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Identifying Constraints to Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP and Inequality
			: A Structural Framework for Policy

Identifying Constraints to Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP and Inequality : A Structural Framework for Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2015/22

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Era Dabla-Norris , Yan Ji , Robert Townsend , and Filiz Unsal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498381598.001

ISBN: 9781498381598

Keywords: Financial inclusion, inequality, hetergenous agents, income, credit, gdp, wealth, equilibrium, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Other

We develop a micro-founded general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to identify pertinent constraints to financial inclusion. We evaluate quantitatively the policy impacts of relaxing each of these const...

Reforma de los subsidios a la energía
			: Lecciones e implicaciones

Reforma de los subsidios a la energía : Lecciones e implicaciones »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484380109.071

ISBN: 9781484380109

Keywords: subsidios a la energía, subsidios, energía

Los subsidios a la energía tienen consecuencias económicas de amplio alcance. A pesar de que tienen por objeto proteger a los consumidores, los subsidios agravan los desequilibrios fiscales, desplazan gastos públic...

Energy Subsidy Reform
			: Lessons and Implications

Energy Subsidy Reform : Lessons and Implications »

Series: Books

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Stefania Fabrizio , Sanjeev Gupta , Trevor Alleyne , and Carlo Sdralevich

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 September 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475558111.071

ISBN: 9781475558111

Keywords: prices, electricity, pricing, electricity sector, electricity subsidies

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book prov...

Foreign Aid and Revenue
			: Still a Crowding Out Effect?

Foreign Aid and Revenue : Still a Crowding Out Effect? »

Volume/Issue: 2012/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ernesto Crivelli , Sanjeev Gupta , Priscilla Muthoora , and Dora Benedek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505344.001

ISBN: 9781475505344

Keywords: tax revenues, tax revenue, total tax revenue

This paper reexamines the relationship between aid and domestic tax revenues using a more recent and comprehensive dataset covering 118 countries for the period 1980 - 2009. Overall, our results support earlier fin...

Food Prices and Political Instability

Food Prices and Political Instability »

Volume/Issue: 2011/62

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rabah Arezki , and Markus Bruckner

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455221066.001

ISBN: 9781455221066

Keywords: Conflict, Political Institutions, food price, food production, food insecurity, food consumption, Economic Systems: General, General,

We examine the effects that variations in the international food prices have on democracy and intra-state conflict using panel data for over 120 countries during the period 1970-2007. Our main finding is that in Lo...

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption

Ethnic Diversity, Democracy, and Corruption »

Volume/Issue: 2007/218

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Etienne Yehoue

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867824.001

ISBN: 9781451867824

Keywords: Ethnic Fractionalization, Democracy, voters, ethnic group, voter, ethnic groups,

I study the link between ethnic diversity, democracy, and corruption. In a static model, I show that contrary to conventional wisdom, corruption might emerge as a negative externality of democracy. This occurs thro...

Assessing Competitiveness and Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Competitiveness and Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Low-Income Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2007/201

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mark Lewis , Aurelie Martin , and Gabriel Di Bella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867657.001

ISBN: 9781451867657

Keywords: Competitiveness, Equilibrium Exchange Rates, Low-Income Countries, reer, exchange rate, export volume, exchange rates, real exchange rate, Comparative Studies of Countries,

Assessing a country's competitiveness routinely starts with an analysis of the real exchange rate. However, in low-income countries, empirical analysis of the real exchange rate is often subject to important limita...

What Transparency Can Do When Incentives Fail
			: An Analysis of Rent Capture

What Transparency Can Do When Incentives Fail : An Analysis of Rent Capture »

Volume/Issue: 2006/146

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Elisabeth Paul , and Era Dabla-Norris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451864069.001

ISBN: 9781451864069

Keywords: incentives, wages, budget constraint, wage, fiscal transparency, fiscal management,

This paper analyzes the pervasiveness and persistence of rent seeking, misgovernance, and public sector inefficiency in many developing and transition economies. We formalize evidence from country experiences and e...

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible

Dimensiones fiscales del desarrollo sostenible »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 December 2002

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061613.054

ISBN: 9781589061613

La política fiscal influye en el desarrollo sostenible a través de sus efectos en el crecimiento, el medio ambiente y el desarrollo de los recursos naturales. ¿Qué relaciones existen entre la política fiscal y el d...

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable
			: Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable

Aspects budgétaires du développement durable : Le Sommet mondial sur le développement durable »

Series: Pamphlet Series

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 October 2002

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061606.054

ISBN: 9781589061606

Keywords: fiscal policy, public spending, expenditure, sustainable development, public expenditure, primary education, forest, health care, government expenditure, government spending

Fiscal policy affects sustainable development through its effects on growth, the environment, and resource development. What are the relationships between fiscal policy and sustainable development, and how does the...