Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Thailand

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 2001
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Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Table 1.Thailand: Expenditure on Gross Domestic Product at Current Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Prel.Prel.
(In billions of baht)
GDP4,192.74,622.84,740.24,628.44,615.44,900.3
Consumption2,640.32,954.53,071.43,029.43,124.33,327.0
Private2,224.22,482.92,592.32,516.52,600.92,761.9
Government416.1471.5479.0512.9523.4565.1
Gross fixed investment1,716.11,886.11,581.41,028.3927.11,045.6
Private1,343.21,415.11,030.6583.4500.2641.0
Public372.9471.0550.8444.9426.9404.6
Change in stocks38.436.1−1.4−87.6−6.865.1
Foreign balance−281.5−289.367.0735.0583.0404.2
Exports of goods and services1,749.31,807.32,266.02,717.72,698.53,250.5
Imports of goods and services2,030.82,096.62,199.01,982.72,115.62,846.3
Statistical discrepancy79.435.521.8−76.7−12.258.4
Net factor income from abroad−68.2−102.1−123.4−160.0−126.4−55.5
GNP4,124.54,520.74,616.94,468.44,489.04,844.8
(In percent of GDP)
GDP100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Consumption63.063.964.865.567.767.9
Private53.053.754.754.456.456.4
Government9.910.210.111.111.311.5
Gross fixed investment40.940.833.422.220.121.3
Private32.030.621.712.610.813.1
Public8.910.211.69.69.38.3
Change in stocks0.90.80.0−1.9−0.11.3
Foreign balance−6.7−6.31.415.912.68.2
Exports of goods and services41.739.147.858.758.566.3
Imports of goods and services48.445.446.442.845.858.1
Statistical discrepancy1.90.80.5−1.7−0.31.2
Net factor income from abroad−1.6−2.2−2.6−3.5−2.7−1.1
GNP98.497.897.496.597.398.9
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 2.Thailand: Aggregate Demand and Supply at 1988 Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Prel.Prel.
(In billions of baht)
GDP2,946.33,119.63,074.52,743.42,859.22,985.0
Consumption1,831.31,952.31,926.11,743.31,804.51,893.0
Private1,598.01,691.11,671.91,479.81,538.81,610.0
Government233.3261.2254.2263.4265.8283.0
Gross fixed investment1,233.01,316.41,038.3570.4547.4576.9
Private969.1994.4683.8320.3304.3348.6
Public263.9322.0354.6250.2243.1228.3
Change in stocks40.124.8−2.2−55.84.440.2
Foreign balance−156.0−224.359.7446.4483.3499.0
Exports of goods and services1,384.21,307.91,416.71,509.41,659.21,916.9
Imports of goods and services1,540.21,532.31,357.01,063.01,175.91,417.9
Statistical discrepancy−2.150.552.639.019.6−24.1
GDP2,946.33,119.63,074.52,743.42,859.22,985.0
Agriculture319.0331.1328.9318.7326.8
Non-agriculture2,627.32,788.62,745.72,424.72,532.3
Of which: Manufacturing919.7980.8997.0882.9988.2
(Percent change)
GDP9.35.9−1.4−10.84.24.4
Consumption7.16.6−1.3−9.53.54.9
Private7.35.8−1.1−11.54.04.6
Government5.611.9−2.73.60.96.5
Gross fixed investment11.06.8−21.1−45.1−4.05.4
Private10.52.6−31.2−53.2−5.014.6
Public12.622.010.1−29.4−2.8−6.1
Exports of goods and services15.6−5.58.36.59.915.5
Imports of goods and services19.9−0.5−11.4−21.710.620.6
GDP9.35.9−1.4−10.84.24.4
Agriculture3.63.8−0.7−3.12.6
Non-agriculture10.06.1−1.5−11.74.4
Of which: Manufacturing12.56.61.7−11.411.9
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 3.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin at Current Prices, 1995–1999
19951996199719981999
Prel.
(In billions of baht)
GDP4,192.74,622.84,740.24,628.44,615.4
Agricultural468.9514.0529.7586.4517.0
Crops259.9293.2303.1330.0267.6
Livestock42.543.943.943.849.9
Fisheries84.387.894.9126.1109.3
Forestry8.08.26.75.65.2
Agricultural services13.314.114.415.215.0
Simple agricultural processing products61.066.866.665.769.9
Non-agricultural3,723.84,108.84,210.54,042.14,098.4
Mining and quarrying50.363.482.384.285.9
Manufacturing1,189.01,303.41,362.71,363.01,435.4
Construction303.2341.7269.3175.1162.1
Electricity and water supply99.4111.3116.8128.4129.9
Transportation and communications302.6340.6369.2360.3376.0
Trade668.9714.8756.7729.3735.8
Banking, insurance, and real estate315.5346.3322.7243.1151.6
Ownership of dwellings99.3109.3115.1120.1127.8
Public administration and defense159.8174.4183.5196.9203.2
Other services535.6603.7632.3641.7690.8
(In percent of GDP)
GDP100.0100.0100.097.697.4
Agricultural11.211.111.212.410.9
Crops6.26.36.47.05.6
Livestock1.01.00.90.91.1
Fisheries2.01.92.02.72.3
Forestry0.20.20.10.10.1
Agricultural services0.30.30.30.30.3
Simple agricultural processing products1.51.41.41.41.5
Non-agricultural88.888.988.885.386.5
Mining and quarrying1.21.41.71.81.8
Manufacturing28.428.228.728.830.3
Construction7.27.45.73.73.4
Electricity and water supply2.42.42.52.72.7
Transportation and communications7.27.47.87.67.9
Trade16.015.516.015.415.5
Banking, insurance, and real estate7.57.56.85.13.2
Ownership of dwellings2.42.42.42.52.7
Public administration and defense3.83.83.94.24.3
Other services12.813.113.313.514.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 4.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin at Constant 1988 Prices, 1995–1999
199419951996199719981999
Prel.
(In billions of 1988 baht)
GDP2,695.42,946.33,119.63,074.52,743.42,859.2
Agricultural308.0319.0331.1328.9318.7326.8
Crops175.7184.4195.9197.9191.6200.5
Livestock31.431.732.333.030.731.4
Fisheries49.850.750.047.548.646.8
Forestry4.65.95.84.63.33.4
Agricultural services9.09.09.29.08.48.3
Simple agricultural processing products37.537.237.936.936.036.5
Non-agricultural2,387.42,627.32,788.62,745.72,424.72,532.3
Mining and quarrying43.844.852.960.056.261.3
Manufacturing817.9919.7981.5997.0882.9988.2
Construction172.0184.0196.6144.788.383.6
Electricity and water supply68.979.183.187.586.089.1
Transportation and communication213.3239.1267.1279.7254.2270.5
Wholesale and retail trade445.9489.2496.8478.6411.8425.0
Banking, insurance, and real estate210.5223.7231.8204.7142.688.6
Ownership of dwellings73.778.684.189.793.798.3
Public administration and defense70.178.583.586.292.493.8
Other services271.2290.6311.2317.7316.6333.9
Net factor income from abroad−38.2−41.0−58.3−64.3−72.2−56.9
GNP2,657.22,905.33,061.43,010.22,671.22,802.3
Per capita GNP (thousand baht)45.348.951.049.743.645.3
GDP deflator134.8142.3148.2154.2168.7161.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 5.Thailand: Investment and Saving at Current Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Prel.Prel.
(In billions of baht)
Gross domestic investment1,754.51,922.21,580.1940.7920.31,110.7
Private sector1,343.21,415.11,030.6583.4500.2641.0
Public sector372.9471.0550.8444.9426.9404.6
Change in inventories38.436.1−1.4−87.6−6.865.1
Financing1,754.51,922.21,580.1940.7920.31,110.7
Gross national savings 1/1,418.51,550.91,541.71,535.71,391.3
Net national savings1,028.71,033.2933.9781.4678.1
Private sector (net)584.6537.7435.2571.4483.5
Households327.0285.5297.4460.3400.9
Businesses net savings257.6252.2137.8111.182.7
Public sector (net)444.1495.5498.8210.0194.6
Government net savings378.9432.0410.7231.1164.4
State enterprise net savings65.263.588.1−21.130.2
Statistical discrepancy79.435.521.8−76.7−12.2
Foreign savings336.0371.238.3−595.0−471.0
Depreciation allowance469.2553.3629.6677.6701.0
(In percent of GDP)
Gross domestic investment41.841.633.320.319.922.7
Private sector32.030.621.712.610.813.1
Public sector8.910.211.69.69.38.3
Change in inventories0.90.80.0−1.9−0.11.3
Financing41.841.633.320.319.922.7
Gross national savings 1/33.833.532.533.230.1
Net national savings24.522.319.716.914.7
Private sector (net)13.911.69.212.310.5
Households7.86.26.39.98.7
Businesses net savings6.15.52.92.41.8
Public sector (net)10.610.710.54.54.2
Government net savings9.09.38.75.03.6
State enterprise net savings1.61.41.94.54.2
Statistical discrepancy1.90.80.55.03.6
Foreign savings8.08.00.8−12.9−10.2
Depreciation allowance11.212.013.314.615.2
Memorandum item:
GDP4,192.704,622.804,740.204,628.404,615.404,900.30
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 6.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product at 1988 Prices
AgricultureNon-agricultureManufacturingWholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Vehicles and Personal and Household GoodsTransport, storage and communicationReal estate, renting and business activitiesPublic administration and defense; compulsory social securityOtherGross domestic product
(Percent change from year earlier)
19954.19.911.99.712.16.012.07.39.3
Q16.59.48.610.514.76.811.78.29.1
Q229.911.713.515.113.44.69.08.213.0
Q31.710.714.611.59.78.47.86.710.0
Q4−8.57.811.02.510.74.420.26.25.5
19974.06.16.52.011.74.66.46.75.9
Q13.04.67.8−1.38.2−2.33.04.64.4
Q26.26.76.76.111.36.78.05.66.7
Q35.97.96.73.918.25.36.29.67.8
Q42.45.04.9−0.99.48.28.87.04.7
1997−4.0−1.61.4−3.24.71.33.3−7.2−1.4
Q11.11.46.41.34.28.31.1−6.91.3
Q2−1.7−0.53.0−4.32.92.63.2−4.0−0.6
Q3−1.4−1.90.3−4.57.1−0.13.4−6.6−1.8
Q4−0.1−5.2−3.9−4.84.6−4.45.6−11.3−4.6
1998−3.2−11.6−11.1−13.0−9.1−2.77.1−15.6−10.8
Q1−2.1−8.2−11.1−9.9−3.62.86.9−7.8−7.6
Q2−11.9−14.4−13.6−16.0−14.8−1.85.0−18.3−14.2
Q3−7.8−14.4−14.6−15.7−13.6−3.97.7−17.6−13.9
Q44.7−9.1−4.8−10.3−4.1−7.98.9−18.3−7.4
1999(prel.)2.74.411.53.66.44.41.5−5.74.2
Q12.8−0.26.13.41.8−0.22.0−13.00.1
Q26.22.39.61.711.4−1.20.0−9.82.7
Q38.87.716.54.85.98.03.1−1.17.8
Q4−2.68.014.14.56.911.40.62.06.5
2000(prel.)2.74.65.92.98.14.51.72.64.4
Q1−2.26.28.03.47.54.9−0.76.25.3
Q25.76.48.14.25.76.89.15.16.4
Q34.62.83.62.07.81.44.4−0.12.9
Q43.53.14.02.011.15.2−5.4−0.53.2
2001(prel.)
Q12.31.71.32.53.63.73.80.21.8
Source: NESDB.
Source: NESDB.
Table 7.Thailand: Gross Domestic Product at 1988 Prices(Seasonally adjusted, percent change from previous quarter)
GDP TotalAgricultureNon-agricultureManufacturingWholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Vehicles and Personal and Household GoodsTransport, storage, and communicationReal estate, renting, and business activitiesPublic administration and defense; compulsory social securityOther
(Percent change from previous quarter)
1995
Ql2.6−6.13.73.70.74.72.922.43.8
Q22.22.72.14.21.71.8−1.4−3.21.0
Q3−0.3−3.70.12.1−0.1−1.73.42.4−2.4
Q41.4−0.91.70.60.34.8−0.2−1.43.7
1996
Q11.34.71.00.8−3.04.0−3.95.93.0
Q24.36.14.13.09.04.97.61.32.0
Q30.1−3.20.52.1−1.92.31.70.2−0.6
Q4−0.9−4.6−0.5−1.2−4.1−2.93.40.72.8
1997
Q1−2.12.8−2.62.4−1.50.7−4.5−0.5−10.5
Q22.73.52.6−0.23.34.12.03.25.6
Q3−1.6−2.8−1.5−0.4−1.94.8−1.0−0.3−5.0
Q4−3.7−3.5−3.7−5.8−4.2−5.9−0.32.5−0.9
1998
Q1−5.20.6−5.8−5.2−7.8−5.81.92.0−7.5
Q2−4.2−6.5−3.9−2.8−3.0−7.3−2.41.1−5.7
Q3−1.21.2−1.5−1.6−1.45.4−3.31.6−4.1
Q42.610.21.84.62.13.2−3.73.4−2.5
1999 (prel.)
Q12.5−1.63.06.05.11.19.3−3.5−2.2
Q2−0.8−2.7−0.60.5−3.61.8−3.0−1.1−0.6
Q33.63.33.64.91.70.25.74.24.1
Q41.2−2.11.61.91.62.9−0.10.91.0
2000 (prel.)
Q11.1−0.41.30.53.12.32.0−4.31.4
Q20.45.2−0.10.7−2.00.5−0.78.6−1.3
Q30.42.30.20.6−0.52.20.1−0.6−0.7
Q41.0−3.71.52.01.45.44.1−8.5−0.1
2001 (prel.)
Ql−0.2−1.1−0.2−2.13.2−4.30.05.21.9
Source: NESDB.
Source: NESDB.
Table 8.Thailand: Manufacturing Production, 1996–2001
Weights 1/199619971998199920002001 2/
(Percent change from year earlier)
Total100.006.90.8−10.511.26.02.7
Food6.021.81.8−4.915.62.0−5.7
Rice mill0.816.21.46.0−1.80.55.2
Sugar1.4917.01.7−36.643.614.5−16.0
Milk and dairy products0.206.525.73.519.018.03.2
Canned pineapple0.46−9.7−19.4−19.094.1−10.9−27.3
Canned seafood1.23−9.26.58.515.00.17.9
Frozen seafood1.83−2.81.113.6−2.4−5.212.2
Beverage6.614.014.32.122.4−42.23.2
Liquor3.10−5.214.4−0.147.0−94.446.3
Beer2.4317.315.211.86.711.80.4
Soft drinks0.596.8−0.8−11.2−10.5−0.38.7
Energy drink0.41−12.733.9−28.98.58.95.2
Soy milk0.0515.113.02.911.722.04.8
Electrolyte beverage0.0330.014.3−16.7−16.25.118.7
Tobacco1.8512.0−9.9−20.3−9.9−1.3−4.4
Textiles14.230.51.82.9−1.23.23.5
Jute products0.03−18.8−36.4−34.8−27.8−2.21.6
Synthetic fiber0.71−3.55.727.3−0.94.71.8
Spinning1.752.11.83.10.42.63.0
Weaving2.78−3.21.91.2−1.1−0.8−0.5
Knitting0.861.41.61.41.01.72.3
Garment8.101.71.51.5−1.74.65.2
Petroleum products7.1932.315.9−6.42.1−0.92.1
Construction materials2.5513.8−3.2−38.212.30.1−0.4
Cement2.3913.8−4.2−38.811.60.6−0.2
Clinker0.1613.211.4−31.321.1−4.8−2.0
Iron & steel products2.067.1−3.0−31.612.215.81.2
Steel bar & shape steel0.775.21.5−33.8−12.18.88.0
Galvanized iron sheet0.274.7−0.1−34.818.523.327.6
P.C. wire & P.C. stand wire0.142.3−7.9−37.9−6.03.513.3
Wire rod0.2114.422.6−40.624.9−3.8−16.1
Steel pipe0.4412.8−17.4−41.09.744.18.0
Hot & cold - rolled sheet0.231.1−15.219.663.014.5−23.1
Transportation equipment10.244.5−26.5−54.179.125.519.6
Passenger cars4.228.9−19.2−71.4127.233.647.1
Commercial cars3.655.6−41.0−49.2101.823.67.1
Motorcycles1.33−12.9−25.1−46.829.326.32.1
Tites0.664.1−8.7−5.920.48.8−5.5
Battery0.385.5−5.0−10.121.517.3−4.8
Electronic & electrical products6.4212.5−5.8−13.812.031.6−14.4
Integrated circuit (mil.pieces)1.905.920.4−2.031.936.4−19.8
T.V.4.5215.3−15.9−20.3−1.527.2−9.5
Setting jewellery (index)3.31−6.8−3.133.614.428.56.8
Other products39.526.14.1−10.59.411.24.7
Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

Comprising 45 items, which embody 62.4 % of overall production of the manufacturing sector.

First quarter of the year.

Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

Comprising 45 items, which embody 62.4 % of overall production of the manufacturing sector.

First quarter of the year.

Table 9.Thailand: Selected Manufacturing Industries, Production and Capacity Utilization, 1995–2001
ProductionRatio of actual output to

capacity output in percent
1995199619971998199920002001 2/19941995199619971998199920002001 2/
Manufacturing production index 1/100.0107.8107.296.5108.5111.9117.774.977.472.464.952.961.356.656.5
Synthetic fiber (thousand metric tons)54152255170269672818095.690.184.767.776.575.879.378.6
Sugar (thousand metric tons)5,2026,0856,1883,9215,6306,4474,08127.331.828.830.119.926.230.076.0
Cement (thousand metric tons)34,05138,74937,11522,72225,35425,4996,50392.596.776.772.944.649.850.151.1
Galvanized iron sheets (thousand metric tons)37038738725229936911655.466.769.869.745.349.861.477.2
Pulp (thousand metric tons)30050757369785491723076.172.382.993.788.098.9104.9105.4
Major petroleum products (million liters)28,25037,38643,32440,55541,41441,06010,116100.093.285.790.184.085.783.972.0
Beer (million liters)6477598749771,0421,16529675.469.877.769.865.669.975.776.8
Integrated circuits (million pieces)3,1433,3304,0093,9295,1827,0701,31088.174.879.395.573.790.5101.874.6
Tin metal (thousand metric tons)81112151717418.028.136.641.051.759.458.159.7
Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

1995 = 100. Covers about 62.4 percent of total manufacturing sector.

First quarter of the year.

Source: Data provided by Bank of Thailand.

1995 = 100. Covers about 62.4 percent of total manufacturing sector.

First quarter of the year.

Table 10.Thailand: Agriculture Production, 1995–2001(Index 1998 = 100)
Weights1995199619971998199920002001
Prel.
Total 1/100.0132.0136.7135.8136.3138.8142.4146.2
Corps68.4129.5136.7135.4136.1139.5142.7146.6
Paddy30.6103.6108.7112.1116.7114.6115.1119.6
Rubber7.8185.6198.7222.4222.0225.5243.9248.4
Tapioca roots4.870.075.277.872.756.580.477.4
Maize4.494.292.386.1105.397.0105.7104.1
Sugar cane3.4176.5187.5193.4142.9171.4181.2181.1
Sorghum2.961.2108.5151.651.770.782.971.3
Soybean1.7111.189.685.378.382.983.485.9
Cocount1.4102.5102.3103.099.6100.299.799.7
Mungbean1.267.179.364.471.395.078.582.5
Oil palm0.9254.8303.7302.9278.5396.8372.7378.5
Coffee0.8226.4212.0220.3203.3147.4212.0224.4
Garlic0.698.5108.1121.198.198.4102.7108.1
Chili0.678.089.390.293.495.386.486.4
Tobacco leaves0.5111.4136.6165.4169.7181.1169.5155.0
Other crops6.9119.6123.090.2103.8100.692.899.2
Forest products3.07.97.56.75.84.13.63.4
Animal products16.8132.8137.1142.7142.0147.7153.6159.7
Fish catch11.8176.8169.2160.9162.7156.3159.8161.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Covers about 90 percent of total agricultural production.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Covers about 90 percent of total agricultural production.

Table 11.Thailand: Mining Production, 1995–2001
1995199619971998199920002001 1/
Non-energy (thousands of metric tons)
Tin concentrates2.21.50.82.03.42.40.8
Tungsten0.10.10.10.10.00.00.0
Lead ore22.849.212.315.323.824.80.0
Antimony ore0.60.10.10.50.10.20.0
Manganese ore3.53.10.50.10.70.20.0
Iron ore34.585.943.890.7122.60.10.0
Gypsum8,533.28,934.58,557.64,333.85,005.25,842.61,463.0
Fluorite ore24.117.27.83.723.024.20.9
Zinc ore135.2181.291.1195.1185.7186.531.2
Energy
Crude oil (million barrels)8.29.29.510.412.020.95.4
Natural gas (billion cubic feet)401.2468.8571.0621.5680.3713.0164.8
Condensate (million barrels)10.913.116.416.718.119.14.5
Lignite (millions of metric tons)18.421.723.420.218.217.74.3
Source: Data provided by the Department of Mineral Resources.

January-March 2001.

Source: Data provided by the Department of Mineral Resources.

January-March 2001.

Table 12.Thailand: Production, Consumption, and Import of Primary Commercial Energy, 1995–2001(Barrels per day of crude oil equivalent)
1995199619971998199920002000 1/
Production392,644450,073523,408524,089549,336590,265560,069
Crude23,76326,41927,46329,42034,00658,09660,907
Condensate27,27132,43640,77442,17745,17147,65845,148
Hydroelectricity29,26731,94031,43722,59015,13626,15232,602
Lignite114,816131,686142,732124,868119,305107,275102,914
Natural gas197,527227,592281,002305,034335,718351,084318,498
Net Import (Export)639,599737,754709,378621,827657,563722,154730,144
Crude and petroleum621,876709,556688,378614,623623,875631,454565073
Coal29,35648,71741,13320,42440,99752,18564,031
Electricity1,2381,4161,3192,7963,9104,4863,897
Condensate(21,871)(21,935)(21,452)−16,405−11,749−4,435−14,397
Natural Gas38953038,464111,540
Consumption1,007,8741,120,7591,175,6581,089,5441,125,0751,155,3291,190,597
Petroleum Products635,902685,204681,333610,856611,226580,418560,483
Coal29,35648,71741,13320,42440,99752,18564,031
Hydroelectricity30,50533,35632,75625,38619,04630,63836,499
Lignite114,584125,890139,433127,455117,558102,57899,656
Natural gas197,527227,592281,003305,423336,248389,510429,928
Imports/consumption (percent)63.4665.8360.3457.0758.4562.5161.33
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Preliminary through first two months of the year.

Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Preliminary through first two months of the year.

Table 13.Thailand: Construction and the Property Market, 1995–2001
1995199619971998199920002001 1/
Area permitted for construction in Bangkok (thousand square meters)
Total25,38015,84412,8494,2683,8844,020590
Housing17,26310,9447,6362,8442,1812,920444
Commercial6,4114,1914,7421,0641,432807104
Industrial854911640.33.81.2
Services and transportation41026420525910213823
Other1,2113961509716915117
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

First two months of year.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

First two months of year.

Table 14.Thailand: Private Sector Investment in Non-agricultural Sector, 1995–2001(In millions of baht; except otherwise indicated)
1995199619971998199920002001 1/
Investment and promotion
Applications submitted901,400834,700380,100242,400189,300316,50030,600
Applications approved584,700529,400468,600287,500162,200279,70055,800
Investment certificates issued328,300427,100404,700244,500139,500290,30048,800
Commencement of operation132,500230,300267,400283,800205,300304,90070,200
New business registration179,178185,835114,99996,247130,540139,07314,966 2/
Capital increase274,707264,830307,159275,538401,725340,13723,053 2/
Production and other investment indicators
Construction areas permitted (thousand sq. meters)
Whole country36,78626,75021,7467,4426,6327,5871,096 2/
Bangkok Metropolis25,38015,84412,8494,2683,8844,020590 2/
Import value of capital goods801,813844,509941,143894,279908,3361,164,492237,871 2/
Sales of cement (thousand tonnes, including portland cement imports)33,03437,08236,00220,63318,70018,0205,075
Foreign equity inflow58,96972,119128,097195,091146,917142,4314,436 2/
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

January-March 2001.

January-February 2001.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

January-March 2001.

January-February 2001.

Table 15.Thailand: Promotional Activities of the Board of Investment, 1995–2001 1/(In millions of baht; except where otherwise indicated)
1995199619971998199920002001 2/
Number of applications received1,4071,1988086919021,061203
Value of investment901,400834,700380,100242,400189,300316,50030,600
Number of applications approved1,2059748686486801,116175
Value of investment584,700529,400468,600287,500162,200279,70055,800
Number of promotion certificates issued978942792569554785241
Value of investment328,300427,100404,700244,500139,500290,30048,800
Number of firms starting operations322611465697526625124
Value of investment132,500230,300267,400283,800205,300304,90070,200
Number of Thai employees93,563171,711133,882160,086100,073141,37635,125
Value of approved investments by sector
Agriculture and agricultural products20,42917,98419,00018,40015,80037,5004,700
Minerals, metals, and ceramics150,24899,12430,6001,3001,00011,0002,400
Light industry10,6566,7377,60010,80010,60037,0003,500
Metal products, machinery, and transport equipment53,04453,30333,20010,80013,30031,0002,400
Electronics and electrical products44,30385,31131,60061,20058,80077,20027,500
Chemical products, paper, and plastics227,110126,015171,20054,40043,90072,80012,600
Services and public utilities77,668140,949175,400130,60018,80013,2002,700
Direction of approved investments Export-oriented production (over 80 percent exported)67,49098,70094,900111,200120,600171,60037,700
Ownership of approved investments
Total584,700529,400468,600287,500162,200279,70055,800
Domestic174,200173,500147,80029,90017,90061,5004,900
Foreign35,20075,80036,00080,00082,900123,20039,100
Joint venture375,300280,100284,800177,60061,40095,00011,800
Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

From June 1999 onward statistics do not include applications submitted for (a) relocation; (b) BOI privileges transferred; and (c) existing projects applying for nontax incentives.

January-March 2001.

Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

From June 1999 onward statistics do not include applications submitted for (a) relocation; (b) BOI privileges transferred; and (c) existing projects applying for nontax incentives.

January-March 2001.

Table 16.Thailand: Investment in Main Infrastructure Projects, 1992–2001
Main ProjectsConstruction PeriodEst. Cost 1/
Private Sector
1. Elevated multimodel transit system, Bangkok1992–200080
2. Bangkok transit system1993-9953
3. Second stage of expressway system, Bangkok1991-9518
4. Tollway to international airport, Bangkok1990-9816
5. Expansion of telephone system, Bangkok1992-96119
6. IP-Star (Thaicom-4)*2000-0314
7. Control system MRTA (Blue line)*2000-0325
Government & State Enterprises Projects
Transport Sector
Land Transport
1. Metropolitan Rapid Transit Project1996–200383
(Hua Lamptaong - Queen Sirikit National Convention Center - Bangsue)
(Metropolitan Rapid Transit Authority)
2. The Second Phase Four-Lane Highway Widening Project2000–200322
(The Department of Highways)
3. Second Stage Expressway System Sector B2000–20022
(Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand)
4. Krahi-Khanom Highway Project1997–20023
(The Department of Highways)
5. Bang Yai - Ban Pong inter-city Motorway Project2002–200617
(The Department of Highways)
6. Outer Ring Road Project (Southern Part)2001–200327
(The Department of Highways)
7. Mekong River Bridge Construction Project Phase 22000–20021.7
(The Department of Highways)
8. Track Doubling Project -Ban Pachee-Lopburi, Ban Pachee-Mah kabao,2000–200312
Talingchan-Nakornpathom (State Railway of Thailand)
9. BTS Extension Project2000–200333
(Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
Water Transport
1. Laem Chabang Port Phase 2 Stage 11997–20014
(Port Authority of Thailand)
2. Anti-Pollution and Multi-purpose Vessel and Semi-Training Vessel Project2001–20032
(The Harbour Department)
Air Transport
1. SUVARNABHUMI Airport (Second Bangkok International Airport)1992–2005114
(New Bangkok International Airport Co., Ltd.)
2. SUVARNABHUMI Airport Air Traffic Service Project2000–20032
(Aeronautical Radio of Thailand Ltd.)
3. Aircraft Requisition Project (Under the 1995/96-1999/2000 Corporate Plan)1997–20019
(Thai Airways International Public Company Ltd.)
4. Bangkok International Airport Development Project1998–20023
(Airports Authority of Thailand)
Telecommunication Sector
1. Rural Long Distance Public Telephone Project1996–200113
(Telephone Organization of Thailand)
2. Telecommunication Network Expansion Project2000–200213
(Telephone Organization of Thailand)
3, International Telephone Services Expansion Project1994–20003
(Communication Authority of Thailand)
4. Satellite Network Development Project1996–20002
(Communication Authority of Thailand)
Public Utility Sector
1. West Bank Raw Water Canal Project1993–19974
(The Metropolitan Water Works Authority)
2. Bangkok Waste Water Treatment Project Stage 1 (Dindang)1993–19973
(Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
3. Nongkham-Phasicharoen-Ratburana Waste Water Treatment Project1995–20012
(Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
4. The 7th Bangkok Water Supply Improvement Project2000–200627
(The Metropolitan Water Works Authority)
5. Water Supply Improvement Project (Nong Kai-Udon Thani)1998–20002
(The Provincial Waterworks Authority)
6. Private Sector Participation Provincial Water Supply Improvement Project2000–20024
(Lam Pang, Ratchaburi, Nakom Sawan, Chacheongsao, Bang Pakong)
(The Provincial Waterworks Authority)
7. Integrated Wastewater Treatment Project Phase 42000–20054
(Bangkok Metropolitan Administration)
Irrigation
1. Prasae Project (Rayong Province)2000–20057
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
2. Nakhon Srithammarat, Surat Thani, and Songkhla Dam Project for Recovery from Inundation Impact1989–20012
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
3. Pra Prong Dam Project (Sra Kaew Province)1991–20010.3
{The Royal Irrigation Department)
4. Klong Sri Yat Dam Project (Chachoengsao Province)1994–20023
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
5. Bang Pakong Dam Project (Chachoengsao Province)1993–20012
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
6. Pak Panang Basin Development Project (Nakhon Si Thammarat Province)1995–200211
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
7. Pa Sak Basin Development Project (Lopburi Province)1995–20051
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
8. Mae Klong Yai Canal Project Phase 3 (Nakhon Pathom and SuphanBuri Province)1996–20021
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
9. Mae Mok Dam Project (Lampang Province)1991–20000.042
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
10. Klong Tha Dan Dam Project (Nakhon Nayok Province)1997–200310
(The Royal Irrigation Department)
11. Kong-Chi-Mun Project1989–20004
(Department of Energy Development and Promotion)
Energy Sector
1. Ratchaburi Thermal Power Plant (Unit 1…2) Project1996–200212
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
2. Combined Cycle Ratchaburi Thermal Power Plant (Unit 1)1996–20027
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
3. Krabi Thermal Power Plant (Unit 1) Project1997–200111
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
4. Thailand-Malaysia Gas Pipeline Project Phase 21994–20011
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
5. Transmission System Expansion No.91995–20047
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
6. Greater Bangkok Area Transmission System Phase 11995–20023
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
7. 500 KV Transmission System Project for Independent Power Producers1997–200627
(The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand)
8. Transmission System and Substation Development Project 7th Stage Phase I1998–20045
(Provincial Electricity Authority)
9. Transmission System and Substation Development Project 7th Stage Phase 22000–20045
(Provincial Electricity Authority)
10. Thailand-Malaysia Gas Pipeline Project and Thailand-Malaysia Gas Separation Plant Project1999–200629
(Petroleum Authority of Thailand)
Source: Information provided by the Thai authorities.

Preliminary estimates, in billions of baht.

Source: Information provided by the Thai authorities.

Preliminary estimates, in billions of baht.

Table 17.Thailand: Population, Labor Force, and Employment by Major Economic Sectors, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
(In millions of persons)
Population59.2859.9060.5061.1761.7862.40
Labor force 1/32.1732.3232.7832.6032.9133.39
Open unemployed 2/0.130.110.140.460.390.32
Passive unemployed 3/0.420.380.360.970.990.89
Employment 1/30.8231.1731.7130.2730.8431.45
Agriculture14.3914.1414.3113.5714.0014.00
Non-agriculture16.4317.0317.4016.7016.8417.45
Mining, electricity, and water supply0.240.210.230.240.220.21
Manufacturing4.614.654.644.584.615.00
Construction2.252.652.501.631.401.51
Transportation and communication1.011.001.040.991.010.97
Commerce and banking, insurance, and real estate4.184.404.604.634.784.91
Services and public administration4.144.134.384.634.814.84
(In percent)
Participation rate71.470.670.469.068.768.6
Rate of unemployment1.71.51.54.44.23.6
Population0.11.01.01.11.01.0
Labor force 1/1.10.51.4−0.61.01.5
Open unemployed 2/−20.8−14.420.1231.7−14.9−18.2
Passive unemployed 3/−37.5−7.8−6.7170.32.8−10.8
Employment 1/2.21.11.8−4.61.92.0
Agriculture−5.2−1.81.3−5.23.10.0
Non-agriculture9.63.72.2−4.00.83.6
Mining, electricity, and water supply−1.2−14.111.55.0−7.9−4.8
Manufacturing10.00.9−0.1−1.40.78.5
Construction12.617.8−5.5−34.8−14.17.5
Transportation and communication12.4−1.14.4−4.81.9−3.9
Commerce and banking, insurance, and real estate11.15.14.70.73.32.7
Services and public administration6.4−0.36.15.64.00.7
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Thirteen years of age and above.

Includes persons 13 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons 13 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Thirteen years of age and above.

Includes persons 13 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons 13 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Table 18.Thailand: Average Earnings, Classified by Manufacturing Categories, 1995–1999
19951996199719981999
(Inbaht per month)
Manufacturing (whole Kingdom)4,999.65,502.45,937.76,389.48,304.5
Food, beverage, and tobacco4,487.35,188.55,070.95,412.97,666.2
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather, and leather products4,425.84,983.15,026.94,945.56,974.5
Wood and wood products including furniture4,434.64,637.24,820.35,083.36,927.5
Paper and paper products, printing and publishing7,267.96,374.17,179.27,998.98,468.4
Chemicals and chemical, petroleum, coal, rubber and plastic products5,415.06,014.76,090.06,721.49,086.9
Non-metallic mineral products, except producers of petroleum and coal9,629.35,398.46,948.47,715.57,820.8
Basic metal industries5,555.16,496.76,706.68,633.38,100.0
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment5,208.26,728.47,165.47,740.49,533.0
Other manufacturing industries4,687.84,357.05,562.06,357.58,157.4
Construction8,104.27,259.06,352.47,403.6
(Percent change from year earlier)
Manufacturing (whole Kingdom)18.210.17.97.630.0
Food, beverage, and tobacco12.015.6−2.36.741.6
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather, and leather products9.112.60.9−1.641.0
Wood and wood products including furniture24.34.63.95.536.3
Paper and paper products, printing and publishing4.4−12.312.611.45.9
Chemicals and chemical, petroleum, coal, rubber and plastic products17.611.11.310.435.2
Non-metallic mineral products, except producers of petroleum and coal108.0−43.928.711.01.4
Basic metal industries1.117.03.228.7−6.2
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment−5.329.26.58.023.2
Other manujacturing industries24.8−7.127.714.328.3
Construction87.6−10.4−12.5l6.5
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 19.Thailand: Consumer Prices, 1995–2001 1/(1994 = 100)
All ItemsFoodNonfood 2/Housing
Weights100.0035.2864.7224.01
1995105.8108.1104.3104.8
I102.5103.5101.9102.5
II104.8106.3103.8104.0
III107.0109.5105.4105.9
IV108.9113.1106.0106.9
1996112.0117.7108.0108.2
I110.1115.0106.8107.6
II111.3116.3107.8108.2
III112.5118.7108.3108.3
IV113.9120.8109.2108.8
1997118.2125.8113.0111.6
I114.9121.5110.4109.7
II116.1122.8111.5110.7
III119.4128.8113.0111.3
IV122.5130.4117.0114.6
1998127.8137.9121.2117.8
I125.3134.3119.3116.1
II128.1138.6121.3117.5
III129.2140.1122.2118.7
IV128.6138.4122.1119.0
1999128.2136.7122.4117.9
I128.6138.3122.2119.1
II127.5136.9121.3117.2
III127.9136.1122.4117.2
IV128.7135.5123.8118.2
2000130.2135.2126.3119.6
I129.7135.9125.2119.4
II129.6134.8125.7119.7
III130.7135.4126.9119.8
IV130.7134.6127.5119.7
2001
I131.5135.4128.2121.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consumer price index for the Kingdom. Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes clothing, housing, personal and medical care, 1 transportation, recreation, reading and education, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consumer price index for the Kingdom. Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Includes clothing, housing, personal and medical care, 1 transportation, recreation, reading and education, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages.

Table 20.Thailand: Producer Price Index by Product Group, 1995–2001 1/(1995 = 100)
All productsAgricultural product 2/Crops, livestrock,

and forestry
Fish and

other fish

products
Minging

and fuel

products
Manufactured

products
Wholesale

price index

for exported products

(1985 = 100)
Weights100.013.111.12.01.985.0100.0
1995100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0157.6
I98.296.996.1101.297.698.4153.4
II99.599.9100.696.398.499.4157.5
III100.899.899.6100.7101.7100.9158.1
IV101.6103.4103.7101.8102.3101.3161.3
1996101.8106.9105.3115.5102.6101.0159.2
I101.0102.099.9113.0101.8100.9162.1
II101.8109.1108.1114.6102.1100.7161.9
III101.9108.8107.2117.5103.2100.9158.4
IV102.6107.7106.1116.9103.3101.7154.3
1997107.0109.6106.0129.5103.1106.6158.1
I103.1105.7102.2124.5102.7102.6152.7
II103.0109.5106.9123.8100.6102.0150.7
III107.4109.9106.5128.6102.3107.1157.6
IV114.5113.3108.2141.1107.0114.8171.2
1998120.0129.0122.2165.6108.5118.9189.8
I122.3129.1120.7174.7111.6121.4200.2
II120.0132.2124.5174.0108.4118.3189.2
III120.5132.0125.6167.1107.5119.0192.0
IV117.3122.7118.3146.8106.5116.7177.8
1999114.4109.3103.2142.5104.8115.3167.8
I114.7115.4109.5147.4103.9114.8172.8
II113.6111.6105.7144.2105.0114.0166.8
III113.6105.499.6136.7104.2115.1164.5
IV115.5104.898.0141.7106.1117.3167.2
2000118.8108.999.2161.8109.3120.6170.9
I117.0106.797.9154.0105.9118.8169.3
II117.8108.798.9161.7105.7119.4170.0
III119.8110.099.4167.3110.0121.6170.9
IV120.7110.4100.5164.1115.5122.5173.6
2001
I120.3110.6101.0162.6117.8121.8
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices. The producer price index (1995 = 100) has replaced the wholesale price index since January 2000.

Includes crops, animal farm and forestry; fish and other fishing products.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices. The producer price index (1995 = 100) has replaced the wholesale price index since January 2000.

Includes crops, animal farm and forestry; fish and other fishing products.

Table 21.Thailand: Producer Price Index by Stage of Processing, 1995–2001 1/(1995 = 100)
Finished

goods
Intermediate

materials
Crude

materials
1995100.0100.0100.0
I98.398.696.1
II98.9100.5100.0
III100.8100.7101.0
IV102.0100.2102.8
1996102.899.1103.4
I101.0100.8102.2
II102.599.7103.6
III103.497.5105.5
IV104.598.2102.1
1997108.5102.7109.5
I104.998.4104.4
II105.197.2106.5
III108.9102.3112.4
IV115.1113.0114.7
1998120.8117.6122.1
I121.3122.9126.5
II120.6117.9121.8
III122.0116.2123.7
IV119.1113.5116.1
1999117.2111.7102.7
I117.5110.8107.4
II116.7109.5103.6
III116.8110.6100.8
IV117.8115.799.0
2000120.3120.5103.4
I118.9118.3100.1
II119.7118.1102.4
III121.0121.8105.2
IV121.4123.9106.0
2001
I121.0122.5108.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Quarterly and annual data are averages of monthly indices.

Table 22.Thailand: Selected Energy Prices, 1995–2001 1/
1995199619971998199920002001 2/
Average import price of crude oil (bant/barrel)17.5120.7119.9713.2117.4228.5925.10
Index(1994 = 100)108.4128.2123.681.7107.8176.90155.42
Electricity (baht/kwh) 3/1.932.001.992.162.092.34
Index (1994 =100)106.4110.1109.4118.9114.9128.8
Premium gasoline (baht/liter) 4/8.879.2310.4811.8611.9815.6316.11
Index (1994 = 100)105.7110.0124.9141.4136.7186.10191.76
Tax (baht/liter)2.592.682.843.944.054.054.05
High-speed diesel (baht/liter) 4/7.608.629.499.198.9612.9513.33
Index (1994 = 100)102.8116.4128.4124.4114.7175.00180.16
Tax (baht/liter)2.202.282.442.442.072.542.54
Fuel oil (baht/liter) 4/4.054.525.346.866.299.229.43
Index (1994 =100)96.9108.1127.8153.6137.8263.40269.43
Tax(baht/liter) 5/0.430.490.590.550.190.290.29
Kerosene (baht per liter)8.7010.0211.1711.7011.6315.1015.99
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Through February.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA) including VAT.

Retail price for Bangkok; 1995 column reports the price of fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

1992-97, tax rate of fuel oil was 17 percent of ex-refinery value. 1997-98, tax rate of fuel oil was 17.5 percent of ex-refinery value. Since 1999, tax rate of fuel oil is 5 percent of ex-refinery value.

Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Through February.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA) including VAT.

Retail price for Bangkok; 1995 column reports the price of fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

1992-97, tax rate of fuel oil was 17 percent of ex-refinery value. 1997-98, tax rate of fuel oil was 17.5 percent of ex-refinery value. Since 1999, tax rate of fuel oil is 5 percent of ex-refinery value.

Table 23.Thailand: Central Government Fiscal Accounts, 1995/96-1999/2000 1/(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total revenue and grant876.1873.4757.8743.1794.7
Revenue873.0870.4753.3739.1790.3
Tax792.4777.5665.7641.0690.8
Nontax80.692.987.698.199.5
Grants3.13.04.54.04.4
Total expenditure and net lending767.9971.41114.31225.2949.5
Current expenditure485.3530.6532.2596.5654.4
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7231.9
Net lending9.913.762.665.063.2
Overall balance108.2−98.0−356.5−482.1−154.8
Financing−108.297.9356.3482.1154.8
External2.910.271.452.733.0
Domestic−111.187.7284.9429.4121.8
Bank 2/−120.489.8204.6260.736.0
Nonbank−3.8−2.1116.693.485.8
Float13.10.0−36.375.30.0
(In percent of fiscal year GDP)
Total revenue and grant19.518.616.216.216.4
Revenue19.418.516.116.116.4
Tax17.616.514.214.014.3
Nontax1.82.01.92.12.1
Grants0.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending17.120.623.826.719.7
Current expenditure10.811.311.413.013.5
Capital expenditure6.19.111.112.34.8
Net lending0.20.31.31.41.3
Overall balance2.4−2.1−7.6−10.5−3.2
Financing−2.42.17.610.53.2
External0.10.21.51.10.7
Domestic−2.51.96.19.42.5
Bank 2/−2.71.94.45.70.7
Nonbank−0.10.02.52.01.8
Float0.3−0.3−0.81.60.0
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP45034706467345884831
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

The fiscal year runs from October to September. Data are based on GFS definitions and the coverage corresponds to the consolidated central government, which includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial-sector restructuring costs.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

The fiscal year runs from October to September. Data are based on GFS definitions and the coverage corresponds to the consolidated central government, which includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial-sector restructuring costs.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Table 24.Thailand: Central Government Revenue and Grants, 1995/96-1999/2000(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total revenue and grants876.1873.4757.8743.1794.7
Total revenue873.0870.4753.3739.1790.3
Tax revenue792.4777.5665.7641.0690.8
Taxes on income and profits277.7276.2214.8213.7235.4
Personal105.3111.5118.9101.287.4
Corporate169.0159.490.7101.3137.4
Petroleum income tax3.45.35.311.210.6
Taxes on property13.59.55.14.43.6
Taxes on consumption349.2353.1354.1319.4322.1
Business tax/VAT148.4139.0162.7132.1138.0
Specific business tax32.633.034.020.816.6
Excise taxes168.2181.1157.4166.5167.5
Beer and spirits38.543.739.448.626.1
Tobacco23.829.525.526.123.1
Petroleum products60.466.368.169.065.7
Motor cars37.032.08.914.224.1
Other8.59.615.58.628.4
Profits on tobacco monopoly0.07.11.97.75.3
Taxes on international trade127.7105.267.868.187.2
Import duties126.2103.666.166.484.9
Export duties1.51.61.71.72.3
License fees and other taxes24.326.421.927.737.2
Nontax revenue80.692.987.698.199.4
Profits45.956.944.346.438.5
State lottery4.04.77.37.39.4
Bank of Thailand10.414.50.00.00.0
State enterprises31.537.737.039.129.1
Other34.736.043.351.760.9
Grants3.13.04.54.04.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 25.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure by Economic Classification, 1995/96-1999/2000(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total expenditure and net lending767.9971.41,114.31225.2949.5
Total expenditure758.0957.71,051.71160.2886.3
Current expenditure485.3530.3532.2596.5654.4
Wages and salaries 1/241.6262.3281.1298.3299.1
Interest10.215.38.744.758.3
Other goods and services179.5192.8179.3173.7182
Subsidies and current transfers54.059.963.179.8115.1
Local government6.06.36.812.9
Public enterprises7.88.611.811.2
Households and others 2/40.245.044.555.7
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7231.9
Acquisition of fixed assets239.1334.5278.4223.8203.3
Capital transfers33.692.6241.1339.928.6
Local government19.623.624.432.8
Public enterprises9.39.812.85.8
Households and others4.759.2203.9301.3
Net lending9.913.762.665.063.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration, annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration, annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

Table 26.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure, Classified by Purpose, 1995/96-1999/2001(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total expenditure758.0957.71,051.71,160.2886.3
Current expenditure485.3530.6532.2596.5654.4
General public services32.232.731.135.638.7
Defense91.698.384.373.172.0
Public order and safety39.340.741.644.447.7
Education133.1146.4154.7170.9172.4
Health48.451.755.563.461.5
Social security and welfare28.233.334.837.055.5
Housing and community amenities6.66.36.09.414.1
Recreational, cultural, and religious4.85.05.85.95.3
Economic services61.262.761.572.488.3
Fuel and energy2.32.43.41.79.0
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries37.939.130.740.740.7
Mining and mineral2.63.03.34.64.6
Transportation and communication9.69.714.010.413.5
Road transport5.15.39.34.80.0
Water transport0.40.30.40.70.0
Railway and other transport2.11.81.92.40.0
Communication2.02.32.42.50.0
Other8.88.510.115.020.5
Other39.953.556.984.499.1
Interest payments10.215.38.744.756.6
Domestic6.211.41.735.146.1
External4.03.97.09.610.5
Unclassified29.738.248.239.742.5
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7231.9
General public services10.111.58.95.17.2
Public order and safety7.410.210.79.57.4
Education25.948.541.829.824.2
Health13.425.622.412.28
Housing and community amenities34.245.534.638.331.1
Recreational, cultural, and religious2.97.77.74.22.2
Economic services167.2266.2380.0454.6142.5
Fuel and energy0.71.01.40.80.8
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries40.544.233.030.429.9
Mining and mineral1.01.40.93.71.3
Transportation and communication100.1133.4121.894.792.3
Road transport95.5123.6109.087.80.0
Water transport0.82.23.82.60.0
Railway and other transport3.16.48.34.10.0
Communication0.71.20.70.20.0
Other24.986.2222.9325.018.2
Other11.611.913.4106.9
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 27.Thailand: Nonfinancial Public Sector Debt, 1995/96-1999/2000
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In billions of baht)
Total public sector debt652.61706.12114.52562.62770.3
Central government175.4241.9500.1958.51093.0
Domestic50.335.5227.2598.7697.8
Bank of Thailand2.53.654.5113.478.8
Commercial banks12.58.196.0226.8325.5
Government Savings Bank29.220.027.5129.5124.4
Other financial institutions5.12.937.868.573.4
Other1.00.911.460.595.7
External125.1206.4272.9359.8395.2
Nonfinancial public enterprises420.0571.1627.7789.5895.9
Domestic195.3231.7253.1308.7424.8
Guaranteed167.4194.0215.4259.7345.1
Non-guaranteed27.937.737.749.079.8
External224.7339.4374.6480.8471.1
Guaranteed224.7302.2339.5442.7422.6
Non-guaranteed0.037.235.138.148.5
FIDF 1/57.2893.1986.7814.6781.4
(In percent of fiscal year GDP)
Total public sector debt14.536.345.255.957.3
Central government3.95.110.720.922.6
Domestic1.10.84.913.014.4
Bank of Thailand0.10.11.22.51.6
Commercial banks0.30.22.14.96.7
Government Savings Bank0.60.40.62.82.6
Other financial institutions0.10.10.81.51.5
Other0.00.00.21.32.0
External2.84.45.87.88.2
Nonfinancial public enterprises9.312.113.417.218.5
Domestic4.34.95.46.78.8
Guaranteed3.74.14.65.77.1
Non-guaranteed0.60.80.81.11.7
External5.07.28.010.59.8
Guaranteed5.06.47.39.68.7
Non-guaranteed0.00.80.80.81.0
FIDF 1/1.319.021.117.816.2
Memorandum items:
Exchange rate (eop) Baht/USS25.536.939.541.042.4
Nominal GDP (fiscal year)4,5034,7064,6734,5884,831
External debt (US$ billions)13.714.816.420.520.5
Central government4.95.66.98.89.3
Nonfinancial public enterprises8.89.29.511.711.2
Guaranteed8.88.28.610.810.0
Non-Guaranteed0.01.00.90.91.2
Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Although included in this table, GFS classifies Financial Institutions Development Fund (FIDF) liabilities as part of the financial public sector.

Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Although included in this table, GFS classifies Financial Institutions Development Fund (FIDF) liabilities as part of the financial public sector.

Table 28.Thailand: Operating Profits/Losses of Nonfinancial State Enterprises, 1995/96-1999/2000 1/
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In billions of baht)
Total103.466.565.6−35.474.4
Power53.716.049.3−28.743.5
Electricity Generating Authority27.112.818.5−24.322.7
Metropolitan Electricity Authority4.84.12.7−0.92.5
Provincial Electricity Authority12.09.110.5−7.49.0
Petroleum Authority7.7−3.211.65.69.3
Other2.1−6.86−1.70.0
Transport and communication37.138.410.2−15.418.2
Thai Airways International3.42.83.95.37.4
Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority0.60.6−0.1−4.2−0.7
State Railways of Thailand−1.6−1.8−3.2−7.3−5.4
Bangkok Mass Transit Authority−2.1−2.5−2.8−6.0−2.7
Port Authority of Thailand2.92.31.6−0.21.2
Telephone Organization21.022.2−2.7−9.97.2
Communication Authority of Thailand7.59.27.43.74.8
Others 2/5.45.66.13.26.4
Manufacturing5.76.365.25.8
Tobacco monopoly4.75.55.25.55.2
Others1.00.80.8−0.30.6
Agriculture−0.1−0.3−0.1−0.10.0
Government Lottery Bureau4.84.85.34.95.2
Others2.21.3−5.1−1.31.7
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

Table 29.Thailand: Summary of Local Government Operations, 1995/96-1999/2000
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In billions of baht)
Total revenue and grants83.794.5100.4107.091.0
Taxes and other revenue58.164.669.261.360.0
Transfers from central government25.629.931.245.731.0
Total expenditure77.889.174.599.289.4
Current expenditure31.535.430.753.140.2
Capital expenditure46.353.743.846.249.2
Overall balance5.95.425.97.81.6
Overall balance excluding transfers from the central government−19.7−24.5−5.3−37.9−29.4
(In percent of fiscal year (GDP)
Total revenue and grants1.92.02.12.31.9
Taxes and other revenue1.31.41.51.31.2
Transfers from central government0.60.60.71.00.6
Total expenditure1.71.91.62.21.9
Current expenditure0.70.80.71.20.8
Capital expenditure1.01.10.91.01.0
Overall balance0.10.10.60.20.0
Overall balance excluding transfers from the central government−0.4−0.5−0.1−0.8−0.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 30.Thailand; Consolidated Nonfinancial Public Sector Operations, 1995/96-1999/2000
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In billions of baht)
Overall Balance126.3−152.2−394.8−565.9−196.5
Total revenue and grants1,060.71,036.7936.0888.5965.4
Total revenue1,057.61,033.7931.5884.5960.9
Of which: Central government873.0870.4753.3739.1790.3
Local government58.164.669.261.360.0
Grants to central government3.13.04.54.04.5
Total expenditure and net lending934.41,188.91,330.81,454.41,161.9
Current expenditure503.0551.1544.3625.5663.6
Central government471.5515.7513.6572.4623.4
Local government31.535.430.753.140.2
Capital expenditure427.2626.1723.9764.0435.1
Of which: Central government243.8393.7482.3525.1214.9
Local government46.353.743.846.249.2
Net lending4.211.762.665.063.2
Financing (net)−126.3152.2394.8565.9196.5
External15.814.863.2106.040.5
Domestic−142.1137.4331.6459.9156.0
Banking system−143.9166.4238.8247.07.8
Other1.8−29.092.8212.9148.2
(In percent of GDP)
Public sector overall balance2.8−3.2−8.4−12.34.1
Total revenue and grants23.622.020.019.420.0
Total revenue23.522.019.919.319.9
Of which: Central government19.418.516.116.116.4
Local government1.31.41.51.31.2
Grants to central government0.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending20.825.328.531.724.0
Current expenditure11.211.711.613.613.7
Central government10.511.011.012.512.9
Local government0.70.80.71.20.8
Capital expenditure9.513.315.516.79.0
Of which: Central government5.48.410.311.44.4
Local government1.01.10.91.01.0
Net lending0.10.21.31.41.3
Financing (net)−2.83.28.412.34.1
External0.40.31.42.30.8
Domestic−3.22.97.110.03.2
Banking system−3.23.55.15.40.2
Other0.0−0.62.04.63.1
Sources: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 31.Thailand: Summary of the Central Government Tax System
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionRates
1. Taxes on income and profits
1.1 Taxes on companies

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, last amended in 1999)
1.1 Taxes on companies are taxed based on the residing principle.a. Taxable net profits are determined after business expenses and depreciation allowances, ranging from 5% to 20% of original cost for most types of assets. For the purpose of encouraging investment, an initial depreciation of 40% of cost value for machinery and accessories is allowed.

The depreciation may take up to the whole residual value at the final year. Net losses may be carried forward to five consecutive years. No allowance for carrying back losses to previous years.

50% of intercorporate dividends are exempt. For holding companies and companies listed in SET, dividends are completely exempted, provided the shares are held 3 months prior to and after the receipt of dividends.
a. General 30%.

For BBFs: 10%.
b. Companies incorporated abroad are also subject to a withholding tax on income from Thailand in the form of dividends, property rights, rentals, interest, and fees for certain services.

c. Foreign companies in the transportation sector.

d. Nonprofit foundations and associations
b. Withholding tax is calculated on gross income.b. Withholding tax is 15% except on dividends which are taxed at 10%, same as interest paid to the financial institutions in the treaty countries.

c. 3% on passenger and freight transport.

d. A tax of 10% is levied on gross revenue before deduction of any expenses. The computation of gross revenue does not include registration or subscription fees or any money or property received by way of donation
1.2.1. Wages and salaries (Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1997)Residents are subject 10 tax on income Non-residents are subject to tax only on income from sources within Thailand. All tax payers file income tax return.The following types of income are exempted; superannuation and insurance policies; gifts and bequests; proceeds from sales of movable property acquired through inheritance or for a purpose other than profit; income received from companies operating under the Promotion of Investment Act; prizes, awards, and lottery winnings; workers’ compensation, insurance claims, medical benefits; income from rice farming; profits received from business already subject to individual income tax.

Tax Allowances: Personal allowance B 30,000 Spouse allowance B 30,000 Child allowance B 15,000 (per child, not exceeding B 45,000 per family) Education allowance B 2,000 (per child) Contributions to life insurance Provident fund Mortgage interest Social Security Charitable contributions up to 10% of taxable income
Net income bracketTax Rate
0 -B50.0000%
50,001- B100.0005%
B100,001-B500.00010%
B500.001-B1.000,00020%
Bl,000,001-B4.000,00030%
over B4.000,00037%
Gross income (for minimum tax)
B60.000 or more0.5%
1.2.2. Business incomeTax on employment and business income is imposed at progressive rates on net income (after deductions and allowances).

But it cannot be less than the minimum tax on gross income.
Rental income: 40% of gross income or actual expenses.

Lawyers, doctors, etc.; 40% of or actual expenses

All other business income: 40%-85% of gross income or actual expenses

Exemptions are given on:
Same as above.
1.2.3. Interest incomea. Demand deposits with Government Savings Bank and savings deposits with cooperatives and the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives.Final withholding tax at a rale of 15%
b. Savings deposit with any banks in Thailand not exceeding B 20,000.

c. Two-year contractual saving deposits which are not exceeding B 600,000

Tax on dividends or share of profit received from domestic companies and mutual funds when the income earner does not claim a tax refund or tax credit.
1.2.4. Tax on income from the sale of real estateTax on income from sale or transfer of immovable property, other than exempt.Withholding tax at the rate of 10%.

Full imputation system with personal income tax according to formula:

(Dividends paid out * (Corporate income tax rate)

(1 - Corporate income tax rate)

Final withholding tax of a graduated rate structure with a maximum of 20% of sale price after deductions granted in accordance with the nature of the transfer and years of ownership.
2. Social Security Contributions
Payroll laxTaxes on wages of employees. Mandatory for employees in private firms with 10 or more workers.A maximum of B15,000 per month is subject to tax.Social security

-employee: 1.0 percent

-employer: 1-0 percent

Pension and child allowance

-employee: 2.0 percent

-employer: 2.0 percent
3. Employers’ Payroll or Manpower Taxes
None
4. Taxes on property
4.1 Real estate transfer tax (Land Code Act of 1954, amended in 1973).Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value; 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.

(Tempararily reduce from 2% to 0.01% effective from July 11,2000-Dec. 31,2001)
5. Taxes on goods and services
5.1 Value-Added Tax

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1991)
VAT replaced Business Tax on January 1, 1992. Ad valorem tax on goods and services are subject to VAT.Exemptions include:

- Business with annual turnover not more than B 1,200,000

- Agricultural products and related inputs e.g., fertilizer, animal feed, medicine and chemicals

- Newspaper magazines, textbooks

- Education

- Arts and crafts

- Medical practices, auditing, legal practices and other professional services

- Hospitals

- Research or technical services

- Library, museum, zoo

- Labor contract

- Sports (non-professional)

- Acting, performance

- Domestic transport

- International transport (excluding air and sea transport)

- etc.
Temporarily reduced from 10% to 7% effective from April 1, 1999-Sept 30, 2001

For export: 0%
5.2 Specific business taxSpecific business tax is imposed in lieu of VAT on the following businesses:

-Banks

- Finance companies

-Life insurance companies

- Pawn shops

- Other business with similar operations as commercial banking

- Sales of real estate

- Stock exchange transactions

- Other as decreed (e.g., Factoring)
Following businesses are exempted:

- Bank oF Thailand, Government Savings Bank,

Government Housing Bank, BAAC,

- International Finance Corporation of Thailand

- Saving Cooperatives

- Provident Fund

- National Housing Authority

- Exim Bank

- Environmental Fund

- Sale of stocks in SET

- Others as decreed (e.g., securitization and real estate mutual fund)
− Banking and financial institutions

= interest 3% earning

= profit 3%

- Life insurance

= interest 2.5%

= premiums 3%

- Pawnshops 2.5%

- Sale of commercial real estate 3% (temporarily reduced from 3% to 0.1% effective from July 5, 2000-Dec 31, 2001)
5.3 Selective excises on goods

(Liquor Act of 1950, Tobacco Act of 1966, Playing Cards Act of 1943, and Excise Tax Act of 1984)
Excises are levied on selected locally produced and imported goods, petroleum products, cigarettes, alcoholic beverages. non-alcoholic beverages, playing cards, electrical appliances, automobiles, crystal wares, yacht, perfumes, wool carpets, motor cycle, batteries, marble, horse racing course, and golf.

The value of domestic goods is based on ex-factory price plus excise duty but sometimes the value is based on the price which Director General has published in the Royal Gazette from time to time. In the case of imported goods the value is based on CTF price plus import duly and excise duty.
− Diplomatic sales and sales of fuel to ships and international airlines are exempted.

- Tax is refunded when an excisable item is exported.

- Reduced tax rate far recycle batteries from 10% to 5%

- Marble is exempted.

-Diesel sold in the connected territory area is exempted.

- Diesel remained in regular tank of register fishing ships is exempted.
Specific rates. Most excisable goods are subject to specific or ad valorem rates, whichever is higher,

1. Petroleum and petroleum products

1.1 Gasoline

a) Unleaded gasoline 3.6850 baht/litre

b) Other gasoline 4.6850 baht/litre

1.2 Kerosene 3.055 bahl/litre

1.3 Fuel for jet aircraft

a) used directly in jet aircraft 1% or 0.20 bahl/litre

b) used for others 23% or 3 bahl/litre

1.4 Diesel

a) Diesel (sulfulic acid over 0.25%) 2,4050 bahi/litre

b) Diesel (sulfulic acid not over 0.25%) 2.3050 baht/litre

1.5 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 2.17 baht/kg.

1.6 Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) 36% or 3.15 bahl/litre

1.7 Fuel oil 5%

1.8 Petrument product 12%

1.9 Hydrocarbon solvent 30%

2. Spirits

2.1 Fermented spirits

a) Beer 55% or 100 baht/litre of puts alcohol

b) Wine and Champagne 60% or 100 baht/litre of pure alcohol

c) Other fermented liquors 25% or 100 baht/litre of pure alcohol

2.2 Distilled spirits

a) Whiskey 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

b) Brandy 30% or 190 baht/litre of pure alcohol

c) Other Spirits 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

2.3 Absolute alcohol (over 80%)

a) in general 10% or 240 baht/litre

b) used for industries 2% or 1 baht/litre or pure alcohol

c) used for medicine, pharmacy, science or pure alcohol with fuel 0.1% or 0.05 baht/litre of pure alcohol

2.4 White spirit 28% or 100 baht/litre of pure alcohol

2.5 Blended spirit 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

2.6 Special blended spirit 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

3. Tobacco

3.1 Shredded Tobacco 0.1% or 0.01 baht/10 gramme

3.2 Tobacco

a) Cigarettes 75%

b) Cigar 10% or 0.50 baht/gramme

c) Other Rolled Tobacco 0.1 % or 0.02 baht/5gramme

d) Blended Shredded Tobacco 10% or 0.50 baht/gramme

e) Chewing Tobacco 0.1% or 0.09 baht/gramme

4. Non alcoholic beverages

4.1 Soda water 25% or 0.77 baht/440 c.c.

4.2 Soft drink 20% or 0.37 baht/440 c.c.

4.3 Unfermented vegetable, or fruit juices 4% or 0.11 baht/40 c.c.

4.4 Unfermented Vegetable, or fruit juices: exempt if juice content is met by the Departmental Regulation

5. Electrical Appliances

5.1 Air conditioners (capacity not over 72,000 BTU/hour) 15%

5.2 Chandeliers 15%

6. Automobile

6.1 Passenger cars with the engine

a) not over 2,400 c.c. 35%

b) between 2,401 - 3,000 c.c. or having the power not over 220 H.P. 41%

c) over 3,000 c.c. or having the power over 220 H.P. 48%

6.2 Off - Road Passenger Vehicle (OPV) 29%

6.3 Pick up Passenger Vehicle (PPV) 18%

6.4 Double cab 12%

6.5 Modified pickup 20% of modified value

6.6 Public transport cars seated not more than 10 person

a) not over 2,400 c.c. 35%

b) over 2,400 c.c. 41%

6.4 Pick- up

a) specified characteristic by Director-General 3%

b) others 18%

7. Lead crystals 15%

8. Yachts 50%

9. Perfumes 15%

l0. Wool carpets 20%

11. Motor cycle 3%

12. Batteries

12.1 Batteries 10%

12.2 recycle 5%

13. Marble: Exempt

14. Cards

14.1 Poker cards 30 baht/100 cards

14.2 Others 20 baht/100 cards

15. Service Places

15.1 Horse racing courses (from ticket fee for the horse-racing spectators and gain from horse-racing) 20%

15.2 Golf (from member fee and green fee) 20%
5.4 Profits of fiscal monopoliesCentral Government is recipient of the profits of the following fiscal monopolies: the Thai Tobacco Monopoly, the State Lottery, and the production of playing cards by the Excise Department.NoneRates are negotiated between the Ministry of Finance and individual monopolies.
6. Taxes on international trade and transactions
6.1 Import duties(Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987)Ad valorem (on c.i.f. value) and/or specific duties are imposed on imports, classified according to the Harmonized System. In additions, special duties are levied on certain commodities.Exemption is granted to personnel of United Nations Organizations and of accredited diplomatic missions. Companies operating under the Promotion of Investment Act (#1301) are exempted on machinery, parts, accessories based on the Promotional zone and also there are other exemptions by granting the exemption on the import duty for machinery of those 61 promoted activities that the board considered as priority activities located in zone 1 and zone 2, and items to be re-exported. Also, they are granted reductionThe current tariff structure is undergoing a reform aiming to lower tariff barriers and reduce number of rates to 6 basic rates and 3 special rates as follows:

- Special policy goods: 0%

- Raw material: 1%

- Primary goods and machinery: 5%

- Intermediate goods: 10%

- Finished goods: 20%

- Highly protected goods: 30% - 60%

- Passenger cars: 80%
6.1 Import duties (continued) (Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987)of up to 90 percent of the duty an raw materials for not more than one year. Re-exports of goods that have been imported within the preceding two years and have not undergone change in character or form are exempted. Companies operating under the Petroleum Act, and Industrial Authority of Thailand Act (bonded warehouses and export processing zones) are exempted. Crude oil, fertilizers, fish and fish products, jewelry, munitions of war, are zero rated. Duties on inputs used in the production of exports are refunded.
6.2 Export taxes (Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987)Ad valorem or specific duties on exports.Because of exporting promotion, most export taxes are exempted, except raw hides, and raw silk.− Raw hides: B4-5/kg

- Raw silk B100/kg
7. Other taxes
7.1 Stamp duties

(Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 1973)
Stamp duties are imposed on documents (government forms, legal contracts, and other instruments), on an ad valorem basis or per transaction.Rates range from B1.0 per B1,000 (on lease of property, contractor’s services, insurance policy, transfer of securities, arbitrator’s award) to B100 (on articles of association of a limited company).
B. Local Governments

1. Municipality (Municipal Income Act of 1954),

2. Provincial Administrative Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of 1997), 3. Tambon Council and Tambon Administrative Organization, (Tambon Council and Tambon Administration Organisation Act of 1994), and 4. the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act of 1985 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980)
1. Taxes on property
4.1 Real estate taxes
4.1.1 House and rent tax

(House and Land Tax Act of 1932)
The house and rent tax is levied annually on buildings rented or used for other commercial purposes. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Owner-occupied dwellings are exempted. Also exempted are buildings used by government agencies, public hospitals.12.5 % of annual rent
4.1.2 Land development tax
(Land Development Act of 1965)The land development tax is levied annually on the value of unimproved land not subject to the house and rent tax. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Land occupied by owner or used for annual crops is fully or partially exempted. A person who owns land in several provinces is allowed exemption only on land in one province, although his land holdings are taxed separately in each province. Land owned by government agencies, public hospitals, schools, public utilities, and religious organizations are also exempted.34 different rates ranging from B0.50 per rai with an assessed value of under B200 to B70 per rai with an assessed value of over B30,000 and B25 per rai for each additional B10,000 (one rai is equivalent to 0.16 hectare).
4.1.3 Real estate transfer tax

(For Tambon Administration Organization)
Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value; 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.
2. Taxes on goods and services
5.1 VAT surchargeSurcharge on the VAT imposed by the Central Government (see A.5.1). The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10 % of the total VAT. (Temporary VAT rate of 7% is inclusive of the local surcharge of 0.7%)

5% of the total VAT collection in all of the provincial jurisdictions except for Bangkok
5.2 Specific Business Tax surchargeSurcharge on specific business lax imposed by the Central Government. The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10% ofthe specific business tax
5.3 Surcharge on selected excises

1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages

2. Petroleum and petroleum products

3. Electrical appliances

4. Crystals

5. Automobiles

6. Yachts

7. Horse Racing courses
Surcharge on selected excises imposed by the Central Government (See A.5.3). The surcharge is collected by the Excise Department and allocated to local governments.10% of excise tax.
5.4 Profits or fiscal monopolies

None
5.5 Taxes on specific services

None
5.6 Taxes on use of goods and property, and permission to perform activities
5.6.1 Licenses and fees− Slaughtering, positing signboards, and various other activities, are subject to taxes and license fees, which are allocated to all levels of local government.

- Bird nest, ground water, fishery, forestry, petroleum and mineral resources (For Tambon Administration Organization)
Multiple
5.6.2 Motor vehicle tax

(Motor Vehicle Act of l979 Inland Transport Act of 1979)
Motor vehicle (passenger cars, motorcycles and special vehicles; buses and trucks) are subject to an annual tax. The tax is collected by the Central Government (Inland Transport Department) and allocated to Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) for the amount collected in BMA area. The amount collected in other provinces are allocated to the local government in the following proportions: 25% to provinces; 50% to municipalities; and 25% to municipalities upgraded from sanitary districts.Automobiles belonging to government departments and local authorities are exempted. Tractors used in agriculture, ambulances and automobiles belonging to Red Cross are also exempted.For passenger cars carrying 7 passengers or less, the tax is based on cylinder capacity:

B0.50 per cc for portion of the cylinder capacity under 600 cc.

B1.50 per cc for the portion between

600 cc -1,800 cc.

B4.00 per cc for the portion over 1,800 cc.

For passenger cars carrying more than 7 passengers, the fee is based on weight ranging from B150 to B3,600.

For motorcycles, the fee is B100 per unit.

For passenger cars registered for more than 5 years, the fee is reduced at a rate of 10% increments per year, e.g., 10% reduction is given on the 6th year, 20% reduction on the 7th year to 50% reduction after the 9th year.
Table 32.Thailand: Summary of the Local Government Tax System 1/
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionRates
1. Taxes on property
1.1 Real state taxes
1.1.1 House and rent tax
(House and Land Tax Act of 1932)The house and rent tax is levied annually on buildings rented or used for other commercial purposes. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Owner-occupied dwellings are exempted. Also exempted are buildings used by government agencies, public hospitals.12.5 %of annual rent
1.1.2 Land development tax
(Land Development Act of 1965)The land development tax is levied annually on the value of unimproved land not subject to the house and rent tan. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Land occupied by owner or used for annual crops is fully or partially exempted. A person who owns land in several provinces is allowed exemption only on land in one province, although his land holdings are taxed separately in each province. Land owned by government agencies, public hospitals, schools, public utilities, and religious organizations are also exempted.34 different rates ranging from B0.50 per rai with an assessed value of under B200 to B70 per rai with an assessed value of over B30,000 and B25 per rai for each additional B10,000 (one rai is equivalent to 0 16 hectare).
1.1.3 Real estate transfer tax
(Fur Tambon Administration Organization)Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value; 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.
2. Taxes on goods and services
2.1 VAT surchargeSurcharge on the VAT imposed by the Central Government (sec A.5.1). The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10% of the total VAT. (Temporary VAT rate of 7% is inclusive of the local surcharge of 0.7%)

5% of the total VAT collection in all of the provincial jurisdictions except for Bangkok
2.2 Specific Business Tax surchargeSurcharge on specific business tax imposed by the Central Government. The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10% of the specific business tax
2.3 Surcharge on selected excises
1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages

2. Petroleum and petroleum products

3. Electrical appliances

4. Crystals

5. Automobiles

6. Yachts

7. Horse Racing courses
Surcharge on selected excises imposed by the Central Government (See A.5,3). The surcharge is collected by the Excise Department and allocated to local governments.10% of excise tax.
2.4 Profits of fiscal monopolics
None
2.5 Taxes on specific services
None
2.6 Taxes on use of goods and property, and permission to perform activities
2.6.1 Licenses and fees− Slaughtering, positing signboards, and various other activities, are subject to taxes and license fees, which are allocated to all levels of local government

- Bird nest, ground water, fishery, forestry, petroleum and mineral resources (Fur Tambon Administration Organisation)
Multiple
2.6.2 Motor vehicle tax

(Motor Vehicle Act of 1979 Inland Transport Act of 1979)
Motor vehicle (passenger cars, motorcycles and special vehicles; buses and trucks) are Subject to an annual lax. The tan is collected by the Central Government (Inland Transport Department! and allocated 10 Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) for the amount collected in BMA area. The amount collected in other provinces are allocated to the Local government in the following proportions; 25% to provinces; 50% to municipalities; and 25% to municipalities upgraded from sanitary districts.Automobiles belonging to government departments and local authorities are exempted. Tractors used in agriculture. ambulances and automobiles belonging 1c Red Cross are also exempted.For passenger cars carrying 7 passengers or less, the tax is based on cylinder capacity:

B0.50 per cc for portion of the cylinder capacity under 600 cc

B150 per cc for the portion between 600 cc - 1,300 cc.

B4.00 per cc for the portion over 1,800 cc.

For passenger cars carrying more than 7 passengers, the fee is based on weight ranging from B150 to 3,600.

For motorcycles, the fee is B100 per unit.

For passenger cars registered for more than 5 years, the fee is reduced at a rate of 10% increments per year, eg., 10% reduction is given on the 6th year, 20% reduction on the 7th year to 50% reduction after the 9th year.

Local governments include: 1 Municipality (Municipal Income Act of 1954), 2. Provincial Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of 1997), 3. Tambon Administrative organization (Tambon council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994), and 4. the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act of 1985 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980).

Local governments include: 1 Municipality (Municipal Income Act of 1954), 2. Provincial Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of 1997), 3. Tambon Administrative organization (Tambon council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994), and 4. the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act of 1985 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980).

Table 33.Thailand: Financial Survey, 1996–2001 1/(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Jan.
Net foreign assets−301.3−884.3−121.1124.2281.5432.6520.6552.8604.3735.7887.7951.0
Net domestic assets5,309.36,054.05,750.95,483.15,327.05,211.15,198.15,170.75,121.85,096.55,084.75,057.5
Domestic credit6,496.67,643.77,483.27,359.37,145.26,858.46,588.56,595.36,358.35,920.45,889.95,898.1
Government (net)−515.1−467.10.640.055.8108.7144.1173.0170.7216.8211.7225.3
Claims on government83.866.9431.1527.7550551.7573.6559.7581.2639.2593.7627.6
Government deposits598.9534.0430.5487.7494.2443429.5386.7410.5422.4382402.3
Nonfinancial public enterprises222.9265.4280.4290.5297.2317.7315.6339.8341.4356.9344.3343.3
Businesses and households6,788.87845.47202.27,028.86792.264326128.86082.55846.25346.75333.95,329.5
Capital and other items−1,187.3−1,589.7−1,732.3−1,876.2−1,818.2−1,647.3−1,390.4−1,424.6−1,236.5−823.9−805.2−840.6
Capital accounts−1,275.9−1772.3−2135.9−2,297.9−2263.5−2222.7−1972.8−1896.6−1738.5−1607.6−1619.7−1,610.6
Other borrowings−192.3−211.2−221.4−201.6−202−201.8−217−215.1−217.2−220.3−224.7−228.3
Other items net280.9393.8625623.3647.3777.2799.4687.1719.21004.01039.2998.3
Liquid liabilities (M3)5,008.05,169.75,629.85,607.35,608.55,643.75,718.75,723.55,726.15,832.25,972.46,008.5
Currency302.3331.7315.7310.8302.6319.3466.1369.6350.1358.3401.7391.1
Demand deposits91.27785.883.585.294.889.8105.4100.6110.9105.5117.8
Saving, time, and other deposits3,574.4429847724,793.44811.64837.54807.44897.24921.85042.55161.75,196.4
Promissory notes1,040.1463456.3419.6409.1392.1355.4351.3353.6320.5303.5303.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheets of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks, finance companies, finance and securities companies, and other state-owned financial institutions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheets of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks, finance companies, finance and securities companies, and other state-owned financial institutions.

Table 34.Thailand: Bank and Finance Company Survey, 1996–2001 1/(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Feb.
Net foreign assets−210.4−681.626.1262.6414.9575.2646.2675.1719.7851.11,002.61,101.5
Net domestic assets4,935.65,503.45,092.04,863.64,659.24,526.54,536.34,468.94,416.34,352.04,294.44,252.5
Domestic credit5,957.86,877.66,675.46,525.46,253.85,938.75,653.85,642.45,381.64,879.14,843.14,864.4
Government (net)−462.1−424.930.354.620.962.788.3117.3124.3144.5153.2181.9
Claims on government57.748.9356.7438.8398.1397.5412.2395.4421.2467.8438.6467.0
Government deposits519.8473.8326.4384.2377.2334.8323.9278.1296.9323.3285.4285.1
Nonfinancial public enterprises175.6197.8192.3196.8198.8203.8201.8209.7198.4199.3175.3175.1
Businesses and households6,244.37,104.76,452.86,274.06,034.15,672.25,363.75,315.45,058.94,535.34,514.64,507.4
Capital and other items−1,022.2−1,374.2−1,583.4−1,661.8−1,594.6−1,412.2−1,117.5−1,173.5−965.3−527.1−548.7−611.9
Capital accounts−1,204.1−1,691.3−2,031.3−2,177.1−2,134.0−2,090.6−1,8223−1,742.8−1,578.6−1,448.0−1,457.6−1,455.7
Other borrowings−41.0−44.2−37.7−28.5−26.4−27.8−28.2−31.1−32.1−32.2−35.4−33.4
Other items net222.9361.3485.6543.8565.8706.2733.0600.4645.4953.1944.3877.2
Liabilities (M2A)4,725.24,821.85,118.15,126.25,074.15,101.75,182.55,143.95,136.05,203.15,297.05,354.0
Currency304.2333.9318.3513.4305.0322472.4372.8353.9362.4406.8395.7
Demand deposits102.685.291.5121.791.598.493.6108102.6112.8107.5119.3
Saving, time, and other deposits3,278.33,897.14,251.94,271.64,268.54,289.34,261.14,311.84,325.94,407.34,479.14,534.6
Promissory notes1,040.1505.6456.4419.5409.1392.0355.4351.3353.6320.6303.6304.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheet of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks (including local lending by BIBFs), finance companies, and finance and securities companies.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheet of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks (including local lending by BIBFs), finance companies, and finance and securities companies.

Table 35.Thailand: Monetary Survey, 1996–2001(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets−78.7−559.168.7293.6440.3602.9672.7700.6745.8878.91,030.11,173.5
Assets1,170.71,683.71,545.91,720.01,744.01,963.31,871.21,834.61,892.92,030.62,133.22,262.6
Liabilities1,249.42,242.81,477.21,426.41,303.71,360.41,198.51,134.01,147.11,151.71,103.11,089.1
Net domestic assets3,805.34,898.44,684.74,495.54,323.84,183.74,182.04,123.94,055.54,028.64,002.63,940.2
Domestic credit4,638.66,237.46,163.46,054.45,949.16,026.95,905.25,917.65,644.95,496.25,466.35,489.8
Government (net)−466.1−426.4−1.0−2.03.545.365.194.099.1118.4130.0159.4
Claims on government53.747.4325.4382.2380.7380.1389.0372.1396.0441.8415.4451.2
Government deposits519.8473.8326.4384.2377.2334.8323.9278.1296.9323.4285.4291.8
Nonfinancial public enterprises130.7171.3183.5185.1189.5200.8199.1206.1195.5195.1172.1172.9
Businesses and households4,689.65,730.95,301.15,338.95,246.95,176.55,016.04,991.14,755.64,223.24,213.24,223.2
Other financial institutions284.4761.6679.8532.4509.2604.3625.0626.4594.7959.5951.0934.3
Capital and other items−833.3−1,339.0−1,478.7−1,558.9−1,625.3−1,843.2−1,723.2−1,793.7−1,589.4−1,467.6−1,463.7−1,549.6
Capital accounts−977.9−1,493.9−1881.7−2080.6−2173.2−2364.0−2175.5−2129.0−1987.0−1856.5−1876.4−1895.2
Borrowing from other financial institutions−96.1−195.9−251.4−266.9−292.8−350.2−394.9−453.4−412.4−408.1−363.2−364.2
Other items net240.7350.8654.4788.6840.7871.0847.2788.7810.0797.0775.9709.8
Broad money (M2)3,726.64,339.34,753.44,789.14,764.14,786.64,854.74,824.54,801.34,907.55,032.75,113.7
Narrow money (M1)423.7428.8441.8458.1429.2431.9575.0495.0463.1483.5525.7533.5
Currency304.3334.0318.3313.4305.1322.0472.4372.8353.9362.4406.8399.6
Deposits119.494.8123.5144.7124.1109.9102.6122.2109.2121.1118.9133.9
Quasi-money3,302.93,910.54,311.64,331.04,334.94,354.74,279.74,329.54,338.24,424.04,507.04,580.2
Savings deposits743.7755.2851928.1972.91049.7995.31,085.91,070.61,155.31,219.51,320.1
Time deposits2,546.43,102.13412.53344.13299.83247.53223.03179.33207.13204.53220.43191.7
Other deposits12.853.248.158.862.257.561.464.360.564.267.168.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 36.Thailand: Changes in Monetary Survey Aggregates, 1996–2001
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
(Contribution to change over previous period in the stock of broad money, in percentage points)
Net foreign assets−2.5−12.914.515.616.114.412.78.56.45.87.49.8
Net domestic assets15.029.3−4.9−7.0−10.3−12.4−10.6−7.8−5.6−3.2−3.7−3.8
Domestic credit17.142.9−1.72.9−4.9−1.2−5.4−2.9−6.4−11.1−9.0−8.9
Of which: Government (net)−2.21.19.89.46.45.61.42.02.01.51.31.4
Of which: Businesses and households18.127.9−9.9−2.6−6.2−4.6−6.0−7.3−10.3−19.9−16.5−15.9
Capital and other items−2.1−13.6−3.2−9.9−5.4−11.2−5.1−4.90.87.85.35.1
Broad money12.616.49.58.65.82.12.10.70.82.53.76.0
Narrow money1.10.10.31.21.10.92.80.80.71.1−1.00.8
Quasi-money11.516.39.27.44.81.2−0.70.00.11.44.75.2
Memorandum items:
Income velocity 1/1.241.090.970.950.97
Money multiplier 2/8.239.1510.009.7911.0211.227.819.6910.6710.259.5510.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Ratio of annual GDP to broad money at end-year.

Ratio of broad money to reserve money.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Ratio of annual GDP to broad money at end-year.

Ratio of broad money to reserve money.

Table 37.Thailand: Accounts of the Bank of Thailand, 1996–2001 1/(In billions of baht, end of period)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets990.6935.9672.3701.5719.2805.4822.9739.1764.9837.4875.6932.4
Assets990.71,274.31,083.41,126.21,157.91,326.11,303.31,220.51,257.41,361.41,413.21,445.9
Liabilities−0.1−338.4−411.1−424.7−438.7−520.7−480.4−481.4−492.5−524.0−537.6−513.5
Net domestic assets−537.7−461.8−197.0−212.4−286.9−378.8−201.1−241.4−315.0−358.5−348.4−419.9
Government (net)−308.2−251.574.181.169.163.058.257.552.524.463.274.5
Claims on Government17.214.5152.9217.5174.3132.9120.795.188.693.288.3106.6
Government deposits−348.0−296.5−108.0−171.9−134.7−99.8−110.7−71.5−67.9−100.2−53.9−66.8
Government currency holdings6.313.211.417.511.111.229.213.911.611.08.113.4
Treasury coin issue16.317.317.818.018.418.719.020.020.120.420.721.3
Claims on nonfinancial enterprises17.271.475.073.770.365.764.060.958.955.648.342.6
Claims on commercial banks (net)26.5276.3139.6242.1140.460.778.971.769.391.558.89.2
Claims on other financial institutions (net)36.742.5−66.8−60.9−54.1−67.254.313.33.022.763.568.2
Capital and other items−309.9−600.5−418.9−548.4−512.6−501.0−456.5−444.8−498.6−552.7−582.2−614.4
Other assets54.6164.4419.2402.1439.2555.6544.6535.1539.2547.4557.2535.1
Capital accounts−377.8−803.2−814.0−944.8−933.9−1,115.0−1,013.2−974.2−1,044.6−1,129.4−1,159.7−1,159.9
Other liabilities13.338.3−24.1−5.7−17.958.412.1−5.76.829.320.310.4
Reserve money452.9474.1475.3489.1432.3426.6621.8497.7449.9478.9527.2512.5
Currency365.6387.7365.4351.8344.1361.0558.2413.9394.5405.5467.0447.0
Held by commercial banks61.353.847.138.439.039.085.741.140.643.160.147.3
Held by businesses and households302.3331.6315.7310.8302.4319.3467.4369350.2358.9401.6395.1
Held by other financial institutions2.02.32.62.62.72.75.13.83.73.55.34.6
Deposits87.386.4109.9137.388.265.663.683.855.473.460.265.5
Held by commerical banks74.078.280.3114.755.854.555.371.450.166.954.160.0
Held by other financial institutions10.75.428.821.731.49.26.711.544.74.54.1
Held by other domestic sectors2.62.80.80.91.01.91.60.91.31.81.61.4
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At current exchange rates.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At current exchange rates.

Table 38.Thailand: Changes in the Accounts of the Bank of Thailand, 1996–2001(Twelve-month change as percent of the stock of reserve money)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets14.6−12.1−55.6−3.9−1.331.531.77.710.67.58.538.8
Net domestic assets−2.616.855.913.22.5−34.6−0.9−5.9−6.54.8−23.7−35.9
Government (net)−2.312.568.769.536.931.3−3.3−4.8−3.9−9.00.83.4
Claims on nonfinancial public enterprises2.212.00.8−0.2−0.9−2.3−2.3−2.6−2.6−2.4−2.5−3.7
Claims on commercial banks (net)−1.255.2−28.810.3−12.5−27.3−12.8−34.8−16.47.2−3.2−12.6
Claims on other financial institutions (net)2.31.3−23.13.83.411.525.515.213.221.11.511.0
Capital and other items−3.5−64.238.3−70.3−24.4−47.8−7.921.23.2−12.1−20.2−34.1
Reserve money12.04.70.39.21.1−3.030.81.84.112.3−15.23.0
Currency held by nongovernment10.04.9−4.70.03.36.640.612.711.710.4−14.76.7
Deposits held by nongovernment2.0−0.25.09.2−2.2−9.6−9.7−10.9−7.61.8−0.5−3.7
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 39.Thailand: Refinancing by the Bank of Thailand, 1996–2001(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Outstanding at end of period30.132.135.037.236.938.237.840.346.647.634.126.622.517.421.023.938.029.028.830.730.8
Export17.918.823.223.723.824.023.622.228.029.117.49.68.81.83.15.517.35.57.48.27.1
Manufacturing4.24.74.64.95.05.25.45.35.85.86.15.95.98.011.011.713.616.215.216.218.6
Agriculture7.37.96.68.07.58.46.78.27.98.06.06.63.42.82.32.22.83.12.12.41.4
Others0.70.70.60.60.60.62.14.64.94.74.64.54.44.84.64.54.34.24.13.93.7
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 40.Thailand: Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks, 1996–2001(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Total assets5,7177,4287,1657,3347,2007,3016,9736,9966,7526,6846,6406,880
Cash and claims on the Bank of Thailand183466502453394369238232206271268321
Claims on commercial banks413615363056467054655369
Claims on other financial institutions214331173137117201234224208527512511
Foreign assets180409463594586637568614635669720817
Claims on government 1/2016155147188229249257287328306323
Claims on nonfinancial public enterprises113100109112119135135145137140124130
Claims on businesses and households4,6885,7305,3005,3375,2455,1755,0154,9904,7544,2224,2124,222
Other278340450518521500489465471462445487
Total liabilities5,7177,4287,1657,3347,2007,3016,9736,9966,7526,6846,6406,880
Credit from the Bank of Thailand543131551585429483939632634
Liabilities to commercial banks373127422754395637523762
Borrowings from other financial institution192229229323306303264292245270246284
Total deposits of nongovernment sector3,2703,8604,2014,2094,2134,2604,2334,3034,3114,4004,4914,576
Demand deposits8773848183908710398106102117
Savings deposits7167307898589049639481,0401,0301,1061,1691,265
Time deposits2,4553,0053,2813,2113,1683,1493,1373,0973,1243,1253,1543,127
Foreign currency deposits125045575857606259626566
Marginal deposits123111111111
Foreign liabilities1,2491,9041,0661,002865840718653655628566576
Liabilities to government178191230230254246242221241234240238
Local government deposits332732333935303132302625
Capital account6046911,0681,1361,2391,2491,1621,155942727717735
Other101183158202203285237248251.2279.6293.2351
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes claims on local government, which were zero, except for September 1996 (B 0.5 billion).

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes claims on local government, which were zero, except for September 1996 (B 0.5 billion).

Table 41.Thailand: Bills, Loans, and Overdrafts of Commercial Banks, Classified by Purpose, 1996–2000 1/(In billions of baht)
19961997199819992000
Total4,855.66,059.95,238.65,132.84,606.3
Agriculture164.0161.7146.6135.0120.6
Mining24.536.032.229.421.9
Manufacturing1,313.51,872.31606.31543.11,321.0
Construction236.3273.1246.8223.2163.1
Real estate business426.1490.5506.1514.3339.7
Imports146.4174.4192.5196.1142.1
Exports196.1218.9174155.4127.1
Wholesale and retail trade870.21,037.8867.5787.4656.9
Public utilities142.8197.1189.7204.4220.9
Banking and other financial business345.3487.5263.4392.1668.0
Services377.8458.0418.6385.3313.4
Personal consumption612.6652.6594.9567.1511.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including interbank and BIBF transactions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Including interbank and BIBF transactions.

Table 42.Thailand: BIBF Out-In Operations, 1996–2001 1/
199619971998199920002001 2/
(In billions of baht)
Thai banks
Sources of funds331.1508.2149.1109.464.057.7
Maturities of less than one year0.051.834.211.016.55.4
Maturities of one year or more331.1456.4114.998.447.552.3
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing327.9528.2149.1109.263.557.1
Uses of funds330.0513.2213.5100.162.257.2
Maturities of less than one year101.996.711.110.13.22.6
Maturities of one year or more228.1416.5202.4905954.6
Foreign bank branches
Sources of funds223.7670.9421.2314.8239.5221.8
Maturities of less than one year104.3320.1145.466.753.657.6
Maturities of one year or more119.4350.8275.8248.1185.9164.2
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing112.4359.4280.7282.0213.8203.4
Uses of funds222.8691.5431.9304.2253.1240.0
Maturities of less than one year138.3254.1190.7128.6105.385.1
Maturities of one year or more84.5437.4241.2175.6147.8154.9
Other BIBF units
Sources of funds252.0201.1119.377.761.163.6
Maturities of leas than one year150.9102.342.533.20.04.8
Maturities of one year or more101.198.876.844.561.158.8
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing59.086.057.768.960.963.2
Uses of funds254.6206.9121.682.871.773.8
Maturities of less than one year143.194.546.631.421.927.8
Maturities of one year or more111.5112.47551.449.846
Purpose of lending
Agriculture6.29.34.22.51.31.1
Mining9.921.512.410.35.65.2
Manufacturing390.5735.3459287.9220.5205.6
Exports18.728.315.610.37.47.2
Wholesale trade in agricultural products2.34.00.60.70.70.7
Services for entertainments3.24.11.51.40.80.8
Import of luxury goods2.54.92.20.10.00.0
Personal consumption2.20.80.40.51.21.3
Luxury resident condominium17.620.08.14.22.42.4
Construction21.533.914.710.48.58.0
Commerce92.0161.080.650.633.432.1
Banking and finance business119.6160.257.928.126.229.9
Real estate business23.733.111.27.55.84.9
Public Utility39.882.955.850.961.559.3
Hotel and restaurant32.354.116.35.62.92.2
General housing finance0.10.1000.00.0
Others25.258.125.116.18.88.5
Total807.41,411.4765.6487.1387.0369.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Sources and uses of funds in this table represent foreign borrowing and lending only to residents, i.e., they do not include all sources and funds of BIBF operations.

Data on maturities are through March; data on purpose of lending are through February.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Sources and uses of funds in this table represent foreign borrowing and lending only to residents, i.e., they do not include all sources and funds of BIBF operations.

Data on maturities are through March; data on purpose of lending are through February.

Table 43.Thailand: Loans and Interest Rates in Interbank Markets, 1998–2001
Outstanding loans 1/ (In billions of baht)Interest rates 2/ (percent per annum)
1998
January34.6921.51
February35.4719.83
March34.1620.57
April32.5019.11
May21.2716.40
June26.8918.58
July32.2311.72
August29.369.81
September35.297.17
October58.235.35
November61.493.55
December46.522.63
1999
January71.322.73
February60.883.09
March47.972.25
April62.671.65
May66.691.45
June32.241.33
July74.141.47
August63.911.36
September53.701.71
October51.141.65
November49.351.35
December28.181.23
2000
January58.701.55
February70.632.02
March60.552.63
April61.231.98
May65.101.76
June43.722.19
July61.472.32
August61.081.66
September57.011.86
October55.221.89
November50.771.80
December34.181.70
2001
January72.182.01
February79.291.55
March65.891.47
April73.02
Source: Data provided by the Bank of Thailand.

Previous to 2000, data were collected only from a limited number of commercial banks and via telephone calls, 5:30 p.m. cut-off time. Starting in 2000, the data coverage is broader.

Interbank rates are reported as the monthly average overnight rate.

Source: Data provided by the Bank of Thailand.

Previous to 2000, data were collected only from a limited number of commercial banks and via telephone calls, 5:30 p.m. cut-off time. Starting in 2000, the data coverage is broader.

Interbank rates are reported as the monthly average overnight rate.

Table 44.Thailand: Operations of Finance Companies, 1996–2000(In billions of baht)
19961997199819992000
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Assets1,8241,6371,5031,2721,131869733696677686668
Credit to the private sector1,4881,2831,120925767549498483463477450
Investments (government and private securities)22017812113011084928896107111
Lending under repurchase agreement83569455879395254239
Cash and balance at the Bank of Thailand86533311112
Cash balance at banks1711504365472317132746
Cash balance at other financial institutions01000000000
Foreign assets11111000001
Other821221371251271078055505149
Liabilities1,8241,6371,5031,2721,131869733696677686668
Borrowing under repurchase agreement1220338866241
Borrowing1,4841,3351,2391,0531,0311,027969969974982977
Bank of Thailand18429559439438445434434432402363
Domestic Commercial Banks148144106107103105989796146191
Foreign liability133123433226282626262829
Private sector1,081550500453440424388387391358344
Others10489312224252325294850
Capital accounts22619814996−39−274−353−386−408−409−418
Others10284112120131108111107109109108
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 45.Thailand: Lending of Finance Companies, Classified by Purpose, 1996–2000(In billions of baht)
19961997199819992000
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Total lending1,488.2531.8465.3263.6254.0243.6185.8179.6162.6163.1145.4
Agriculture, forestry, mining15.05.85.41.71.92.11.81.72.22.11.8
Manufacturing228.5111.498.652.952.250.435.435.33029.424.3
Construction56.615.314.17.06.96.243.93.33.12.6
Real estate business362.8124.0117.459.658.455.341.540.336.634.428.6
Imports26.67.77.24.04.03.83.33.22.82.42.1
Exports12.46.35.22.52.62.521.81.61.52
Wholesale and retail trade121.042.236.617.216.316.912.812.310.310.28.6
Public utilities and services123.054.053.032.031.431.32524.222.120.820.4
Banking and other financial institutions157.461.851.330.124.423.1161511.214.613.4
Personal consumption384.9103.376.556.655.952.04441.942.544.641.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 46.Thailand: Interest Rate Structure, 1996–2001(In percent per annum; end-of-period)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Government securities
Average repurchase rates (7 days)11.0122.363.752.151.00.940.941.531.351.281.311.21
Bank of Thailand
Bank rate (loan rates)10.5012.5012.57.05.54.04.04.04.04.04.04.0
Commercial banks
Interbank lending rates 1/9.6621.732.632.251.331.711.232.632.191.861.701.47
Minimum overdraft rates 2/13.25-13.5015.75-16.0012.00-12.7510.00-10.759.25-9.759.00-9.258.50-8.758.50-9.008.50-9.008.00-8.758.00-8.757.75-8.25
Minimum loan rates 2/13.00-13.2515.2511.50-12.009.50-10.008.75-9.008.50-8.758.25-8.508.00-8.508.00-8.507.50-8.257.50-8.257.25-7.75
Saving deposits 2/5.005.004.54.54.03.633.02.752.752.52.52.0
3-6 months time deposit8.75-9.7510.00-11.506.05.04.754.373.753.53.53.03.02.5
Government Savings Banks 3/
Savings deposits4.75-5.004.75-5.004.25-4.502.75-3.751.75-3.001.00-2.501.00-2.130.75-1.880.75-1.880.75-1.750.75-1.750.75-1.50
6 months time deposits8.88-9.3810.50-11.005.50-6.004.50-5.004.50-4.883.00-4.133.00-3.633.00-3.503.00-3.502.75-3.132.75-3.133.00
Finance companies
Three-month borrowing rate9.50-12.2512.25-15.505.50-7.505.00-8.504.50-8.502.25-6.002.00-5.502.00-5.502.00-5.502.00-5.501.75-5.501.75-3.00
Minimum loan rate13.7017.3317.0916.015.9113.5812.8112.3311.5711.5810.9610.59
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Weighted average.

As offered by four big commercial banks.

Higher rates applicable to private deposits and lower rates to government deposits.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Weighted average.

As offered by four big commercial banks.

Higher rates applicable to private deposits and lower rates to government deposits.

Table 47.Thailand; Interest Rate Differentials and Forward Discount, 1998–2001(In percent per annum at end-period)
Eurodollar RateDomestic Interest Rate 1/Uncovered Differential 2/Forward Premium (+) or Discount (-) 3/
1998
January5.5223.4317.36−9.58
February5.5221.3415.27−8.00
March5.5621.7415.62−8.49
April5.5219.4613.39−10.08
May5.5216.3710.30−9.53
June5.5417.7711.68−10.47
July5.5514.358.25−3.18
August5.5611.345.22−3.92
September5.478.352.33−0.46
October5.247.261.50−0.39
November5.146.560.910.20
December5.435.54−0.430.49
1999
January5.034.86−0.671.48
February4.894.57−0.810.55
March4.904.04−1.352.23
April4.853.36−1.981.68
May4.843.07−2.252.42
June4.992.81−2.682.30
July5.152.73−2.942.71
August5.282.46−3.352.86
September5.382.44−3.482.70
October5.412.44−3.512.83
November5.582.44−3.73.80
December6.402.44−4.601.61
2000
January5.800.79−5.592.41
February5.880.72−5.752.25
March6.031.06−5.572.06
April6.141.21−5.553.57
May6.551.10−6.114.07
June6.641.11−6.203.86
July6.631.31−5.983.90
August6.621.17−6.113.97
September6.621.20−6.093.97
October6.621.26−6.023.82
November6.641.04−6.262.19
December6.691.23−6.133.91
2001
January5.881.44−5.022.23
February5.531.17−4.912.78
March5.121.13−4.502.58
April4.821.13−4.182.20
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Monthly average overnight interbank rate.

Domestic interest rate minus Eurodollar rate (adjusted for 10 percent withholding tax).

End-month.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Monthly average overnight interbank rate.

Domestic interest rate minus Eurodollar rate (adjusted for 10 percent withholding tax).

End-month.

Table 48.Thailand: Flow of Credit from the Monetary System and Net Capital Inflow to Private and Public Enterprises, 1996–2001(In billions of baht)
19961997199819991999200020002001
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIVI
Total credit992.71,510.6−583.1−140.1−142.813.1−157.9−427.7−58.5−348.5−161.8−57.0−625.8−19.7
Private businesses955.51,463.3−616.0−143.5−159.51.0−162.1−464.1−86.1−301.9−167.6−12.0−567.6−16.3
Public enterprises37.247.332.93.416.712.14.236.427.6−46.65.8−45.0−58.2−3.4
Financial20.96.813.1−5.0−6.4−6.63.8−14.23.3−20.00.0−7.5−24.2−3.0
Nonfinancial16.340.519.88.423.118.70.450.624.3−26.65.8−37.5−34.0−0.4
Credit from banking system (increase)642.61,561.5−503.3−108.7−110.834.7−141.4−326.2−16.8−278.1−169.2−41.4−505.5−0.9
Private businesses621.71,515.9−495.5−103.5−107.017.7−151.8−344.6−29.7−247.9−170.3−15.4−463.31.1
Public enterprises20.945.6−7.8−5.2−3.817.010.418.412.9−30.21.1−26.0−42.2−2.0
Financial7.05.1−19.9−6.9−8.35.812.12.75.8−19.51.5−3.0−15.2−2.8
Nonfinancial13.940.512.11.74.511.2−1.715.77.1−10.7−0.4−23.0−27.00.8
Foreign credit (net inflow)350.1−50.9−79.8−31.4−32.0−21.6−16.5−101.5−41.7−70.47.4−15.6−120.3−18.8
Private businesses333.8−52.6−120.5−40.0−52.5−16.7−10.3−119.5−56.4−54.02.73.4−104.3−17.4
Public enterprises16.31.740.78.620.5−4.9−6.218.014.7−16.44.7−19.0−16.0−1.4
Financial13.91.733.01.91.9−12.4−8.3−16.9−2.5−0.5−1.5−4.5−9.0−0.2
Nonfinancial2.40.07.76.718.67.52.134.917.2−15.96.2−14.5−7.0−1.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 49.Thailand: Foreign Investor Participation in the Securities Exchange of Thailand, 1996–2001
19961997199819991999200020002001
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIVI
Turnover involving foreign investors
In billions of baht900.9804.2592.1157.6340.7278.8169.8946.9292.2127.0108.497.0594.63187.3
In percent of total turnover34.643.334.635.326.730.329.629.432.836.836.024.232.1918.2
Net purchases by foreign investors12.355.430.2−1.713.5−13.5−1.4−3.1−17.1−11.0−3.8−1.2−33.1−1.4
Purchases (in billions of baht)456.6429.8311.178.0177.1132.784.2471.9122.658.052.347.9280.7893.0
Sales (in billions of baht)444.3374.4280.979.7163.6146.285.6475.0139.669.056.149.1313.8594.4
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Table 50.Thailand: Stock Market Indicators, 1996–2001
199619971998199920002001 1/
Number of quoted companies454.0431.0418.0392.0381.0381.0
Capitalization (billions of baht) 2/2,559.61,133.31,268.22,193.11,279.21,408.8
Percent of GDP55.423.927.447.526.1
New capital raisings (billions of baht) 2/117.963.3330.0465.7119.836.7
Trading value (billions of baht)1,303.1929.6855.21,609.8923.7516.0
Percent of capitalization50.982.067.473.472.236.6
Foreign/total turnover (percent) 3/34.643.334.629.432.218.2
SET index (1975 = 100)831.6372.7355.8481.9269.2291.9
Percent change−35.1−55.2−4.535.4−44.1−27.1
Average dividend yield (percent)3.56.01.40.61.82.3
Average price/earnings ratio12.06.610.014.75.55.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Through March 2001.

At market prices.

Including transactions through sub-brokers.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Through March 2001.

At market prices.

Including transactions through sub-brokers.

Table 51.Thailand: Balance of Payments, 1995–2000(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Current account balance−13,234−14,350−3,11014,29112,4659,208
Trade balance−14,652−16,148−4,62412,2359,2715,519
Exports, f.o.b.55,73154,66756,72552,87856,80067,942
Imports, c.i.f.70,38370,81561,34940,64347,52962,423
Of which: Oil4,6226,2025,4813,1354,2726,833
Services (net)9311,0371,0401,6412,8413,225
Receipts18,66420,99519,52816,54717,74817,123
Payments17,73319,95818,48814,90614,90713,898
Of which: Interest4,1945,2025,5585,4794,5133,824
Transfers (net)487761474415353464
Of which: Official423018284362
Capital movements (net)21,94919,504−12,284−14,674−10,262−9,925
Medium- and long-term9,47011,27011,4545,9522,328−2,062
Private sector8,2789,94110,5225,7441,474−1,593
Direct investment1,2321,6583,3477,1736,0052,888
Equity1,0771,5203,1596,7365,8443,325
Loans155138188437161−437
Loans and credits3,8176,8992,630−2,109−4,978−4,603
Portfolio and other3,2291,3844,545680447122
Public sector1,1921,329932208854−169
Public enterprises810878−382331532−268
Central government3824511,314−123322−201
Short-term capital 1/9,0735,310−12,365−16,797−12,126−7,344
Other capital (incl. nonresident baht account)3,4062,924−5,812−4,300−3,204−562
Forwards/Swaps (Offshore)00−5,5614712,74043
Errors and omissions−1,479−2,985−3,196−2,81526−1,014
Overall balance7,2362,169−18,590−3,1982,229−1,731
Monetary movements−7,236−2,16918,5903,198−2,2291,731
Monetary authorities−6,748−1,69819,6992,363−2,8902,234
Balance of payments support (excl. IMF) 2/005,5144,2522,085307
Net IMF accounts (increase -)−140−32,911755270−193
Monetary gold (increase -)−16492012−773
Holdings of SDRs (increase -)−13−15−42291133175
Foreign exchange (increase -)−6,579−1,72911,495−2,737−5,3711,872
Valuation changes−488−471−1,109835661−503
Gold16−49−201−27−42
Other−504−422−908837654−461
Memorandum items:
Current account as percent of GDP−7.9−7.9−2.112.810.27.6
Gross reserves
(In billions of U.S. dollars)37.038.727.029.534.832.7
(In months of following year’s imports)6.36.68.07.56.76.0
Forwards/Swaps (onshore)−6,760−4,092−1,740−2,493
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes offshore spot purchases by Bank of Thailand.

Includes financing from bilateral creditors and structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes offshore spot purchases by Bank of Thailand.

Includes financing from bilateral creditors and structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank.

Table 52.Thailand: Value and Volume of Merchandise Exports, 1995–2000 1/(All values in millions of U.S. dollars; volumes in thousands of metric tons; and unit values in U.S. dollars per ton)
199519961997199819992000
Total exports (value)56,72556,000 1/58,475 1/54,630 1/58,517 1/69,871
Rice
Volume6,1985,4605,5676,5406,8396,141
Value1,9602,0122,0802,0981,9491,640
Unit value316368374321285267
Rubber
Volume1,7471,9221,9191,9982,0312,542
Value2,4712,5131,9001,3191,1591,525
Unit value1,4141,307990660571600
Maize
Volume10857611378131
Value221716211410
Unit value204298262153173323
Tin (metal)
Volume358111313
Value163045626671
Unit value666655
Tapioca products
Volume4,0814,6335,4364,1225,3164,586
Value736819726529610513
Unit value180177134128115112
Sugar
Volume3,7574,4654,0322,2903,2694,087
Value1,1661,2741,136615560658
Unit value310285282269171161
Shrimp
Volume175161137142138144
Value2,0291,7201,5191,4181,2741,513
Unit value11,59410,68311,0889,9869,23210,507
Manufacturing 2/
Volume (1995 =100)1008895103115143
Value45,27644,37247,04644,24248,71459,108
Unit value (1995 =100)100111109959491
Of which:
Textile products (value)5,7464,6994,7604,4414,3914,773
Integrated circuits (value)2,3462,3192,4822,2552,9424,484
Other exports (value)3,0493,2434,0074,3264,1714,833
Adjustment for BOP basis−994−1333−1750−1,752−1717−1,929
Merchandise exports, f.o.b.55,73154,66756,72552,87856,80067,942
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes exports of commercial aircraft.

Excludes sugar.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes exports of commercial aircraft.

Excludes sugar.

Table 53.Thailand: Merchandise Exports, 1995–2000

(In millions of U.S. dollars) 1/

199519961997199819992000
Agricultural products6,4666,6275,9985,0744,8904,958
Fishery products2,8722,5172,3272,1712,0802,306
Manufactured products46,44245,64648,18244,85749,27459,766
Labor intensive products10,9379,0688,3947,3697,6028,206
Garments4,1103,1563,1182,9802,9063,130
Footwear2,1691,3281,152928858848
Toys, games358311270220229232
Precious stones and jewelry2,0142,0421,7111,3091,4921,592
Travel goods455400393417449481
Artificial flower, foliage896655544846
Sport requisites355344294228269318
Other1,3871,4211,4011,2331,3511,559
High-tech products26,57227,65030,59629,83533,26342,448
Computer and parts5,1796,5507,2747,6947,9248,524
Integrated circuits and parts2,3462,3192,4812,2552,9414,484
Telecommunication equipment433508518534668891
Electrical appliance4,1494,2264,4243,9144,0655,347
Transformers, generator, and motors9951,1941,4681,2321,5351,695
Chemical products3885396735457601,079
Plastic products2,5051,2521,5771,7122,0002,785
Spinning670634682561595693
Fabrics964909961900889949
Vehicle parts and accessories6597471,0641,3231,9772,537
Base metal products1,3841,4261,5051,5651,6292,328
Ball bearing263273257168197218
Insulated electric wire cable481499508465530475
Petroleum products2887261,1216939391,781
Other5,8685,8486,0846,2746,6148,662
Resource based products5,1915,3595,3524,6935,2575,650
Sugar1,1661,2741,136615560658
Molasses697948342132
Canned seafood1,5121,5341,7121,7781,9051,969
Cements151174244215338307
Rubber products8267468008598471,041
Canned pineapple233258200168304200
Furniture and parts8298227876898471,019
Other405472427335435424
Other manufactured3,7423,5693,8402,9603,1523,462
Other 2/9451,2101,9682,5282,2732,841
Total exports56,72556,00058,47554,63058,51769,871
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Data in baht provided by Thai authorities converted to U.S. dollars using implicit manufactured and total exports baht/U.S. dollar exchange rates.

Includes export of commercial aircrafts.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Data in baht provided by Thai authorities converted to U.S. dollars using implicit manufactured and total exports baht/U.S. dollar exchange rates.

Includes export of commercial aircrafts.

Table 54.Thailand: Value and Volume of Imports by Economic Classification, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total imports71,52772,76763,14941,90248,74563,241
Consumer goods7,2917,5966,6984,8355,5096,617
Nondurable2,6642,8732,6601,8722,2012,506
Durable4,6274,7234,0382,9633,3084,111
Capital goods 1/32,04933,49330,05420,74922,55429,942
Intermediate goods20,43918,67216,38011,61013,93216,831
For consumer goods13,31712,33311,0608,6649,94812,254
For capital goods7,1226,3395,3202,9463,9844,577
Fuel and lubricants4,6226,2025,4813,1354,2726,833
Crude oil2,8734,4534,6692,8753,8576,105
Oil products1,7491,749812260415728
Motor vehicles and parts4,8874,6052,4244951,2581,946
Other 2/2,2392,1992,1121,0781,2201,072
Adjustment for BOP basis−1,144−1,952−1,800−1,259−1,216−818
Merchandise import, c.i.f.70,38370,81561,34940,64347,52962,423
(Percent changes; volumes)
Total imports14.3−1.9−10.2−27.222.322.4
Consumer goods17.4−9.7−9.5−18.018.120.2
Capital goods15.5−0.8−7.2−31.416.133.0
Intermediate goods10.9−11.9−1.8−18.133.318.3
Fuel and lubricants16.512.3−11.3−16.016.4−6.8
Other 3/28.85.2−49.1−58.9112.251.3
Total non-oil imports16.2−2.2−8.9−17.522.526.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes commercial aircraft but excludes operational lease arrangements.

Includes military imports and nonmonetary gold.

Coverage vehicles and parts only.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes commercial aircraft but excludes operational lease arrangements.

Includes military imports and nonmonetary gold.

Coverage vehicles and parts only.

Table 55.Thailand: Trade Indices and Terms of Trade, 1996–2000 1/
19961997199819992000
(Index, 1995=100)
Exports 2/
Volume90.1096.95104.96117.02142.65
Value98.09101.7994.88101.92121.91
Unit value108.88105.2690.4487.4185.51
Imports 2/
Volume90.5881.3759.2072.4088.63
Value100.6287.1757.7467.5388.69
Unit value111.09106.8697.6093.14100.05
Terms of trade98.0198.5192.6793.8485.46
(Percent change)
Exports 2/
Volume−1.97.68.311.521.9
Value−3.83.8−6.87.419.6
Unit value2.1−3.3−14.1−3.4−2.2
Imports 2/
Volume−6.4−10.2−27.222.322.4
Value0.6−13.4−33.816.931.3
Unit value7.6−3.8−8.7−4.67.4
Terms of trade−5.10.5−5.91.3−8.9
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Interms of U.S. dollars and based on customs data.

From January 1996 onward, for both export and import categories, unit values indices are calculated by using Fisher chained method where 1995-100.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Interms of U.S. dollars and based on customs data.

From January 1996 onward, for both export and import categories, unit values indices are calculated by using Fisher chained method where 1995-100.

Table 56.Thailand: Direction of Trade, 1996–2000 1/(In percent of total)
ExportsImports
1996199719981999200019961997199819992000
Japan17151414152826242424
United States18202222211314141311
European Union16161817161514121210
Of which:
Netherlands3344311111
Germany3232255433
United Kingdom3444322211
France2221121231
Italy1111121111
Belgium1112211111
Other3333423122
ASEAN19191519191312141620
Of which:
Singapore1211999656610
Malaysia4434455555
Indonesia2222211222
Newly industrialized economies111191010910111011
Hong Kong SAR6655511214
Korea2212244443
Taiwan Province of China3333345554
Indochina and Myanmar3333301111
China3333434453
Australia2222222222
Canada1111111111
Saudi Arabia1111011112
Switzerland1111111111
Other8811781414151414
Total100100100100100100100100100100
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Customs data.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Customs data.

Table 57.Thailand: External Services Transactions, 1995–2000(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Receipts18,66420,99519,52816,54717,74817,123
Freight and insurance625712631479522637
Other transportation1,8731,9551,7872,2062,5031,940
Travel8,0439,0977,6776,2017,0417,291
Investment income2,1082,1652,0841,9081,6332,525
Government194304145829383
Other5,8216,7627,2045,6715,9564,647
Of which:
Workers’ remittances from abroad1,6971,8071,6641,4261,4631,672
Payments17,73319,95818,48814,90614,90713,898
Freight and insurance849992898523482537
Other transportation656594549446559664
Travel4,2754,2893,4251,9702,4762,775
Investment income5,9197,3617,2046,9276,0695,292
Of which:
Interest payments4,1945,2025,5585,4794,5133,824
Government203272214125118131
Other 1/5,8316,4506,1984,9155,2034,499
Net services9311,0371,0401,6412,8413,225
Freight and insurance−224−280−267−4440100
Other transportation1,2171,3611,2381,7601,9441,276
Travel3,7684,8084,2524,2314,5654,516
Investment income−3,811−5,196−5,120−5,019−4,436−2,767
Government−932−69−43−25−48
Other−103121,006756753148
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes operational leasing of commercial aircraft.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes operational leasing of commercial aircraft.

Table 58.Thailand: Net Medium- and Long-Term Nonmonetary Capital Flows by Borrower, 1995–2000(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Total9,47011,27011,4546,7182,379−2,062
Private sector8,2789,94110,5225,7441,474−1,593
Direct investment1,2321,6583,3477,1736,0052,888
Foreign direct investment2,1182,5913,9317,3056,3542,873
Equity capital1,9632,4533,7436,8686,1933,310
Bank666825523492642537
Nonbank1,8972,3853,488451935512773
Loans155138188437161−437
Thai investment abroad−886−933−584−132−34915
Bank−51−117−137−8−574
Nonbank−835−816−447−124−344−59
Portfolio investment3,2861,3594,299457331322
Bank741−604−179−70−7−240
Nonbank2,5451,9634,478527338562
Equity securities2,2541,1233,987265946887
Inflow7,1627,26121,3766,7615,1144,707
Outflow4,9086,13817,3896,4964,1683,820
Debt securities291840491262−608−325
Inflow3009095433750206
Outflow96952113608531
Long-term loans3,8176,8992,630−2,109−4,978−4,603
Bank1,0811,7071,773−2,218−2,973−1,197
BIBF8301,528769−2,348−1,961−757
Non-BIBF2511791,004130−1,012−440
Nonbank2,7365,192857109−2,005−3,406
Drawings5,2557,4784,2714,1983,3472,135
Trade credits1065328227
Other5,2547,4784,2063,8703,3252,128
Repayments2,5192,2863,4144,0895,3525,541
Trade credits1498245152191124
Other2,3702,2043,3693,9375,1615,417
Others (net)−5725246223116−200
Bank000000
Nonbank−5725246223116−200
Public enterprises810878−3821,097583−268
Long-term loans847246116850345−212
Drawings1,6321,0758371,5691,5821,622
Trade credits520000
Other1,6271,0738371,5691,5821,622
Repayments7858297217191,2371,834
Trade credits533926242727
Other7327906956951,2101,807
Portfolio investment (net) 1/52600−324196156−143
Others (net)−8932−174518287
Central government 2/3824511,314−123322−201
Long-term loans180586824−67472−78
Drawings6748691,2272951,119670
Repayments494283403362647748
Other (net)202−135490−56−150−123
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes bonds issued in Thailand and held by nonresidients.

Excludes structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank disbursed as part of the original financing package.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes bonds issued in Thailand and held by nonresidients.

Excludes structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank disbursed as part of the original financing package.

Table 59.Thailand: Net Short-Term Nonmonetary Capital Flows by Borrowers, 1995–2000(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Total9,0735,310−12,365−16,797−12,126−7,344
Private sector (net)9,1655,336−12,333−16,927−12,106−7,246
Borrowings11,904459−9,672−13,601−10,422−5,077
Banks12,141−928−4,768−9,450−8,590−3,616
BIBF8,5622,156−947−7,040−7,677−3,410
Non-BIBF3,579−3,084−3,821−2,410−913−206
Nonbanks−2371,387−4,904−4,151−1,832−1,461
Trade credits302−63−402−587788−704
Loans−1,414−75−4,574−3,459−2,673−527
Debt securities8751,52572−10553−230
Bank assets−2,7394,877−2,661−3,326−1,684−2,169
Public enterprises (net)0200130−20−130
Trade credits000000
Others0200130−20−130
Central government (net)−92−46−320032
Memorandum item:
Nonresident baht account 1/3,4062,924−5,812−4,300−3,204−562
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consists mostly of unidentified portfolio flows.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consists mostly of unidentified portfolio flows.

Table 60.Thailand: Net Flows of Foreign Direct Investment, Classified by Country of Investor, 1995–2000 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Total2,0042,2713,6275,1433,5622448
Japan5575231,3481,485489582
Singapore137275271541537254
United States2604297801,284641845
Hong Kong SAR279215444395233326
Taiwan Province of China97138133106122194
European Union1781703609121,369403
Of which:
United Kingdom5557123103183424
Germany38425910128965
Netherlands87−40156333644−109
France723022772416
Others496521291420171−156
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes loans from affiliates. Excludes Thai investment abroad, loans from affiliates of financial institutions and investment in commercial banks and BIBFs.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes loans from affiliates. Excludes Thai investment abroad, loans from affiliates of financial institutions and investment in commercial banks and BIBFs.

Table 61.Thailand: Net Flows of Thai Investment Abroad, Classified by Country, 1995–2000 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Total83581644712434459
USA14878571843−63
Canada3015−20
Hong Kong SAR64164−65310824
Japan101−122
China81993613289
EU16135−2126141−2
Of which:
Denmark004000
Germany1111−21300
Netherlands00−5000
United Kingdom38344−1314−1
ASEAN194124149−311313
Of which:
Brunei000000
Indonesia313418016
Malaysia223001
Singapore512117−4076
Indochina6815179181611
Of which:
Cambodia103120331
Lao PDR6571001
Myanmar2089231
Vietnam32544813108
Bermuda32268000
Other1121438322−565
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Comprises equity investment and intra-firm loans from Thai nonfinancial enterprises.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Comprises equity investment and intra-firm loans from Thai nonfinancial enterprises.

Table 62.Thailand: Net Flows of Foreign Direct Investment, Classified by Sectors, 1995–2000 1/2/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Total2,0042,2713,6275,1433,5622,448
Industry5677091,8202,2091,2681901
Food and sugar39452267493162
Textiles3849421252033
Metal and nonmetallic92113216342263110
Electrical appliances234241604264425275
Machinery 3/145109396661394542
Chemicals941831632258503
Petroleum products−162−25010329836
Construction materials253−10243858
Others6221617316519182
Financial institutions 4/2672110842247108
Trade4465451,0331,0511,04276
Construction3670163192−151−19
Mining and quarrying57192021−42−308
Agriculture922010
Services88125292275485726
Real estate8537531102815073
Others−78−2477525562−109
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes loans from affiliates; excludes Thai investment abroad.

Excludes commercial banks and BIBFs.

Includes transport equipment.

Excludes loans from affiliates of financial institutions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes loans from affiliates; excludes Thai investment abroad.

Excludes commercial banks and BIBFs.

Includes transport equipment.

Excludes loans from affiliates of financial institutions.

Table 63.Thailand: Net Flows of Thai Investment Abroad, Classified by Sector, 1995–2000 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Prel.
Total83581644712434459
Industry2313142096413830
Food and sugar3228529199
Textiles13112003
Metal and nonmetallic555496270
Electrical appliances661485−116810
Machinery and transport equipment318103124
Chemicals16148947−6
Petroleum products220000
Construction materials14034061
Others43−18689
Financial institutions74283−10026
Trade23275123142
Construction150−23169
Mining and quarrying572028
Agriculture63−1345
Services190240130519−106
Real estate15341132383
Others13815663−1310544
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Comprises equity investment and intra-firm loans from Thai nonfinancial enterprises.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Comprises equity investment and intra-firm loans from Thai nonfinancial enterprises.

Table 64.Thailand: Gross External Borrowing by Nonbank Sector, 1995–2000 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199519961997199819992000
Short-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotal
Prel.Prel.
Total16,60622,06418,22825,94314,54819,0087,63812,1564,2258,2323,9407,043
Financial institutions8,5289,6857,3388,7453,6903,8658761,235678693465689
Trade3,1473,4603,8064,1484,9445,6252,3983,6308511,6057471,121
Construction1101452007914433117192131626
Industry3,3316,1744,1786,2164,6186,5383,7705,8772,3353,7011,7802,665
Food873528441419138318023242811739
Textiles14528212525220930916424866902033
Metal based and nonmetallic31652323549230964126885812044899129
Electrical appliances1,1011,4021,1721,5481,4391,7031,3511,5808531,244649929
Machinery and transport equipment9371,0791,9902,015