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Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

International Pricing of Emerging Market Corporate Debt
			: Does the Corporate Matter?

International Pricing of Emerging Market Corporate Debt : Does the Corporate Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2010/26

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sonja Keller , and Ashoka Mody

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451962475.001

ISBN: 9781451962475

Keywords: Corporate bonds, bond spreads, Fama-French factors, equity returns, bonds, bond, General Financial Markets, Corporate Finance And Governance,

We examine risk spreads charged on corporate bonds placed by emerging market borrowers on international exchanges. While global developments have an important effect on spreads, changes in firm-level default risk a...

Emerging Market Spread Compression
			: Is it Real or is it Liquidity?

Emerging Market Spread Compression : Is it Real or is it Liquidity? »

Volume/Issue: 2008/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Laura Kodres , Kristian Hartelius , and Kenichiro Kashiwase

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451868722.001

ISBN: 9781451868722

Keywords: Sovereign Spreads, Fundamentals, bond, bond spreads, market bond, emerging market bond, standard deviation,

Despite recent turmoil, spreads on emerging market countries' sovereign bonds have fallen dramatically since mid-2002. Some have attributed the fall to improved economic fundamentals while others to ample global li...

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption »

Volume/Issue: 2007/218

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867824.001

ISBN: 9781451867824

Keywords: Ethnic Fractionalization, Democracy, voters, ethnic group, voter, ethnic groups,

I study the link between ethnic diversity, democracy, and corruption. In a static model, I show that contrary to conventional wisdom, corruption might emerge as a negative externality of democracy. This occurs thro...

Robbing the Riches
			: Capital Flight, Institutions, and Instability

Robbing the Riches : Capital Flight, Institutions, and Instability »

Volume/Issue: 2005/199

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sweta Saxena , Meenakshi Rishi , and Valerie Cerra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451862188.001

ISBN: 9781451862188

Keywords: Institutions, external debt, debt accumulation, external borrowing, short-term debt, International Factor Movements and International Business: General, International Lending and Debt Problems,

Capital flight may undermine economic growth and the effectiveness of debt relief and foreign aid. This paper is the first attempt to test whether unsound macroeconomic policies or weak institutions lead to capital...

Are Emerging Market Countries Learning to Float?

Are Emerging Market Countries Learning to Float? »

Volume/Issue: 2005/98

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Dalia Hakura

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451861174.001

ISBN: 9781451861174

Keywords: Learning to float, monetary and financial policy frameworks, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, flexible exchange rate, flexible exchange rate regimes, financial liberalization, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions,

The paper finds that exchange rate flexibility in emerging market countries has increased over the past decade. This "learning to float" appears to have involved a strengthening of monetary and financial policy fra...

Foreign Aid and Revenue Response
			: Does the Composition of Aid Matter?

Foreign Aid and Revenue Response : Does the Composition of Aid Matter? »

Volume/Issue: 2003/176

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Pivovarsky , Benedict Clements , Sanjeev Gupta , and Erwin Tiongson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451858839.001

ISBN: 9781451858839

Keywords: revenue, tax effort, foreign debt, domestic borrowing, tax revenue, Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue: General,

This paper examines the revenue response to inflows of foreign aid in 107 countries during the period 1970–2000, In particular, it investigates whether the impact of aid on the revenue effort depends on the...

Trade, Finance, Specialization, and Synchronization

Trade, Finance, Specialization, and Synchronization »

Volume/Issue: 2003/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jean Imbs

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451850383.001

ISBN: 9781451850383

Keywords: specialization, financial openness, international business cycle, optimal currency area, financial integration, equation, correlations, correlation, bilateral trade, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

The paper investigates the determinants of business cycles synchronization across regions. It uses both international and intranational data to evaluate the linkages between trade in goods, trade in financial asset...

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable
			: Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable : Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061606.054

ISBN: 9781589061606

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure, primary education, forest, health care, government expenditure, government spending

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...

IMF Research Bulletin, March 2002

IMF Research Bulletin, March 2002 »

Volume/Issue: 3/1

Series: IMF Research Bulletin

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 March 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451929331.026

ISBN: 9781451929331

Keywords: income distribution, macroeconomic policies, income inequality, international monetary fund, transition economies

Articles reviewing IMF research on dollarization and on the relationship between macroeconomic policies and income distribution; country/area study: The Euro Area; summaries of Second Annual IMF Research Conference...