total revenue34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Foreign grants000000
Total revenue and grants34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
In percent of GDP:
Tax revenue20.820.620.521.020.319.7
Nontax revenue5.86.15.45.73.52.8
Total revenue26.626.726.026.823.822.5
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of income taxes on cooperatives and other direct taxes.

Excludes expenditure refunds and net lending.

Excludes revenue from sales of shares.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of income taxes on cooperatives and other direct taxes.

Excludes expenditure refunds and net lending.

Excludes revenue from sales of shares.

Table 15.Malaysia: Economic Classification of Federal Government Expenditure and Net Lending, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Current expenditure 1/29,80133,18133,03236,22237,89539,439
On personnel, goods, and services14,16116,65216,86815,84120,48521,721
Wages and salaries9,94411,66011,80312,61813,09613,791
Other goods and services 2/4,9174,9925,0656,2237,3897,930
Interest payments 3/7,0417,3047,1666,5156,5216,708
Subsidies and other current transfers7,8929,2258,99810,56610,88911,010
Transfers to state governments1,3331,2191,3021,4401,4101,528
Pensions1,8152,1832,3202,7372,7553,981
Other current transfers 4/4,7445,8235,3766,3896,7245,501
Development expenditure7,7897,5918,7455,93311,11710,718
Direct development expenditure6,9547,3508,0778,63411,01710,552
Net lending 5/135241668299100166
Adjustment for accounts payable145-263-57-655-6490
Total expenditure and net lending37,73540,50941,72044,50048,36350,157
(In percent of total expenditure and net lending)
Current expenditure 1/79.081.979.251.478.478.6
Expenditure on goods and services39.441.140.442.342.443.3
Wages and salaries26.428.828.328.427.127.5
Other goods and services 2/13.011.312.114.015.315.8
Interest payments 3/18.718.017.215.313.513.4
Subsidies and other currant transfers20.922.821.623.722.522.0
Transfers to state governments3.53.03.13.22.93.0
Pensions4.85.45.66.25.77.9
Other current transfers 4/12.614.412.914.413.911.0
Development expenditure20.618.721.020.123.021.4
Direct development expenditure18.418.119.419.422.821.0
Net lending 5/2.20.61.60.70.20.3
Adjustment for accounts payable0.4-0.6-0.1-1.5-1.30.0
(In percent of GDP)
Current expenditure23.022.620.419.517.716.3
Expenditure on goods and services3.83.43.13.43.53.3
Wages and salaries7.77.97.36.86.15.7
Direct development expenditure5.45.05.04.65.24.4
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes expenditure refunds.

Includes defense expenditures shown in the development budget and some net lending shown in the current budget.

Excludes contributions to the sinking funds.

Consists of subsidies, indemnities, refunds and write-offs, transfers to statutory bodies (excluding emoluments), and other transfers.

Includes repayments of loans from revenue and loan funds.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes expenditure refunds.

Includes defense expenditures shown in the development budget and some net lending shown in the current budget.

Excludes contributions to the sinking funds.

Consists of subsidies, indemnities, refunds and write-offs, transfers to statutory bodies (excluding emoluments), and other transfers.

Includes repayments of loans from revenue and loan funds.

Table 16.Malaysia: Functional Classification of Federal Government Expenditure and Net Lending, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
General Services22,90125,97827,12730,04833,60434,704
General public services5,2216,3556,5846,4989,1978,657
General administration3,2633,8864,1474,2056,4265,949
Internal security1,9582,4692,4372,2932,7712,708
Defense4,3234,5004,9515,5656,1216,535
Education7,0678,0598,53810,10810,60311,348
Health2,0352,4142,4072,5292,7723,071
Social security 1/1,8152,1832,3202,7372,7553,581
Housing and community developments2,4402,4672,3272,6112,1561,112
Thereof: Community and social securities1,1981,6131,4371,7021,425208
Economic services7,1648,0027,7768,9499,3099,320
Agriculture, forestry, and rural development2,3452,3892,4422,5362,4952,686
Transport and communication2,6253,5173,1643,7304,1913,405
Other economic services 2/2,1942,0961,8702,6832,6233,229
Unallocable7,5256,7926,8746,1586,0996,133
Public debt interest7,0487,3047,1666,8156,5216,708
Transfers to state governments1,3331,2191,3021,4401,4101,528
Others 3/-856-1,731-1,594-2,097-1,832-2,103
Adjustment for accounts payable145-263-57-655-6490
Total expenditure and net lending37,73540,50941,72044,50048,36350,157
Memorandum item:
Public debt Interest/GDP (percent)5.45.04.43.73.12.8
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes government pensions.

Includes general administration, regulations and research, mining, manufacturing and construction, and utilities.

Includes expenditure refunds and net lending items.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes government pensions.

Includes general administration, regulations and research, mining, manufacturing and construction, and utilities.

Includes expenditure refunds and net lending items.

Table 17.Malaysia: Federal Budgetary Developments, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In million of ringgit)
Total revenue and grants34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Tax revenue26,96930,19833,23439,01343,29747,510
Nonpetroleum tax revenue19,04522,63726,06232,33536,96440,952
Taxes on net income and profits 1/8,46311,20012,97915,41718,28019,336
Sales tax and excises 2/7,3758,3719,94312,96614,50716,721
Taxes on international trade3,2073,0663,1403,9524,1774,895
Petroleum tax revenue7,9247,5617,1726,6786,3336,558
Oil production companies4,0523,4172,8592,2102,1372,040
Excises and duties3,8724,1444,3134,4684,1964,518
Nontax revenue7,4898,9918,77210,7297,6456,813
Petroleum3,4753,8743,8413,7263,8102,931
Other3/4,0145,1174,9317,0033,8353,882
Total expenditure and net lending37,73540,50941,72044,50048,36350,157
Current expenditure29,80133,18133,03236,22237,89539,139
Wages and salaries9,94411,66011,80312,61813,09613,791
Other expenditure on goods and services4,9174,9925,0656,2237,3897,930
Interest payments7,0487,3047,1666,8156,5216,708
Subsidies and transfers7,8929,2258,99810,56610,88911,010
Development expenditure7,9347,3288,6888,27810,46810,718
Direct expenditure6,9547,3508,0778,63411,01710,552
Net lending 4/980-22611-356-549166
Overall balance-3,277-1,3202865,2422,5794,166
Memorandam items:
Current balance4,6275,9518,93713,14612,96114,789
Primary balances 5/3,7715,9847,45212,0579,10010,874
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenues26.626.726.026.823.822.5
Total expenditures29.227.625.824.022.620.8
Overall balance-2.5-0.90.22.8121.7
Current balance3.64.15.57.26.16.1
Primary balance2.94.14.66.5434.5
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes taxes on property.

Includes “other tax revenue.”

Inchides capital revenue and foreign grants.

Includes adjustment for accounts payable.

Overall balance plus interest payments.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes taxes on property.

Includes “other tax revenue.”

Inchides capital revenue and foreign grants.

Includes adjustment for accounts payable.

Overall balance plus interest payments.

Table 18.Malaysia: Federal Government Operations, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Total revenue (grants are zero)34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Revenue34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Transfers from:000000
Statutory bodies000000
State governments000000
Local governments000000
NFPEs000000
Total expenditure and net lending37,73540,50941,72044,50048,36350,157
Current expenditure 1/29,80133,18133,03236,22237,89539,439
Transfers to:4,0583,8874,3114,5404,4414,644
Statutory bodies2,6802,6032,9323,0362,9533,021
State governments1,3331,2191,3021,4401,4101,528
Statutory grants742798836641915936
Other grants591421466799495592
Local governments456577647895
NFPEs000000
Direct development expenditure6,9547,3508,0778,63411,01710,552
Transfers to:2,7151,8201,3891,6762,2661,496
Statutory bodies2,0141,3781,0341,4821,587946
State governments 2/447365758080
Local governments1715576935940
NFPEs64021421426540430
Net lending835241668299100166
Net loans to:-449-200-10261158-112
Statutory bodies11033-51654343
State governments44290124261290290
Local governments-13-13-13-8-7-7
NFPEs-590-510-208-357-168-438
Adjustments for accounts payable145-263-57-655-6490
Overall balance-3,277-1,3202865,2422,5794,166
Financing (net)3,2771,320-286-5,242-2,579-4,166
External (net)117-3,168-3,135-4,757-1,635
Project loans-56-184-1,199-429-534
Market loans339-2,858-1,824-4,328-1,101
Other-166-126-11200
Domestic (net)3,1604,4882,849-485-944
Banking system-1,380-206625-3,125-1,777
Central bank-1,182-3821,634-2,748-387
Claims on federal government 3/-1,070-1,050-1065261,175
Deposits by federal government 3/-1126681,740-3,274-1,562
Commercial banks-198176-1,009-376-1,391
Claims on federal government 3/349-996-63448-945
Deposits by federal govern 3/-5471,172-375413-446
Nonbanks4,5404,6942,2242,640833
Employees Provident Fund2,7481,812-41,007-1,123
Petronas100-5020-301-44
Insurance companies 4/8578601,130609898
Other8362,5251,5131,3251,102
Memorandum items:
Current balance4,6275,9518,93713,44612,96114,789
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)-2.5-0.90.22.81.21.7
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Excludes net tending shown in the current budget.

Includes reimbursements to state governments.

Net of claims and deposits from Pension Trust Fund (which are included in monetary survey figures).

Insurance companies are currently required to hold 25 percent of assets in government securities.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Excludes net tending shown in the current budget.

Includes reimbursements to state governments.

Net of claims and deposits from Pension Trust Fund (which are included in monetary survey figures).

Insurance companies are currently required to hold 25 percent of assets in government securities.

Table 19.Malaysia: Operations of Statutory Bodies, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Total revenue7,0416,9936,9897,5007,6397,141
Own revenue2,3473,0123,0232,9823,0993,174
Transfers from:4,6943,9813,9664,5184,5403,967
Federal government4,6943,9813,9664,5184,3403,967
State governments000000
Local governments000000
NFPEs000000
Total expenditure4,1176,7906,6556,1376,3916,701
Operating expenditure2,6824,1884,3974,5024,7274,963
Transfers to:000000
Federal government000000
State governments000000
Local governments000000
NFPEs000000
Development expenditure1,4352,6022,2581,6351,6641,738
Overall balance2,9242033341,3631,248440
Financing (net)-2,924-203-334-1,363-1,248-440
External-283-221-187-165-150-166
Domestic-174803188135435-136
Net borrowing from federal government11033-51654343
Other-284770193-30392-179
Change in assets (increase -)-2,467-785-335-1,333-1,533-138
Memorandum items:
Current balance4,3592,8052,5922,9982,9122,178
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)2.30.10.20.70.60.2
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 20.Malaysia: Operations of State Governments, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Revenue and grants6,5517,0277,5068,0737,6198,581
Own revenue5,1745,7355,7666,3235,9606,727
Transfers from:1,3771,2921,7411,7501,6591,854
Federal government1,3771,2921,3671,5151,4901,608
Statutory bodies000000
Local governments000000
NFPEs000000
Water supply fund00374235169246
Expenditure6,6317,6267,6117,7938,91810,556
Operating expenditure4,1014,5184,5114,9894,7565,369
Transfers to:188136202235298311
Federal government000000
Statutory bodies000000
Local governments188136202235298311
NFPEs000000
Development expenditure and net lending2,5303,1083,1002,8044,1625,187
Direct development expenditure2,5413,0803,0782,7784,1365,161
Transfers to:13611799114114114
Federal government000000
Statutory bodies000000
Local governments13611799114114114
NFPEs000000
Net lending-112822262626
Local governments-112822262626
NFPEs000000
Overall balance-80-599-105280-1,299-1,975
Financing (net)80599105-2801,2991,975
External000000
Domestic80599105-28012991975
Borrowing from federal government 1/44290124261290290
Other borrowing including change in assets36309-19-5411,0091,685
Memorandum items:
Current balance2,4502,5092,9953,0842,8633,213
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)-0.1-0.4-0.10.2-0.6-0.8
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

These figures are from the Treasury, as derived from the Federal Government Table above. Bank Negara figures are significantly higher.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

These figures are from the Treasury, as derived from the Federal Government Table above. Bank Negara figures are significantly higher.

Table 21.Malaysia: Operations of Local Governments, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Total revenue1,6052,1082,3582,5132,7562,873
Own revenue1,2191,6351,9042,0072,2072,313
Transfers from:386473454506549560
Federal government62220153157137135
Statutory bodies000000
State governments324253301349412425
NFPEs000000
Total expenditure1,6132,0082,1312,5623,1243,113
Current expenditure1,1871,4941,5621,7132,0892,125
Transfers to:000000
Federal government000000
Statutory bodies000000
State governments000000
NFPEs000000
Development expenditure4265145698491,035988
Overall balance-8100227-49-368-240
Financing (net)8-100-22749368240
Enternal000000
Domestic8-100-22749368240
Borrowing from federal government-13-13-13-8-7-7
Borrowing from state governments-112822262626
Other borrowing including change in assets32-115-23631349221
Memorandum items:
Current balance418614796800667748
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)0.00.10.10.0-0.2-0.1
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 22.Malaysia: General Government Operations, 1991–96 1/
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Total revenue and grants43,19849,57152,69961,0546,20866,537
Federal government34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Statutory bodies2,3473,0123,0232,9823,0993,174
State governments5,1745,7355,7666,3235,9606,727
Local government1,2191,6351,3042,0072,2072,213
Total expenditure and net lending43,50950,84952,20254,00959,86564,040
Total amount expenditure33,52539,35838,98942,65144,72846,941
Federal government25,74329,29428,72131,68233,45434,795
Statutory bodies2,6824,1884,3974,5024,7274,963
State governments3,9134,3824,3094,7544,4585,058
Local governments1,1871,4941,5621,7132,0892,125
Total direct development expenditure9,14511,82312,70812,13216,01217,259
Federal government4,8795,7446,9026,9849,2919,486
Statutory bodies1,4352,6022,2581,6351,6641,738
State governments2,4052,9632,9792,6644,0225,047
Local government4265145698491035988
Net lending694-69562-119-226-160
Adjustments for accounts payable145-263-57-655-6490
Overall balance-311-1,2784967,0452,3432,498
Financing3111,778-496-7,0452,343-2,498
External-166-3,389-3,322-4,922-1,785
Domestic (including change in assets)4774,6672,826-2,123-558
Memorandum items:
Currant balance9,64310,15613,67318,32917,39419,502
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)-0.2-0.90.33.81.11.0
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes federal, state, and local governments, and the statutory bodies.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Includes federal, state, and local governments, and the statutory bodies.

Table 23.Malaysia: Operations of Nonfinancial Public Enterprises (NFPEs), 1991–96 1/
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Operating surplus11,88011,36310,69012,15915,86114,515
Transfers from:64021421426540430
Federal government64021421426540430
Statutory bodies000000
State governments000000
Local governments000000
Transfers to:000000
Federal government000000
Statutory bodies000000
State governments000000
Local governments000000
Surplus net of transfers11,24011,14610,47612,13315,32114,085
Development expenditure10,84215,59418,63316,47216,31917,103
Overall balance1,038-4,234-7,943-4,313-458-2,588
Financing-1,0384,2347,9434,3134582,588
External-1106624,2635,7546,922
Domestic-9283,5723,680-1,441-6,464
Borrowing from federal government-590-510-208-357-168
Borrowing from state governments00000
Other (including changes in assets)-3384,0823,888-1,084-6,296
Memorandum items:
Current balance11,88011,36010,69012,13915,86114,515
Overall balance (in percent of GDP)0.8-2.9-4.9-2.3-0.2-1.0
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of 32 NFPEs in 1995, 35 NFPEs in 1994, 36 NFPEs in 1993, 44 NPFEs in 1992, and 46 NFPEs in 1991, as defined in the Bank Negara Malaysia Annual Reports.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of 32 NFPEs in 1995, 35 NFPEs in 1994, 36 NFPEs in 1993, 44 NPFEs in 1992, and 46 NFPEs in 1991, as defined in the Bank Negara Malaysia Annual Reports.

Table 24.Malaysia: Consolidated Public Sector, 1991–96 1/
19911992199319941995Budget

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Total revenue and grants 2/54,43860,71763,17573,18777,52980,622
Federal government34,45839,18942,00649,74250,94254,323
Statutory bodies2,3473,0123,0232,9823,0993,174
State governments5,1745,7355,7666,3235,9606,727
Local governments1,2191,6351,9042,0072,2072,313
NFPE operating surplus11,24011,14610,47612,13315,32114,085
Total expenditure and net lending54,30166,73970,82970,81275,81281,151
Total current expenditure33,52539,35838,98942,65144,72846,941
Federal government25,74329,29428,72131,68233,45434,795
Statutory bodies2,6824,1884,3974,5024,7274,963
State governments3,9134,3824,3094,7544,4585,058
Local governments1,1871,4941,5621,7132,0892,125
Total direct development expenditure19,34727,20331,12728,57831,79133,932
Federal government4,2395,5306,6886,9582,7519,056
Statutory bodies1,4352,6022,2581,6351,6641,738
State governments2,4052,9632,9792,6644,0225,047
Local governments4265145698491035988
NFPEs10,84215,59418,63316,47216,31917,103
Net lending1,284441770238-58278
Adjustment for accounts payable145-263-57-655-6490
Overall public sector balance137-6,022-7,6552,3751,717-529
Financing-1376,0227,655-2,375-1,717529
External-276-2,7279418325,137
Domestic (including changes in assets)1398,7496,714-3,207-6,854
Memorandum item:
Current balance 3/20,88321,30224,14930,46232,71533,587
(In percent of GDP)
Overall balance0.1-4.1-4.71.30.8-0.2
Current balance 4/16.114.514.916.415.313.9
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of the federal, state and local governments, statutory bodies, and NFPEs.

Net of transfers.

Excludes capital revenue and foreign grants.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of the federal, state and local governments, statutory bodies, and NFPEs.

Net of transfers.

Excludes capital revenue and foreign grants.

Table 25.Malaysia: Outstanding Federal Government Debt, 1991–95
19911992199319941995
(In billions of ringgit; end of period)
Domestic debt73.676.176.578.378.0
Government securities65.366.666.065.064.7
Treasury bills4.34.34.34.34.3
Other4.05.26.29.09.0
Foreign debt25.420.919.414.813.3
International institutions and foreign governments 1/8.78.17.81.57.1
Market loans16.712.811.67.36.2
Total debt99.097.095.993.191.3
(In percent of GDP)
Domestic debt56.951.947.342.136.5
Government securities50.545.440.835.030.3
Treasury bills3.32.92.72.32.0
Other3.13.53.84.84.2
Foreign debt19.614.212.08.06.2
International institutions and foreign governments 1/6.75.54.84.03.3
Market loans1298.77.23.92.9
Total debt76.566.159.350.142.7
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of project loans and suppliers credit.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consists of project loans and suppliers credit.

Table 26.Malaysia: Operations of the Employees’ Provident Fund, 1991–95
19911992199319941995
(In millions of ringgit)
Receipts8,70710,87112,67914,83516,985
Contributions4,9216,3177,3768,72710,324
Investment income3,7524,5045,2515,6896,599
Other34505241962
Expenditure2,0561,8722,3312,6703,331
Withdrawals1,9671,7602,2052,5283,160
Operating expenditure89112126142171
Balance6,6518,99910,34812,16513,654
In percent of GDP5.16.16.46.66.4
Holding of government securities38,27639,63539,26440,72139,150
Registered employees (in thousands)63006600690073007800
Registered employers (in thousands)191206223236256
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 27.Malaysia: Assets and Liabilities of Bank Negara, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Foreign assets30,46847,21876,47568,20363,79690,91887,59983,65068,20364,25967,20265,33963,79663,848
Gold and foreign exchange29,19746,07575,30966,83161,68289,74186,27282,26466,83162,76965,56063,32161,68261,661
IMF reserve position7008488391,0221,7238529981,0521,0221,1371,2821,6491,7231,788
Holdings of SDRs571295327350391325329334350353360369391399
Claims on federal government 1/1,6115614549802,1555771,5326589801,4729881,7852,1552,840
Other domestic assets12,48011,81323,37123,61622,52527,18623,46423,07923,61623,39623,86724,58722,52522,830
Bills discounted5,1953,8603,5243,3703,1773,0112,9843,2923,3703,6874,0133,4433,1772,884
Deposits with banks and NFIs 2/2,3871,9441,7492,9542,4372,6513,0373,2552,9542,4742,5473,2042,4372,488
Loans and advances1,8972,3692,6373,4454,1962,8182,9153,3603,4453,6013,9344,0854,1964,508
Defected expenditure005,7075,1364,5665,7075,7075,7075,1365,1365,1365,1364,5664,566
Other3,0013,6409,7548,7118,14912,9998,8217,4658,7118,4988,2378,7198,1498,384
Total assets44,55959,592100,30092,79988,476118,681112,595107,38792,79989,12792,05791,71188,47689,518
Currency in circulation12,07013,17414,64917,17018,91315,85315,52316,06417,17017,65217,51517,84918,91319,713
Capital account4,0994,1474,1653,5073,5644,1654,1654,1653,5073,5073,5073,5073,5643,564
Paid-up capital100100100100100100100100100100100100100100
General reserve fund3,4583,5563,5562,8882,9393,5563,5563,5562,8882,8882,8882,8882,9392,939
Allocation of SDRs541491509519525509509509519519519519525525
Other liabilities28,39042,27181,48572,12265,99898,66392,90787,15872,12267,96871,03470,35465,99866,241
Deposits at BNM:16,53740,61273,20866,88457,75893,86390,28181,91866,88462,67864,43561,59057,75856,683
Banks and NFIs 2/10,44727,55956,76246,87642,37474,68767,21359,66946,87644,46346,82745,21042,37443,214
Federal government5,5965,6792,9116,4698,3782,3727,5497,4686,4694,6775,4818,6858,3787,103
Other4947,37413,53513,5397,00616,80415,51914,78113,53913,53812,1287,6957,0066,366
Other reserves10,053753414343414141434343434343
Bank Negara bills and bonds007,1615,0067,1053,9612,2994,7775,0064,4664,8247,3837,1057,894
Other1,8009061,0751891,0937982864221897811,7321,3391,0931,621
Total liabilities44,55959,592100,30092,79988,476118,681112,595107,38792,79989,12792,05791,71188,47689,518
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Federal government securities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Federal government securities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Table 28.Malaysia: Reserve Money by Component, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Currency outside banks11,02712,12413,50715,88417,43314,50114,31714,80515,88416,24616,13916,48017,43318,150
Required reserves9,52411,28612,69321,88328,08315,80117,70020,87321,88323,19924,48226,21228,08333,176
Excess reserves1,3981,2291,2191,5021,6721,5651,3441,6861,5021,4441,5001,5621,6721,720
Deposits of private sector4906678381,2137826667258371,213522616528782503
Total22,43925,30628,25840,48247,97032,53334,08638,20140,48241,41142,73744,78247,97053,549
(12-month percentage change)
Currency outside banks9.69.911.417.69.816.017.115.617.612.012.711.39.811.7
Required reserves37.818.512.572.428.335.851.872.572.446.838.325.628.343.0
Excess reserves-5.1-12.1-0.823.21134.12.546.923.2-7.711.6-7.311.319.1
Deposits of private sector32.436.125.744.7-35.531.96.151344.7-21.6-15.0-36.9-35.5-3.6
Total19.212.811.743.318.524.531.743.643.327.325.417.218.529.3
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 29.Malaysia: Monetary Authorities’ Account, 1991–96 1/
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Net foreign assets30,45247,19676,43568,17363,77090,87987,56383,62268,17364,23267,18465,30863,77063,822
Net domestic assets-8,013-21,891-48,182-27,691-15,800-58,347-53,477-45,422-27,691-22,821-24,447-20,526-15,800-10,273
Net claims on federal government-3,985-5,118-2,457-5,488-6,223-1,796-6,017-6,810-5,488-3,205-4,492-6,901-6,423-4,263
Claims on federal government1,6115614549802,1555771,5326589801,4729881,7852,1552,840
Federal government deposits5,5965,6792,9116,4698,3782,2717,5497,4686,4694,6775,4818,6858,3787,103
Claims on private sector1,1471,1072,4003,3194,0722,7362,7913,2343,3193,4503,8093,9374,0724,190
Claims on banks and NFIs 2/, 3/5,740-11,566-38,7273,4433,2503,0843,0573,3653,4433,7604,0863,5163,2502,957
Less other items net 3/-10,915-6,3144,398-28,964-16,899-62,271-53,308-45,210-28,964-26,826-27,850-21,078-16,899-13,157
Ofwhich: BNM bills and bonds007,1615,0067,1053,9612,2994,7775,0064,4664,8247,3837,1057,894
Reserve money22,43925,30628,25340,48147,97032,53334,08638,20140,48141,41142,73744,78247,97053,549
Currency in circulation12,07013,17414,64917,17018,91315,85315,52316,06417,17017,65217,51517,84918,91319,713
Currency outside banks11,02712,12413,50715,88417,43314,50114,31714,80515,88416,24616,13916,48017,43318,150
Bank notes and coin1,0431,0501,1421,2861,4801,3521,2061,2591,2861,4061,3761,3691,4801,563
Deposits of commercial banks6,9757,6438,16114,74519,08810,66711,78314,26414,74515,49716,66817,91319,08822,537
Deposits of NFIs2,9043,8224,6057,3549,1875,3476,0557,0367,3547,7407,9388,4929,18710,796
Other deposits4906678381,2137826667258371,213522616528782503
(Twelve-month percentage change)
Foreign assets (net)12.755.0610-10.8-6.574.759.746.8-10.8-29.3-233-21.9-6.5-0.6
Domestic assets (net)-1.917.32120.1-42.5-42.912.5584.749.5-42.5-60.9-54.3-54.8-42.9-55.0
Claims on federal government (net)81.428.4-510123.413.4-62.80.1211123.478.5-2531.313.433.0
Claims on private sector-213-35116.8383217160.1206.7244.038326.136521.721721.4
Claims on banks120.5-301.5234.8-108.9-5.6-124.2-117.8-111.0-108.921.933.74.5-5.6-21.4
Reserve money19.011811.643318524.531.743.443.327325.417218529.3
Sources: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Bank Negara Malaysia accounts plus Treasury IMF operations.

Non-monetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks and discount houses).

Since January 1994, claims on banks exclude short-term deposits with the central bank.

Sources: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Bank Negara Malaysia accounts plus Treasury IMF operations.

Non-monetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks and discount houses).

Since January 1994, claims on banks exclude short-term deposits with the central bank.

Table 30.Malaysia: Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Foreign assets6,3405,22110,37210,51710,2577,6717,6489,12910,51711,05410,4279,46510,25710,457
Reserves8,4748,4689,03815,43620,10811,69412,67115,19415,43616,54617,73918,89320,10824,051
Claims on federal government11,97711,0699,8729,6959,6709,77510,4579,9029,69510,2529,80410,5789,67010,209
Claims on private sector99,234109,263121,188140,632183,453122,519122,351132,077140,632149,434158,371170,364183,453194,781
Claims on NFIs 1/6,7567,8288,32612,35116,7258,5249,3509,4651,25111,41212,06213,01416,72514,419
Unclassified assets14,16626,95256,29844,09244,37768,86260,10250,10644,09241,89945,84844,38744,37741,590
Assets146,946168,802215,095232,722284,591229,045222,578225,873232,722240,597254,252266,701284,591295,508
Foreign liabilities11,75518,68231,48817,00015,87331,85332,41420,16017,00019,23017,24215,86015,87314,330
Federal government deposits2,3391,4571,8712,7824,1022,4462,3792,8632,7823,2304,1824,3384,1024,573
Demand deposits16,05718,60128,71531,15635,51428,46629,81431,79131,15630,55332,70633,00135,51436,582
Time and savings deposits58,25772,72488,62097,532122,91897,24295,54196,20197,532101,353109,014115,585122,918129,824
Repurchase agreements5,4686,4908,2639,2029,6129,0257,9188,1609,2029,3379,4669,4429,61211,367
Bonds and money market instruments14,75815,23214,90726,48138,61719,23915,99424,25026,48125,72328,60934,73638,61738,805
Credit from central bank3,971-12,943-40,080-18,079-10,190-52,064-38,441-31,840-18,079-16,253-17,084-13,652-10,190-6,012
Credit from NFIs 1/1,5144357422,1162,8134387898262,1162,0472,8472,2992,8133,156
Capital accounts13,15114,65016,63023,52829,17217,81117,80721,42823,52824,75725,76426,55629,17230,839
Unclassified liabilities19,67833,47463,94041,00436,16274,58958,36452,23541,00440,62141,50638,53536,16232,045
Liabilities146,946168,802215,095232,722284,591229,045222,578225,873232,722240,597254,252266,701284,591295,508
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Table 31.Malaysia: Deposit Money Banks--Consolidated Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks and Bank Islam, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Foreign assets6,3755,24610,48210,54210,3207,6947,6809,16310,54211,08010,4549,50510,32010,546
Reserves8,5848,6049,24215,81020,45911,94212,97515,57115,81016,91518,09219,23620,45924,428
Clams on federal government12,32011,32410,69011,12710,18210,94311,90911,67011,12711,27710,88611,15110,18210,715
Claims on private sector100,241110,418122,337141,965185,472123,675123,465133,268141,965150,904159,981172,110185,472196,926
Claims on NFIs 1/6,7567,8288,32612,35216,8028,5269,3619,46612,35211,43612,11613,08216,80214,489
Unclassified assets14,20727,03856,40644,23944,60168,99060,24350,21644,23942,22746,10044,71544,60141,814
Assets148,484170,458217,483236,035287,836231,770225,632229,355236,035243,838257,629269,799287,836298,918
Foreign liabilities11,75518,68431,48817,00015,87331,85332,41720,17717,00019,23417,24315,86015,87314,330
Federal government deposits2,3881,4951,9032,8584,1492,5162,4993,0182,8583,3234,2384,3924,1494,663
Demand deposits16,38418,93129,12831,72336,19128,97830,32732,36231,72331,19033,34033,63836,19137,352
Time and savings deposits59,14973,68290,18499,749124,93598,99397,55098,53899,749103,431111,244117,500124,935131,687
Repurchase agreements5,4686,4908,2639,2029,5759,0257,9188,1609,2029,3379,4669,4429,57511,327
Bonds and money market instruments14,77115,25114,93326,52938,65519,27116,03624,28426,52925,76028,63634,77438,65538,843
Credit from central bank3,971-12,943-40,080-18,079-10,190-52,064-38,441-31,840-18,079-16,253-17,084-13,652-10,190-6,012
Credit from NFIs 1/1,5144357422,1162,8134387898262,1162,0472,8472,2992,8133,156
Capital accounts13,34514,84316,88423,81329,47818,07518,08621,51223,81325,05026,07626,87229,47831,156
Unclassified liabilities19,73933,59064,03841,12336,35774,68558,45252,31841,12340,71941,62338,67436,35732,416
Liabilities148,484170,458217,483236,035287,836231,770225,632229,355236,035243,838257,629269,799287,836298,918
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Nonmonetary financial institutions (finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses).

Table 32.Malaysia: Monetary Survey, 1993–96 1/
199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
Net foreign assets55,12961,71458,21766,72062,92372,60861,71456,07860,29558,95358,21760,038
Net domestic assets96,983116,528157,012100,921100,78099,204116,428123,759131,402142,485157,012166,771
Net domestic credit131,067148,065139,354133,043129,649138,344148,065159,103165,946175,905189,354202,205
Net claims on federal government6,3302,781-1906,6323,3931,8422,7814,7492,156-142-1901,789
Claims on private sector124,737145,284189,544126,411126,256136,402145,284154,354163,790176,047189,444201,116
Other Items net-34,084-31,537-32,342-32,122-28,869-39,140-31,437-35,344-34,444-33,420-32,342-36,134
Broad money (M2)152,413171,240215,227167,640163,604171,811178,240179,836191,896201,438215,227226,809
Narrow money (M1)48,07856,17463,49349,49251,42455,04056,17455,69858,03359,13863,59366,801
Reserve money28,25340,48147,97032,53334,08638,20140,48141,41142,73744,78247,97053,549
Less: Bank notes and coin1,1421,2861,4801,3521,2061,2591,2861,4061,3761,3691,4801,553
Less: Bank deposits at Bank Negara8,16114,74519,08810,66711,78314,26414,74515,49716,66817,91319,08822,537
Plus: Bank demand deposits29,12831,72336,19128,97830,32732,26231,72331,19033,34033,63836,19137,352
Quail-money plus repos 2/98,472120,726134,451108,062105,407106,721108,966112,784120,726126,948134,551143,017
Bank NCDs 3/5,86313,10017,08310,0866,67310,05113,10011,35413,13715,35217,08316,991
Foreign assets (net)64.21.13-5.77.2552.075.91.13-16.0-3.9-18.8-5.77.1
Domestic credit12.813.027.913.68.114.313.019.628.027.227.927.5
Claims on government (net)34.4-56.1-106.853.3-3.0-46.7-56.1-28.4-36.5-107.7-106.8-6.13
Claims on private sector11.816.530.512.18516.116.522.129.729.030.530.3
M223.016.920.832.023.323.816.97317.317.220.826.1
M135.316.813.234.532.934.416.812.511.97.413.219.9
Foreign assets (net)17.54.1-2.022.116.222.64.1-6.3-1.5-7.9-2.02.2
Domestic Credit12.011.223.212.67.412.511.215.521.221.923.224.4
Claim on government (net)1.3-1.3-1.71.8-0.1-1.2-1.3-1.1-0.81.2-1.7-1.6
Claims on private sector10.713.524.810.77.413.613.516.721.923.024.826.0
M110.15.34.210.09.610.15.33.74.01.44.26.2
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consolidation of the accounts of the monetary authorities, commercial banks and Bank Islam.

Quasi-money = Bank Negara time deposits + Bank time and savings deposits.

Negotiable certificates of deposit.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consolidation of the accounts of the monetary authorities, commercial banks and Bank Islam.

Quasi-money = Bank Negara time deposits + Bank time and savings deposits.

Negotiable certificates of deposit.

Table 33.Malaysia: Nonmonetary Financial Institutions--Consolidated Statement of Assets and Liaibilities of Finanance Companies, Merchant Banks and Discount Houses, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Foreign assets130129137167209147174175167165174189209231
Reserves3,7564,4368,42110,39412,28011,13310,88711,21910,39411,73512,00511,20412,28013,611
Claims on federal government4,8854,2093,7273,0732,9953,2763,3233,0183,0732,8202,5643,1192,9953,302
Finance companies2,0382,1221,9901,9362,0311,7981,8241,5561,9361,8631,7412,0112,0312,316
Merchant banks1,0381,0411,103546431962867519546503507553431585
Discount houses1,8091,046634591533516632543591454316555533401
Claims on private sector45,47352,70659,68371,02491,55460,21962,13667,49871,02473,34177,89383,63991,55496,825
Finance companies34,64439,41544,90351,68165,64145,77846,92649,18351,68153,75857,07861,31865,64169,479
Merchant banks8,4439,56310,61913,07415,90710,80110,81112,38613,07413,45113,80213,77815,20716,091
Discount houses2,3963,7284,1616,26910,0063,6404,3995,9296,2696,1327,0138,54310,00611,255
Claim on commercial banks6,0885,4827,0319,1359,1488,4639,9169,0939,1358,3188,7768,2589,1488,558
Finance companies4,1704,2096,0446,6427,3957,5278,8238,1396,6426,2936,8316,3657,3956,854
Merchant banks9545898252,2611,4687919978942,2611,7651,7901,7271,4681,539
Discount houses9645841632332851469560233260155166285165
Unclassified assets6,7447,4499,13811,51713,91410,02410,0739,94411,51711,07212,87911,23713,21412,883
Assets67,07774,41188,137105,311130,10093,26296,509100,946105,311107,450114,290117,645130,100135,410
Foreign liabilities0045306221671530398599621
Federal government deposits5104537227071,2136227227607078991,0501,0111,2131,647
Time and savings deposits37,31444,80156,36161,07368,69257,47258,75461,87661,07363,36265,35267,58068,69277,606
Finance companies31,11035,44043,20047,39654,21245,34546,19746,87047,39647,86151,24652,05954,21259,257
Merchant banks4,4046,3729,4648,9648,8807,9938,6999,8318,96411,0479,0279,9918,88012,137
Discount houses1,8002,9893,6974,7135,6004,1343,8585,1754,7134,4545,0795,5305,6006,212
Repurchase agreements3,5832,5942,3043,3275,0792,0772,7742,6653,3273,2084,6184,1285,0793,533
Bonds and money-market instruments3,8645,0915,0397,55611,0975,5305,4776,2917,5567,9287,9109,84911,09712,781
Credit from commercial banks6,3406,0856,91113,26719,09410,10811,31511,62213,26712,60413,12912,81619,09415,576
Finance companies1,8252,6543,2525,56210,3703,5684,7575,3285,5626,2395,9597,39010,3708,236
Merchant banks2,7532,0632,1864,9694,9793,4093,8063,5224,9693,2823,8653,0694,9793,206
Discount houses1,7621,3681,4732,7363,7453,1322,7512,7722,7363,0833,3052,3573,7454,134
Capital accounts5,2465,9346,8208,58810,7727,2277,5987,9998,5888,9319,4459,88810,77211,121
Unclassified liabilities10,2209,4559,93410,76314,09210,2069,8049,71810,76310,47812,70212,27514,09213,144
Liabilities67,07774,41188,137105,311130,10093,26296,509100,946105,311107,450114,290117,645130,100135,410
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 34.Malaysia: Banking Survey, 1993–96 1/
199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
Net foreign assets35,32161,85158,26466,84661,93372,76861,15156,20460,48459,04358,36460,268
Net domestic assets154,526181,462229,300151,997161,093161,291181,462189,922201,106213,752229,300245,882
Net domestic credit193,755221,455212,690193,916194,386208,100221,455234,365245,353261,652211,690301,385
Net claim on federal government9,3355,1471,3929,2865,9944,1005,1476,6703,6701,2661,4923,444
Claim on private sector184,420216,308281,098186,230188,392204,000216,308227,695241,683259,686281,098297,941
Other item net-39,229-39,993-53,390-36,919-33,293-46,009-39,993-44,443-44,247-47,900-53,390-55,503
Total liquidity (M3)210,048243,313287,662225,842224,023234,051243,313246,125261,488271,796287,662306,149
Monetary Liabilities42,96348,25953,80643,70944,71147,45041,25947,43149,48350,14953,80655,393
Narrow Money (M1)48,07856,17463,59349,49251,42455,04056,17455,69858,03359,13863,49366,801
Less: Bank & NFI demand deposits508561601437653553561527512497601612
Less: NFI deposits at BNM4,6057,3549,1865,3466,0607,0377,3547,7407,9388,4929,18610,796
Quasi-money liabilities156,498173,027207,873166,970166,711170,931173,027179,031190,058198,194207,873223,753
Quasi-money and bank repos98,472108,966134,451108,062105,407106,721108,566111,714120,726126,948134,451143,017
NFI time and saving deposits56,36161,07368,69257,47258,75461,87661,07363,36265,35267,58068,69277,606
NFI repos2,3043,3275,0792,0772,7741,6653,3273,2014,6184,1285,0793,533
Less: Bank & NFI fixed deposits539339449641323331339323638462449403
Bank and NFI NCDs10,48522,02725,98315,16312,60115,67821,02719,66321,94724,45325,98327,003
Memorandum items:
Broad money (M2)132,41317,840215,227167,640163,604171,81117,240179,836191,896201,438215,227226,809
Foreign assets (net)64.011.4-5.672.351.875.811.4-15.9-3.9-18.9-5.67.2
Domestic credit13.114.327.711.08.714.414.319.626.225.727.728.6
Claims on government (net)13.2-44.9-69.111.0-14.2-41.1-44.9-28.2-38.8-51.0-69.1-48.4
Claims on private sector13.117.330.011.09.616.717.321.028.327.330.030.9
M135.316.813.234.531.934.416.811.511.97.413.219.9
M223.016.920.831.023.323.816.97.317.317.220.826.1
M323.815.818.228.921.020.815.89.016.816.618.224.4
Foreign assets (net)12.83.0-1.416.011.716.23.0-4.7-1.1-5.9-1.41.7
Domestic credit13213.225.211.98.413.613.217.021.821.925.227.2
Claims on government (net)0.6-2.0-1.50.5-0.5-1.5-1.0-1.2-1.0-0.9-1.5-1.3
Claims on private sector12.615.226.611.49.015.015.218.223.823.826.628.5
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consolidation of the accounts of the monetary authorities, commercial banks and Bank Islam, finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Consolidation of the accounts of the monetary authorities, commercial banks and Bank Islam, finance companies, merchant banks, and discount houses.

Table 35.Malaysia: Money Market Indicators, 1991–96
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In percent end of period, unless otherwise indicated)
Loan/deposit ratio 1/101.293.983.583.788.976.878.981.483.787.885.588.088.989.4
Liquidity operations of central bank (RM million, period change)2,462-23,675-39,37424,33715,646-13,56612,08111,06714,7554,115-3956,5025,4284,150
Interbank rate (overnight)7.78.06.24.96.54.34.34.04.95.25.65.76.57.0
Interbank transactions volume (RM billion, total per period)381.4432.6544.5809857223.5192.4178.7214.3208.7215.7222.8210.0212.5
Treasury bill rate (3-month)7.77.15.24.55.82.83.44.04.55.25.25.75.86.4
Bond coupon rate (8-year) 2/8.18.48.58.0
Deposit rate (12-month) 1/, 3/8.07.86.36.27.05.95.05.06.26.66.26.47.07.0
Average base lending rate 1/8.79.38.26.88.07.77.27.06.87.17.57.68.08.6
Average lending rate 1/9.710.39.78.29.39.38.88.58.28.58.78.89.39.7
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Commercial banks.

Coupon rate on eight-year bonds; not always available, due to illiquidity of the the government bond market.

Fixed deposits.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Commercial banks.

Coupon rate on eight-year bonds; not always available, due to illiquidity of the the government bond market.

Fixed deposits.

Table 36.Malaysia: Interest Rates of Commercial Banks and Finance Companies 1/, 2/
19911992199319941995199419951996
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1
(In percent end of period)
Fixed Deposits
1 month7.87.96.45.26.55.84.04.05.25.65.75.96.56.8
7.97.96.55.36.75.74.34.15.35.85.86.06.77.0
3 month8.07.96.45.36.65.84.34.35.35.85.86.06.66.9
8.28.06.55.56.85.94.54.45.56.05.96.16.87.1
6 month8.07.96.35.86.76.04.54.65.86.16.06.16.76.9
8.48.06.55.96.95.94.74.65.96.36.26.26.97.2
9 month8.07.96.36.06.95.84.84.86.06.36.16.26.97.1
8.48.06.46.16.96.05.04.96.16.46.46.36.97.2
12 month8.07.86.36.27.05.95.05.06.26.66.36.47.07.0
8.58.06.46.57.06.05.25.76.55.76.56.57.07.2
Savings Deposits3.33.33.33.53.33.33.33.33.53.33.33.33.33.3
5.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.05.5
Base Lending Rate 3/8.79.38.56.88.07.77.27.06.87.17.57.68.08.6
10.010.610.58.49.49.79.38.78.48.58.99.79.49.8
Average Lending Rate 4/9.710.39.78.29.39.38.88.58.28.58.78.89.39.7
13.112.312.211.511.512.111.911.811.511.411.411.411.511.6
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Most frequently quoted rates, (or the average of the two most frequently quoted rates).

Rates in italics are corresponding interest rates of finance companies.

With effect from February 1991, all lending rates are pegged to a banks declared base lending rate, with the exception of those levied on loans to priority sectors and those prescribed by law.

Refers to the weighted average lending rate of all commercial banks and finance companies, respectively.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Most frequently quoted rates, (or the average of the two most frequently quoted rates).

Rates in italics are corresponding interest rates of finance companies.

With effect from February 1991, all lending rates are pegged to a banks declared base lending rate, with the exception of those levied on loans to priority sectors and those prescribed by law.

Refers to the weighted average lending rate of all commercial banks and finance companies, respectively.

Table 37.Malaysia: Central Bank Liquidity Operations, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
(Changes in millions of ringgit)
Export credit refinancing1,145-1,335-336-154-193-293
Rediscount of BAs8900000
NIF/NEF financing-95-143-11619417944
Lending to institutions313828763-70313636
Mudharabah Islamic Interbank00000155
Money market intervention 1/2,072-14,939-25,18424,0767,8304,365
Clean money2,072-14,939-25,18424,0767,8304,365
Repos000000
Money market operations 2/101-180-1,4101,485997-165
Money market loans000000
BNM certificates00-6,1292,589-2,064-773
Vostro balance 3/000-3,2332,070-248
Malaysia government securities-1,118-1,089-981-282600670
Direct transactions-1,179-1,034-122-410635685
Repos61-550000
Malaysia savings bond00-859128-35-15
EPF money market account0-6,703-5,9693966,091359
Cagamas bonds-45-114-12-3100
Total2,462-23,675-39,37424,33715,6464,150
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Intervention at maturities in excess of 1 month.

Intervention at maturities under 1 month.

Commercial bank deposits owned by foreigners which are held at BNM.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Intervention at maturities in excess of 1 month.

Intervention at maturities under 1 month.

Commercial bank deposits owned by foreigners which are held at BNM.

Table 38.Malaysia: Direction of Commercial Bank Lending, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
(In millions of ringgit; end of period)
Agriculture4,6424,6574,1253,4863,8604,194
Mining and Quarrying831877631520886757
Manufacturing23,53625,39726,93232,23342,34443,704
Electricity7096719372,9103,5814,626
General commerce12,86412,91513,66215,05519,04319,341
Building and construction6,7308,6089,30910,37713,99515,188
Real estate9,97010,98711,38310,80315,36316,570
Individual housing loans11,58812,20314,50814,04116,74117,102
Transport, storage, and communication2,0451,4522,0012,4332,9863,386
Finance, insurance, business services11,53313,64916,98316,96023,70726,374
Restaurants, hotels & boarding houses1,3821,5681,7071,9092,1262,098
Purchase of stocks and shares2,9092,4473,0357,7747,9997,968
Consumption credit2,3952,7533,8494,8657,0697,634
Other6,0717,5478,17310,78515,30816,293
Total97,206105,729117,236134,151175,007185,235
(Percentage share)
Agriculture4.84.43.52.62.22.3
Mining and quarrying0.90.80.50.40.50.4
Manufacturing24.224.023.024.024.223.6
Electricity0.70.60.82.22.02.5
General commerce13212.211.711.210.910.4
Building and construction6.98.17.97.78.082
Real estate10.310.49.78.18.88.9
Individual housing loans11.911512.41059.69.2
Transport, storage, and communication2.11.41.71.81.71.8
Finance, insurance, business services11.912.914.512.613.514.2
Restaurants, hotels & boarding houses1.41.51.51.41.21.1
Purchase of stocks and shares3.02.32.65.84.64.3
Consumption credit2.52.63.33.64.04.1
Other6.27.17.08.08.78.8
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.
Table 39.Malaysia: Developments in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
Number of listed companies324369413478529548
Capitalization (million ringgit)161,344245,823619,637508,850565,630678,320
Turnover (million ringgit)30,09751,469387,275328,058178,859115,407
KLSE index (percent change)9.915.898.0-23.82.515.5
Dividend yield (percent)2.62.21.01.61.51.3
Price/earnings ratio22.5722.8048.2428.4924.4828.75
Memorandum items: (RM million)
Funds raised hi the capital market 1/9,42114,0347,99018,93417,5127,664
Public sector3,1571,5311,1811,778-35-505
Private sector6,26412,5046,80917,15617,5478,169
Shares4,3919,1823,2458,15910,2752,261
Debt securities1,8733,3223,5648,9967,2725,908
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Excludes short-term securities.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Excludes short-term securities.

Table 40.Malaysia: Funds Raised in the Capital Market, 1991–96
19911992199319941995Q1

1996
(In millions of ringgit)
Net funds raised by the public sector3,1571,5311,1811,778-35-505
Net federal receipts3,1571,431-675-952-247-500
Net issues3,1571,380-625-1,320-250-500
Government securities (gross) 1/3,5003,8001,6002,2292,0000
Less: Redemptions3432,4212,2253,5492,250500
Advance subscriptions00027100
Less: Government holdings0-5150-97-30
Investment certificates (net)01001,0002,8002500
Malaysia savings bonds00855-70-38-5
Net funds raised by the private sector6,26412,5046,80917,15617,5478,169
Shares (net)4,3919,1823,2458,15910,2752,261
Public issues 2/1,7115,4161,4423,0674,174376
Rights issues2,1583,4381,1773,4805,2611,683
Special issues 3/491300626841323105
Private placements028077133997
Preference shares3200000
Call warrants00001790
Debt securities (net)1,8733,3223,5648,9967,2725,908
Gross issues2,1464,3824,93310,29411,5386,513
Cagamas bonds02,1151,6504,7603,0221,290
Conventional bonds7401,6343,1193,9116,8533,010
Convertible bonds1,0566081651,32386314
Islamic bonds3502503008002,200
Less: Cagamas redemptions07509008502,635250
Less: PDS redemptions2733104694471,631355
Total net issues9,42114,0347,99018,93417,5127,664
Net short-tern securities6021,4161,9182,0092,824996
Total including commercial papers10,02315,4509,90820,94220,3368,660
(In percent of GDP)
Funds raised in the capital market (net) 4/7.71056.1113953.6
Public sector2.41.00.71.00.0-0.2
Private sector5.39.55.410.3953.8
Shares3.46.32.04.44.80.9
Debt securities 4/1.93.23.45.94.72.9
(In percent of net funds raised)
Funds raised in the capital market (net) 4/100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Public sector31.59.911.98.5-0.2-5.8
Private sector68.590.188.191.5100.2105.8
Shares43.859.432.839.050.526.1
Debt securities 4/24.730.755.352.549.679.7
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Refers to Malaysian Government Securities; excludes Treasury bills.

Refers to shares issued by companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange.

Special issues to Bumiputera investors nominated or approved by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and Ministry of Finance.

Includes short-term securities.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Refers to Malaysian Government Securities; excludes Treasury bills.

Refers to shares issued by companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange.

Special issues to Bumiputera investors nominated or approved by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and Ministry of Finance.

Includes short-term securities.

Table 41.Malaysia: Commodity Exports, 1991–95 1/
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
Rubber9789258281,1151,612
Volume (’000 tonnes)1,1321,0359371,0171,013
Unit value (cents/kg)868988110159
Tin 2/249283190193218
Volume (tonnes)42,42545,14935,54536,81235,216
Unit value (USS/tonne)5,8636,2695,3425,2486,179
Saw logs1,4911,5091,132969904
Volume (’000 m3)19,31817,8889,2888,4177,746
Unit value (US$/m3)7784122115117
Sawn timber1,0941,3691,7661,6501,533
Volume (’000 m3)5,0215,3925,4784,7534,367
Unit value (US$/m3)218254322347351
Palm oil1,8292,1342,2533,1884,060
Volume (’000 tonnes)5,5485,5805,8827,1276,630
Unit value (USS/tonne)330382383447612
Petroleum3,7083,5913,0792,4942,676
Volume (’000 tonnes)22,59522,58621,01919,06119,165
Unit value (US$/tonne)164159146131140
LNG1,1939971,0319721,266
Volume (’000 tonnes)7,6497,6497,8418,0939,923
Unit value (US$/tonne)156130132120128
Major commodity exports10,54110,80710,27910,58112,269
Manufactured exports22,30228,05534,85845,87358,819
Other exports1,5181,8281,9622,1982,904
Total exports (trade basis)34,36140,69147,09958,65273,991
Memorandum item:
Total exports (b.o.p. basis)33,53739,61645,99056,61572,149
Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Customs data; volumes are expressed in 1988 prices and unit values are based on 1988 = 100.

Includes tin-in-concentrate.

Source: Data provided by the Malaysian authorities.

Customs data; volumes are expressed in 1988 prices and unit values are based on 1988 = 100.

Includes tin-in-concentrate.

Table 42.Malaysia: Manufactured Exports, 1991–95
1991199219931994Prel.

1995
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Food, beverages, and tobacco8239581,0041,2061,447
Textiles, clothing, and footwear1,7102,0092,0912,3092,581
Wood products6269241,5681,8201,976
Rubber products6398479581,0491,318
Chemicals and chemical products6558991,0991,7342,521
Petroleum products4185686488151,248
Nonmetallic mineral products323350411546669
Iron and steel and metal manufactures6588991,1881,3851,872
Electrical and electronic products and machinery12,94216,32321,41729,11338,629
Electronic components4,7465,6367,2849,48513,212
Transport equipment1,1931,5051,4252,2242,094
Other manufactured exports 1/2,3122,7713,050