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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

chapter 24 A Concluding Summary

chapter 24 A Concluding Summary »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

This final chapter is a summary of the main features of the Fund’s law and practice on membership and nonmembership as discussed in the preceding chapters of this study. Membership...

chapter 9 A General View of Terms for Membership

chapter 9 A General View of Terms for Membership »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Scope of Terms and Conditions The main standard terms of membership resolutions, it has been seen, deal with quota; subscription, including determination of the gold subscription; da...

chapter 2 Admission of Other Members

chapter 2 Admission of Other Members »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Organs Exercising Power to Admit New Members The power to admit new members and determine the conditions of their admission is reserved to the Board of Governors and cannot be delega...

chapter 10 Article XX, Section 2 (g), and Dependencies

chapter 10 Article XX, Section 2 (g), and Dependencies »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Introduction The Articles have universal application in a certain sense because members undertake obligations to the Fund and to each other, assume certain obligations in relation to...

chapter 11 Categories of Dependency

chapter 11 Categories of Dependency »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Colonies The drafting of Article XX, Section 2 (g), was complicated by the variety of dependencies under the authority of some countries, the confusing use of terminology,...

chapter 12 Cessation of Responsibility for Dependencies

chapter 12 Cessation of Responsibility for Dependencies »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Cessation of Responsibility Under Article XX, Section 2 (g) The United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Belgium have ceased to be responsible under Article XX, Section 2 (g), fo...

chapter 3 Criteria for Membership

chapter 3 Criteria for Membership »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Introduction The countries listed in Schedule A were entitled to become original members under Article II, Section 1, and therefore the Fund would not have been able to reject the ac...

chapter 4 Membership and Currency

chapter 4 Membership and Currency »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Currency as Criterion It is probable that the drafters of the Articles had in mind as the norm a member with a currency of its own that was subject, at least legally, to regulation b...

chapter 23 Objective International Personality and Nonmembers

chapter 23 Objective International Personality and Nonmembers »

Source: Membership and Nonmembership in the International Monetary Fund

Series: Books

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 October 1985

ISBN: 9781455215935

Keywords: gold, territories, international law, international organizations, central bank

Introduction Article IX, Section 1, provides that in order to enable the Fund to fulfill its functions the status, privileges, and immunities set forth in Article IX...