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Russian Federation
			: Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module

Russian Federation : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes-Fiscal Transparency Module »

Volume/Issue: 2004/288

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451833058.002

ISBN: 9781451833058

Keywords: budget law, budget code, budget execution, annual budget

This report on the Russian Federation's Observance of Standards and Codes reports on the fiscal transparency module. Russia has achieved considerable progress in fiscal transparency and financial management since 1...

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe

Tackling Small and Medium Enterprise Problem Loans in Europe »

Volume/Issue: 2015/4

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Wolfgang Bergthaler , Kenneth Kang , Yan Liu , and Dermot Monaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 March 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498384834.006

ISBN: 9781498384834

Keywords: Corporate sector, Debt restructuring, Business enterprises, Bankruptcy, Europe, Economic recovery, Insolvency, Non-performing loans, SME, debt distress

The global financial crisis has left a large private sector debt overhang and high levels of non- performing loans (NPLs) in several European countries. Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) represent a signific...

IMF Survey
			: Volume 28, Issue 18

IMF Survey : Volume 28, Issue 18 »

Volume/Issue: 28/18

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451927832.023

ISBN: 9781451927832

Keywords: international capital markets, capital markets, international capital, financial system, capital movements

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data

Bank Losses, Monetary Policy and Financial Stability-Evidence on the Interplay from Panel Data »

Volume/Issue: 2008/232

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lea Zicchino , and Erlend Nier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451870909.001

ISBN: 9781451870909

Keywords: Loan supply, banking, banking crises, bank capital,

We assess the extent to which loan losses affect banks’ provision of credit to companies and households and examine how feedback from losses to a reduction in credit is affected by the monetary policy stance...

Bank Risk Within and Across Equilibria

Bank Risk Within and Across Equilibria »

Volume/Issue: 2014/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Itai Agur

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 July 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498306515.001

ISBN: 9781498306515

Keywords: Bank risk, Wholesale funding, Adverse selection, Multiple equilibria, banking, systemic risk, bank exposures, bank funding,

The global financial crisis highlighted that the financial system can be most vulnerable when it seems most stable. This paper models non-linear dynamics in banking. Small shocks can lead from an equilibrium with f...

Commodity Prices
			: Cyclical Weakness or Secular Decline?

Commodity Prices : Cyclical Weakness or Secular Decline? »

Volume/Issue: 1994/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Peter Wickham , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451842371.001

ISBN: 9781451842371

Keywords: commodity prices, export earnings, hedging, terms of trade, commodity agreements

Primary commodities still account for the bulk of exports in many developing countries. However, real commodity prices have been declining almost continuously since the early 1980s and there is evidence of renewed...

Comparing Projections and Outcomes of IMF-Supported Programs

Comparing Projections and Outcomes of IMF-Supported Programs »

Volume/Issue: 2001/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Steven Phillips , and Alberto Musso

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451846478.001

ISBN: 9781451846478

Keywords: IMF, programs, projections, forecasts, statistics, statistic, forecasting, samples

“Program numbers” from a sample of IMF-supported programs are studied as if they were forecasts, through statistical analyses of the relationship between projections and outcomes for growth, inflation...

Corruption Around the World
			: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures

Corruption Around the World : Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures »

Volume/Issue: 1998/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Vito Tanzi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1998

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848397.001

ISBN: 9781451848397

Keywords: role of state, regulations, bribes, wages, salaries, wage, bribe

Corruption is attracting a lot of attention around the world. The paper surveys and discusses issues related to the causes, consequences, and scope of corruption and possible corrective actions. It emphasizes the c...

Dread of Depreciation
			: Measuring Real Exchange Rate Interventions

Dread of Depreciation : Measuring Real Exchange Rate Interventions »

Volume/Issue: 2002/63

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jayasri Dutta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451848434.001

ISBN: 9781451848434

Keywords: interventions, parity conditions, exchange rates, exchange rate, real exchange rate, equation,

We specify an empirical framework to detect the effects of official intervention on real exchange rate dynamics. Using data for 27 advanced and emerging market economies, we find evidence that interventions are a n...

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter

Exchange-Rate Dark Matter »

Volume/Issue: 2012/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Evans

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463938437.001

ISBN: 9781463938437

Keywords: Exchange Rate Dynamics, Open-Economy Macro Models, Habits, Incomplete Markets, risk, consumption, exchange-rate, exchange rates, depreciation, Macroeconomic Aspects Of International Trade And Finance

Dark matter accounts for 83 percent of the matter in the universe and plays a central role in cosmology modeling. This paper argues that an analogous form of dark matter plays a similarly important role in internat...