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Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare

Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare »

Source: Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare

Volume/Issue: 2004/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Selim Elekdag , and Ivan Tchakarov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

ISBN: 9781451848458

Keywords: financial accelerator, debt-to-GDP threshold, second-order approximation, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, flexible exchange rate, fixed exchange rate, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

The debate about the appropriate choice of exchange rate regime is fundamental in international economics. This paper develops a small open-economy model with balance sheet effects and compares the performance of f...

Central Bank Governance

Central Bank Governance »

Source: Central Bank Governance : A Survey of Boards and Management

Volume/Issue: 2004/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): JoAnne Morris , and Tonny Lybek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2004

ISBN: 9781451875416

Keywords: central bank, inflation, reserve bank, Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: General, International, or Comparative,

This paper identifies issues to consider when designing the structure, size, and composition of the governing boards and management of a central bank. While central bank autonomy and accountability are generally ac...

Central Bank Losses and Experiences in Selected Countries

Central Bank Losses and Experiences in Selected Countries »

Source: Central Bank Losses and Experiences in Selected Countries

Volume/Issue: 2005/72

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Claudia Dziobek , and John Dalton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2005

ISBN: 9781451860917

Keywords: central bank balance sheet, central bank losses, central bank, monetary fund, national bank, government securities, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Under normal circumstances, a central bank should be able to operate at a profit with a core level of earnings derived from seigniorage. Losses have, however, arisen in several central banks from a range of activit...

Central Banks Use of Derivatives and Other Contingent Liabilities

Central Banks Use of Derivatives and Other Contingent Liabilities »

Source: Central Banks Use of Derivatives and Other Contingent Liabilities : Analytical Issues and Policy Implications

Volume/Issue: 2000/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Liliana Schumacher , and Mario Bléjer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

ISBN: 9781451848786

Keywords: central bank, contingent liabilities, foreign exchange, bank assets, deposit insurance

Whereas some central bank derivatives and other contingent liabilities arise from anomalous circumstances, there are a number of positive reasons that explain their popularity. After analyzing the rationale for the...

Collateral Damage

Collateral Damage »

Source: Collateral Damage : Exchange Controls and International Trade

Volume/Issue: 2007/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Zhiwei Zhang , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2007

ISBN: 9781451865721

Keywords: non-tariff barriers, exchange controls, foreign exchange, tariff barriers, International Factor Movements And International Business,

While new conventional wisdom warns that developing countries should be aware of the risks of premature capital account liberalization, the costs of not removing exchange controls have received much less attention....

Commodity Prices

Commodity Prices »

Source: Commodity Prices : Cyclical Weakness or Secular Decline?

Volume/Issue: 1994/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Wickham , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

ISBN: 9781451842371

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, hedging, terms of trade, commodity agreements

Primary commodities still account for the bulk of exports in many developing countries. However, real commodity prices have been declining almost continuously since the early 1980s and there is evidence of renewed...

Currency Crises and Foreign Reserves

Currency Crises and Foreign Reserves »

Source: Currency Crises and Foreign Reserves : A Simple Model

Volume/Issue: 2001/18

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Piti Disyatat

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2001

ISBN: 9781451843644

Keywords: Currency Crisis, Speculative Attacks, Borrowing Reserves, capital controls, external borrowing, central bank, domestic currency, Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General

This paper addresses the important question of how far a government will run down its stock of foreign reserves in a defense of a fixed exchange rate. An optimizing model of currency crisis is presented in which th...

Currency Crises and the Real Economy

Currency Crises and the Real Economy »

Source: Currency Crises and the Real Economy : The Role of Banks

Volume/Issue: 2001/49

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Piti Disyatat

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

ISBN: 9781451846843

Keywords: currency crisis, foreign currency debt, balance sheet, banking, balance sheet effect, banking sector, currency crises, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Monetary Policy, Central Banking

This paper shows that the quality of banks within each country is one of the important factors that can account for the fact that developing economies tend to suffer more severe output contractions in the wake of a...

Does Import Protection Discourage Exports?

Does Import Protection Discourage Exports? »

Source: Does Import Protection Discourage Exports?

Volume/Issue: 2006/20

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2006

ISBN: 9781451862805

Keywords: export tax, restrictiveness, tariff barriers, tariff reductions, export sector, Computable General Equilibrium Models,

This paper points out that while many developing countries seek to increase their export earnings, they have not embraced fully the notion that their own pattern of import protection hurts their export performance....

Exits From Pegged Regimes

Exits From Pegged Regimes »

Source: Exits From Pegged Regimes : An Empirical Analysis

Volume/Issue: 2003/147

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and Rupa Duttagupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2003

ISBN: 9781451856750

Keywords: Pegged exchange rates, floating regimes, determinants of exits, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rate regimes, trade openness, flexible exchange rate,

Using countries' de facto exchange rate regimes during 1985-2002, this paper analyzes the determinants of exits from pegged regimes, where exits involve shifts to more or less flexible regimes, or adjustments withi...