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Brazil

Boom, Bust, and Road to Recovery

Brazil is at crossroads, emerging slowly from a historic recession that was preceded by a huge economic boom.

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy

APPENDIX II Some Empirical Evidence on Price and Subsidy Policy »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Empirical information concerning the direct effect of price and subsidy policy on income distribution is scarce and of questionable quality. In addition, existing studies do not cover a sufficient range of c...

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84

APPENDIX III A Review of Policies in Fund Programs, 1980–84 »

Source: Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 1986

ISBN: 9780939934645

Keywords: taxation, expenditure, salaries, subsidies, income distribution

Selection of the Sample The Fund approved 117 stand-by programs and 23 extended facilities from January 1980 to December 1984, for 68 countries. Twenty-two countries had programs in...

Appendix III. Principal Policy Decisions of the Executive Board

Appendix III. Principal Policy Decisions of the Executive Board »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

A. Access Policy—Guidelines on Access Limits (a) Extension of Annual Access Limit and Period for Review The Fund decides that the annual review of the...

Appendix IV. IMF Relations with Other International Organizations

Appendix IV. IMF Relations with Other International Organizations »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

The lessons and experiences of the Asian financial crisis, and the need to strengthen the architecture of the international financial system, led to continuing extensive collaboration between the IMF and oth...

Appendix IX. Financial Statements

Appendix IX. Financial Statements »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

Report of the External Audit Committee Washington, DC June 24, 1999 Authority and Scope of the Audit...

Appendix V. External Relations

Appendix V. External Relations »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

In 1998/99, the IMF continued to respond to rising demands for transparency in its activities and policies by stepping up considerably its publication of information—both in print and on its website—and libe...

Appendix VI. Press Communiqués of the Interim Committee and the Development Committee

Appendix VI. Press Communiqués of the Interim Committee and the Development Committee »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

Interim Committee of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary System PRESS COMMUNIQUÉS Fifty-First Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 4, 1998...

Appendix VII. Executive Directors and Voting Power on April 30, 1999

Appendix VII. Executive Directors and Voting Power on April 30, 1999 »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

DirectorAlternate CastingVotes of Votes byCountry TotalVotes...

Appendix VIII. Changes in Membership of the Executive Board

Appendix VIII. Changes in Membership of the Executive Board »

Source: International Monetary Fund Annual Report 1999

Series: Annual Report of the Executive Board

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 1999

ISBN: 9781451945232

Keywords: interest, debt, payments, loans, external debt

Changes in membership of the Executive Board between May 1, 1998 and April 30, 1999 were as follows: Han Mingzhi (China) relinquished his duties as Alternate Executive Director to Zhang Zhixiang (Ch...

Are Business Cycles Different in Asia and Latin America?

Are Business Cycles Different in Asia and Latin America? »

Source: Are Business Cycles Different in Asia and Latin America?

Volume/Issue: 1997/9

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alexander Hoffmaister , and Jorge Roldos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1997

ISBN: 9781451927313

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, terms of trade, exchange rate fluctuations, nominal exchange rate

This paper compares business cycles in Asia and in Latin America using structural vector autoregression analysis with panel data. The evidence for countries in these regions suggests that (i) the main source of out...