- Ichiro Otani, and Chi Pham
- Published Date:
- May 1996
The Lao People’s Democratic Republic Systemic Transformation and Adjustment
Edited by Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham
with contributions from
Jonathan G.Anderson, Michael Braulke,
James A. Daniel, Filippo Di Mauro,
Przemyslaw Gajdeczka, and Padma Gotur
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
© 1996 International Monetary Fund
The Lao People's Democratic Republic systemic transformation and adjustment / edited by Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham; with contributions from Jonathan G. Anderson… [et al.].—
Washington. D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1995
p. cm.—(Occasional Paper; 137)
I. Laos—Economic Policy. I. Otani, Ichiro, II. Pham. Chi Do. III. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 137. HG443.L36 1996
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available:
—to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
–between years or months (e.g.. 1991–92 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months:
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country.” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a stale as understood by international law and practice: the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
As used in this paper, the country names Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia refer to the former Czech and Slovak Republic and the former Social Republic of Yugoslavia.
This Occasional Paper reviews the Lao People's Democratic Republic experience with systemic transformation and macroeconomic adjustment in recent years and highlights challenges that the country is likely to face in the coming years. This paper draws largely on background work carried out by the IMF staff missions for the 1994 Article IV consultation discussions with Lao officials and for policy dialogues with them in connection with the IMF financial assistance provided to the country under the enhanced structural adjustment facility over the 1993–96 period. This Occasional Paper, a product of collaborative efforts, has been edited by Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham. The principal contributors of sections are as follows: Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham (Section I); Michael Braulke (Section II); Michael Braulke and Chi Do Pham (Section III); Padma Gotur (Section IV); Jonathan G. Anderson (Section V); Filippo Di Mauro (Section VI); James A. Daniel (Section VII): and Ichiro Otani, Padma Gotur, and Chi Do Pham (Section VIII). Appendices I, II, III, IV, and V are contributed principally by James A. Daniel, Przemyslaw Gajdeczka. Michael Braulke, Filippo Di Mauro, and Chi Do Pham, respectively.
Many individuals have assisted in preparing this Occasional Paper. We wish to thank David Goldsbrough and Jeremy Carter for their insights and comments, Youkyong Kwon and Viola Chou for research assistance, and Mila Villar. Amparo Rosario, and Cathy Song for secretarial assistance. We also thank Thomas Walter for excellent editorial assistance and coordination of production.
The views expressed here, as well as any errors, are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Lao Government, the Executive Directors of the IMF, or any other members of the IMF staff.