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Regional Economic Outlook, May 2018, Europe

Managing the Upswing in Uncertain Times

The Spring EUR REO projects the economic outlook for the region for the next six months.

Introducing a General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR)
			: Ensuring That a GAAR Achieves Its Purpose

Introducing a General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) : Ensuring That a GAAR Achieves Its Purpose »

Volume: 1

Series: Tax Law Technical Note

Author(s): Christophe Waerzeggers , and Cory Hillier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513515823.008

ISBN: 9781513515823

Keywords: Tax evasion, Tax regimes, Tax systems, tax, tax benefit, tax law, transaction, tax avoidance

Tax avoidance continues to attract attention globally with strong support for tax law reform at all levels. This Tax Law IMF Technical Note focuses on some of the key design and drafting considerations of one speci...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

Bank Risk Within and Across Equilibria

Bank Risk Within and Across Equilibria »

Volume/Issue: 2014/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Itai Agur

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498306515.001

ISBN: 9781498306515

Keywords: Bank risk, Wholesale funding, Adverse selection, Multiple equilibria, banking, systemic risk, bank exposures, bank funding,

The global financial crisis highlighted that the financial system can be most vulnerable when it seems most stable. This paper models non-linear dynamics in banking. Small shocks can lead from an equilibrium with f...

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter »

Volume/Issue: 2012/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Evans

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938437.001

ISBN: 9781463938437

Keywords: Exchange Rate Dynamics, Open-Economy Macro Models, Habits, Incomplete Markets, risk, consumption, exchange-rate, exchange rates, depreciation, Macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance

Dark matter accounts for 83 percent of the matter in the universe and plays a central role in cosmology modeling. This paper argues that an analogous form of dark matter plays a similarly important role in internat...

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Bergljot Barkbu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068117.084

ISBN: 9781589068117

Keywords: debt sustainability, public debt, debt service, debt relief, domestic debt, debt-service, current account, debt burden, debt dynamics, debt ratio

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

What Drives Household Borrowing and Credit Constraints? Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

What Drives Household Borrowing and Credit Constraints? Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina »

Volume/Issue: 2008/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ke Chen Chen , and Mali Chivakul

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870602.001

ISBN: 9781451870602

Keywords: household debt, credit constraints, probability, credit market, credit constraint, equation, Bosnia, Herzegovina,

Although Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has experienced rapid growth in credit to households in recent years, most individuals are still credit constrained. This paper analyzes the determinants of household credit de...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Boletin del FMI Vol.36, No.13 noviembre 2007

Boletin del FMI Vol.36, No.13 noviembre 2007 »

Volume/Issue: 36/13

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 November 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451973631.023

ISBN: 9781451973631

Keywords: voting, financial system, financial stability, basic votes, voting share, international financial system, financial systems, voting shares, financial innovation

Solicitud de fortalecimiento del FMI, Perspectivas de crecimiento mundial, Strauss-Kahn asume como nuevo Director Gerente del FMI, Comunicado del CMFI, Globalización, Ciclo económico mundial, flujos de capital, Sem...

Financial Reforms, Financial Openness, and Corporate Borrowing
			: International Evidence

Financial Reforms, Financial Openness, and Corporate Borrowing : International Evidence »

Volume/Issue: 2007/186

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Enrica Detragiache , Gianni De Nicolo , and Senay Agca

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451867503.001

ISBN: 9781451867503

Keywords: Corporate leverage, debt maturity, financial reforms, financial openness, international financial markets, financial liberalization, bond, bond rating,

We study how credit market deregulation and increased international financial openness have changed corporate borrowing. The evidence comes from a large panel of publicly traded firms in 38 countries over the perio...