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Regional Economic Outlook, October 2018, Asia Pacific

Asia at the Forefront: Growth Challenges for the Next Decade and Beyond

Growth in the first half of 2018 was softer than in 2017, especially in advanced economies.

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

ASEAN Financial Integration

ASEAN Financial Integration »

Volume/Issue: 2015/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Geert Almekinders , Alex Mourmouras , Jianping Zhou , Satoshi Fukuda , and Yong Sarah Zhou

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 February 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484386491.001

ISBN: 9781484386491

Keywords: Economic growth, Cross country analysis, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Capital flows, Capital account liberalization, Economic integration, Financial integration, Indonesia

The establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) at end-2015 has brought into sharp focus the issue of financial and economic integration in the region. This paper takes stock of ASEAN's financial integratio...

Conventional and Insidious Macroeconomic Balance-Sheet Crises

Conventional and Insidious Macroeconomic Balance-Sheet Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2014/160

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Bas Bakker , and Leslie Lipschitz

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 August 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498389044.001

ISBN: 9781498389044

Keywords: crises, capital inflows, exchange rate, real effective exchange rate, effective exchange rate, General, Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance, Globalization: General,

This paper describes the anatomy of two types of balance-sheet macroeconomic crises. Conventional balance-sheet crises are triggered by external imbalances and balance sheet vulnerabilities. They typically occur af...

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter »

Volume/Issue: 2012/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Evans

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938437.001

ISBN: 9781463938437

Keywords: Exchange Rate Dynamics, Open-Economy Macro Models, Habits, Incomplete Markets, risk, consumption, exchange-rate, exchange rates, depreciation, Macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance

Dark matter accounts for 83 percent of the matter in the universe and plays a central role in cosmology modeling. This paper argues that an analogous form of dark matter plays a similarly important role in internat...

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity
			: The Main Considerations

Treasury Bills and/Or Central Bank Bills for Absorbing Surplus Liquidity : The Main Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2012/40

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Obert Nyawata

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463933838.001

ISBN: 9781463933838

Keywords: consolidated public sector, central bank, government securities, debt management, Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development, Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs: Public Policy,

This paper discusses the challenging question of whether central banks should use treasury bills or central bank bills for draining excess liquidity in the banking system. While recognizing that there are practical...

Financial Frictions, Investment, and Institutions

Financial Frictions, Investment, and Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2010/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Yishay Yafeh , Kenichi Ueda , and Stijn Claessens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455209316.001

ISBN: 9781455209316

Keywords: Financial Friction, institution, creditor rights, measurement errors, correlation, equation, financial markets, standard deviation, Corporate Finance and Governance: General, Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General,

Financial frictions have been identified as key factors affecting economic fluctuations and growth. But, can institutional reforms reduce financial frictions? Based on a canonical investment model, we consider two...

Can Markets Compute Equilibria?

Can Markets Compute Equilibria? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Hunter Monroe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871715.001

ISBN: 9781451871715

Keywords: Nash equilibria, bounded rationality, computational complexity, problems, polynomial, arithmetic, computation,

Recent turmoil in financial and commodities markets has renewed questions regarding how well markets discover equilibrium prices, particularly when those markets are highly complex. A relatively new critique questi...

The Use of Blanket Guarantees in Banking Crises

The Use of Blanket Guarantees in Banking Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2008/250

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Luc Laeven , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871081.001

ISBN: 9781451871081

Keywords: banking, liquidity support, banking system, deposit insurance, bank restructuring

In episodes of significant banking distress or perceived systemic risk to the financial system, policymakers have often opted for issuing blanket guarantees on bank liabilities to stop or avoid widespread bank runs...

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/232

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lea Zicchino , and Erlend Nier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870909.001

ISBN: 9781451870909

Keywords: Loan supply, banking, banking crises, bank capital,

We assess the extent to which loan losses affect banks’ provision of credit to companies and households and examine how feedback from losses to a reduction in credit is affected by the monetary policy stance...

Default, Credit Growth, and Asset Prices

Default, Credit Growth, and Asset Prices »

Volume/Issue: 2006/223

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): C. Goodhart , Miguel Segoviano Basurto , and Boris Hofmann

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864830.001

ISBN: 9781451864830

Keywords: Probability of default, macroeconomic shocks, financial surveillance, banking, bank lending, probability, Econometric Modeling: General, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Forecasting and Simulation

This paper uses a Merton-type estimate of the probability of default (PoD) for the main banks in a sample of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and middle-income countries as a proxy for the frag...