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Alternative Dual Exchange Market Regimes: Some Steady-State Comparisons

Alternative Dual Exchange Market Regimes: Some Steady-State Comparisons »

Source: IMF Staff papers : Volume 38 No. 3

Volume: 38

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

ISBN: 9781451973136

Keywords: current account, real exchange, real exchange rate, exchange rate, trade liberalization

Trade liberalization in developing countries is frequently opposed on the grounds that, because it is likely to cause a deterioration in the external balance, it may not be a viable policy option for countries faci...

Capital Controls and the Gains from Trade in a Business Cycle Model of a Small Open Economy

Capital Controls and the Gains from Trade in a Business Cycle Model of a Small Open Economy »

Source: IMF Staff papers : Volume 38 No. 3

Volume: 38

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1991

ISBN: 9781451973136

Keywords: current account, real exchange, real exchange rate, exchange rate, trade liberalization

Trade liberalization in developing countries is frequently opposed on the grounds that, because it is likely to cause a deterioration in the external balance, it may not be a viable policy option for countries faci...

Chapter 4: Characteristics of Prolonged Users

Chapter 4: Characteristics of Prolonged Users »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. This chapter describes some of the main characteristics of the prolonged users in terms of performance and key economic indicators and compares them with the characteristics of “temporary” users. Further...

Chapter 8: Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 8: Conclusions and Recommendations »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. This chapter summarizes the main conclusions of this study on the extent of prolonged use, on the factors underlying it, and on its effects. We then make a number of specific recommendations designed to c...

Chapter 12: Evidence from Two Countries That “Graduated” from Prolonged Use

Chapter 12: Evidence from Two Countries That “Graduated” from Prolonged Use »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

Morocco 1. Morocco is one of the few recent prolonged users of IMF resources to have “graduated.” It had a series of nine arrangements between 1980 and 1993, 1...

Chapter 6: Influence of IMF Governance and Other Institutional Factors on Prolonged Use

Chapter 6: Influence of IMF Governance and Other Institutional Factors on Prolonged Use »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. In this chapter, we examine governance issues that are relevant to the phenomenon of prolonged use. These include institutional biases that can affect program design and contribute to prolonged use, inclu...

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. In recent years, the IMF has been at the center of an array of criticism concerning the adverse side effects of its interventions in the countries that it supports financially, the effectiveness of the ec...

Chapter 9: Pakistan

Chapter 9: Pakistan »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. Pakistan is one of the most prolonged users of IMF resources and has been under IMF-supported programs almost continuously since the late 1980s. 2. This report aims to cast light on what successi...

Chapter 10: Philippines

Chapter 10: Philippines »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

Introduction 1. The Philippines is probably the most extreme case of prolonged use of IMF resources, with 23 programs between 1962 and 2000. Over the 30-year period 1971–2000, the Ph...

Chapter 5: Prolonged Use and Effectiveness of IMF-Supported Programs

Chapter 5: Prolonged Use and Effectiveness of IMF-Supported Programs »

Source: Evaluation of Prolonged Use of IMF Resources

Series: Independent Evaluation Office Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

ISBN: 9781589062054

Keywords: balance of payments, current account, tax administration, external debt

1. Since UFR policies have been designed at least to contain, if not entirely avoid, prolonged use, the pervasiveness of the phenomenon raises questions about the effectiveness of IMF-supported programs in p...