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Regional Economic Outlook, May 2018, Europe

Managing the Upswing in Uncertain Times

The Spring EUR REO projects the economic outlook for the region for the next six months.

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Capital Inflows, Credit Growth, and Financial Systems

Capital Inflows, Credit Growth, and Financial Systems »

Volume/Issue: 2015/193

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Deniz Igan , and Zhibo Tan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 August 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513581262.001

ISBN: 9781513581262

Keywords: Financial development, Financial structure, credit growth, financial system, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy,

Exploiting a granular panel dataset that breaks down capital inflows into FDI, portfolio and other categories, and distinguishes between credit to the household sector and to the corporate sector, we investigate th...

Inflation Reports and Models
			: How Well Do Central Banks Really Write?

Inflation Reports and Models : How Well Do Central Banks Really Write? »

Volume/Issue: 2014/91

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ales Bulir , Jaromír Hurník , and Katerina Smidkova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 May 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498387613.001

ISBN: 9781498387613

Keywords: Kalman filter, monetary policy communication, inflation, central bank, aggregate demand, Forecasting and Simulation, Forecasting and Simulation,

We offer a novel methodology for assessing the quality of inflation reports. In contrast to the existing literature, which mostly evaluates the formal quality of these reports, we evaluate their economic content by...

Environmental Tax Reform
			: Principles from Theory and Practice to Date

Environmental Tax Reform : Principles from Theory and Practice to Date »

Volume/Issue: 2012/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Parry , John Norregaard , and Dirk Heine

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475505283.001

ISBN: 9781475505283

Keywords: design principles, externalities, fuel taxes, country evaluation, environmental tax, tax systems, tax reform, tax system, Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation: Government Policy, Energy: Government Policy,

This paper recommends a system of upstream taxes on fossil fuels, combined with refunds for downstream emissions capture, to reduce carbon and local pollution emissions. Motor fuel taxes should also account for con...

Clarity of Central Bank Communication About Inflation

Clarity of Central Bank Communication About Inflation »

Volume/Issue: 2012/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ales Bulir , David-Jan Jansen , and Martin Cihak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463931148.001

ISBN: 9781463931148

Keywords: communication, clarity, central bank, inflation target,

This paper examines whether the clarity of central bank communication about inflation has changed with the economic environment. We use readability statistics and content analysis to study the clarity of communicat...

Causes, Benefits, and Risks of Business Tax Incentives

Causes, Benefits, and Risks of Business Tax Incentives »

Volume/Issue: 2009/21

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Klemm

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871685.001

ISBN: 9781451871685

Keywords: effective tax rates, tax system, tax rates, taxation,

This paper provides an updated overview of tax incentives for business investment. It begins by noting that tax competition is likely to be a major force driving countries' tax reforms, and discusses tax incentives...

Writing Clearly
			: ECB's Monetary Policy Communication

Writing Clearly : ECB's Monetary Policy Communication »

Volume/Issue: 2008/252

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Cihak , Katerina Smídková , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451871104.001

ISBN: 9781451871104

Keywords: Communication, inflation, central bank, inflation forecasts, inflation target,

The paper presents a methodology for measuring the clarity of central bank communication, illustrating it with the case of the European Central Bank (ECB) in 1999-2007. The analysis identifies the ECB's written com...

Inflation Targeting and Communication
			: It Pays Off to Read Inflation Reports

Inflation Targeting and Communication : It Pays Off to Read Inflation Reports »

Volume/Issue: 2008/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Katerina Smídková , Viktor Kotlán , David Navrátil , and Ales Bulir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870923.001

ISBN: 9781451870923

Keywords: inflation, central bank, inflation forecasts

Inflation-targeting central banks have a respectable track record at explaining their policy actions and corresponding inflation outturns. Using a simple forward-looking policy rule and an assessment of inflation r...

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies

Issues in the Establishment of Asset Management Companies »

Volume/Issue: 2004/3

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Stefan Ingves , Steven Seelig , and Dong He

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451974225.003

ISBN: 9781451974225

Keywords: Asset management, Bank restructuring, Financial crisis, corporate restructuring, loan restructuring, restructuring, asset management companies, impaired assets, Financial Institutions and Services: Government Policy and Regulation,

This paper discusses the role of asset management companies (AMCs) in facilitating bank restructuring and specifies some policy lessons learned from international experience. The paper concludes that there is no si...

Financial Infrastructure, Group Interests, and Capital Accumulation
			: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

Financial Infrastructure, Group Interests, and Capital Accumulation : Theory, Evidence, and Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2003/24

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Biaggio Bossone , Sandeep Mahajan , and Farah Zahir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451844160.001

ISBN: 9781451844160

Keywords: Nonbank financial intermediation, Group interest, Information, Knowledge, Transaction costs, banking, banking sector, financial markets, financial sector, transaction cost

This study presents a theory of financial infrastructure - or the set of rules, institutions, and systems within which agents carry out financial transactions. It investigates the effects of financial infrastructur...