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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies »

Source: Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies

Volume/Issue: 2009/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zvi Wiener , and Dan Galai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2009

ISBN: 9781451872576

Keywords: credit spread, currency mismatch, Merton&;amp;#x2019;s model, correlation, bond, present value, probability,

The paper shows how-in a Merton-type model with bankruptcy-the currency composition of debt changes the risk profile of a company raising a given amount of financing, and thus affects the cost of debt. Foreign curr...

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies

Credit Risk Spreads in Local and Foreign Currencies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/110

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zvi Wiener , and Dan Galai

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451872576.001

ISBN: 9781451872576

Keywords: credit spread, currency mismatch, Merton&;amp;#x2019;s model, correlation, bond, present value, probability,

The paper shows how-in a Merton-type model with bankruptcy-the currency composition of debt changes the risk profile of a company raising a given amount of financing, and thus affects the cost of debt. Foreign curr...