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Appendix I Real Exchange Rate Movements and External Competitiveness

Appendix I Real Exchange Rate Movements and External Competitiveness »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

Movements in the real exchange rate are summarized in Charts 6 and 7, which show the path of the real effective exchange rate (that is, the trade-weighted exchange rate adjusted for...

Appendix II Foreign Direct Investment

Appendix II Foreign Direct Investment »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

The reform strategy implemented in the Lao P.D.R. since 1985 has recognized the importance of external resources—both official and private—in accelerating economic transformation an...

Appendix III Legal and Constitutional Reform

Appendix III Legal and Constitutional Reform »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

Before the takeover in late 1975, the Kingdom of the Lao P.D.R. had the Constitution of 1947 and an essentially two-tier legal framework: civil affairs, such as family, dowry, inher...

Appendix IV Structure of the Tax System, End-1994

Appendix IV Structure of the Tax System, End-1994 »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

Tax Exemptions and Deductions Rate...

Appendix Private Investment Behavior in Thailand

Appendix Private Investment Behavior in Thailand »

Source: Thailand : The Road to Sustained Growth

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Erik Offerdal , Kalpana Kochhar , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Jianping Zhou , Mauro Mecagni , and Balázs Horváth

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756039

Keywords: private investment, wages, wage, fiscal policy, adjustment period

This appendix presents results of an empirical investigation of the determinants of private investment in Thailand. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s, the ratio of pr...

Appendix V The Lao Government's Policy Agenda, 1994/95–1999/2000

Appendix V The Lao Government's Policy Agenda, 1994/95–1999/2000 »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

As described in the Committee for Planning and Cooperation's Medium-Term Policy Framework and Public Investment Program, the Lao Government's ambitious policy agenda for 1994/95–199...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

I Introduction

I Introduction »

Source: IMF-Supported Programs in Capital Account Crises : Design and Experience

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ales Bulir , Marianne Schulze-Gattas , Atish Ghosh , Alex Mourmouras , A. Hamann , and Timothy Lane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 February 2002

ISBN: 9781589060821

Keywords: Capital flows, Financial sector, capital outflows, current account, private capital flows, capital inflows

Increasing globalization of capital markets poses new challenges for the design and implementation of IMF-supported programs. These challenges have been thrown into sharpest relief in recent capital account...

I Introduction and Summary

I Introduction and Summary »

Source: The Lao People's Democratic Republic : Systemic Transformation and Adjustment

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ichiro Otani , and Chi Pham

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 May 1996

ISBN: 9781557755605

Keywords: banking, exchange rate, foreign exchange, privatization, foreign investment

This paper assesses the experience of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (P.D.R.) 1 with systemic transformation during 1989—94; when the IMF provided financial support under th...

I Introduction and Summary: Issues in Adjustment and Growth

I Introduction and Summary: Issues in Adjustment and Growth »

Source: Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries : Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kalpana Kochhar , Erik Offerdal , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , Mauro Mecagni , Jianping Zhou , Balázs Horváth , David Goldsbrough , and Sharmini Coorey

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 August 1996

ISBN: 9781557755599

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, private investment, external financing, wages

Following the severe economic shocks—a sharp deterioration in the terms of trade and higher world interest rates—of the late 1970s and early 1980s and the ensuing debt crisis, a large number of developing co...