Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
Journal Issue
Share
Article

Thailand: Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
September 2002
Share
  • ShareShare
Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
Show Summary Details
Table 1.Thailand: Basic Data
1. Social and Demographic Indicators
Area (thousand sq. km.)1/513,199.5Labor force distribution (2001)5/
Percent of labor force in
Population (2001)1/Agriculture41.8
Total (million)62.3Industry16.1
Annual rate of population increase (percent)0.7Services42.1
Density (per sq. kilometer)121.4
Urban population in percent of total population28.6Education (2001)
Rural population in percent of total population71.4Adult literacy rate, in percent 6/92.7
Population aged 12 and over (million)51.4Enrollment rates, in percent 7/
Primary education43.0
Population characteristics (2001)2/Secondary education28.8
Life expectancy at birth, in years 3/70.2Tertiary education13.3
Crude birth rate (per thousand)16.8
Crude death rate (per thousand)8.0Health (2001)8/
Infant mortality (per thousand live births)28.6Population per physician3.395
Under 5 mortality rate (per thousand)Population per hospital bed445
Population with access to safe water, percent
Income distribution (2001)of which: rural population
Percent of private income received
by highest 10 percent of householdsGDP (2001)
by lowest 20 percent of householdsIn billions of baht5,099.6
Average minimum wage (in baht/day) 4/165.0In millions of U.S. dollars114,658
Per capita, in U.S. dollars1,822

Department of local administration, Minister of Interior

Population projection for Thailand 1990 – 2020 NESDB

Expectation of life at birth, projected for 2000 – 2005, Human Resource Planning Division, NESDB

Rate of minimum wages in Bangkok and 5 provinces around Bangkok, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare

The Labour force survey, National Statistical Office

The 2000 Population and housing census. National Statistical Office

Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education

Health Information Division, Bureau of Health Policy and Planning

Department of local administration, Minister of Interior

Population projection for Thailand 1990 – 2020 NESDB

Expectation of life at birth, projected for 2000 – 2005, Human Resource Planning Division, NESDB

Rate of minimum wages in Bangkok and 5 provinces around Bangkok, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare

The Labour force survey, National Statistical Office

The 2000 Population and housing census. National Statistical Office

Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education

Health Information Division, Bureau of Health Policy and Planning

II. Economic Indicators
1995199619971998199920002001
(In percent of GDP)
Origin of GDP
Agriculture, forestry and fishing9.59.59.410.89.38.88.6
Manufacturing29.929.730.230.932.733.633.5
Construction7.27.45.73.93.63.12.9
Commerce16.916.517.217.017.317.317.2
Transport and communication7.27.47.87.88.18.18.l
Financial services7.17.16.55.13.43.03.0
Other services22.122.323.124.625.626.226.8
Expenditure on GDP, Savings and Investment
Private consumption53.253.854.754.255.956.156.9
Private investment32.230.822.212.711.613.915.7
Exports of goods and nonfactor services41.839.348.058.958.467.166.3
Imports of goods and nonfactor services48.645.546.643.045.858.460.2
Current account of the balance of payments−8.0−8.0−0.812.910.27.65.4
Gross national savings32.431.630.329.928.028.8
Gross domestic investment42.141.833.720.420.522.724.0
of which: public investment8.910.211.69.79.38.17.6
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Public finances1/
Central government overall balance2.4−2.1−7.6−10.5−3.2−2.8
Revenues19.518.616.216.216.417.8
Expenditures17.120.623.826.719.720.6
Of which: Interest expenditures0.20.30.21.03.81.4
Non financial public sector overall balance 2/2.8−3.2−8.4−12.3−4.1−2.5
Nonfinancial public sector primary balance 3/3.0−2.9−8.3−11.4−0.3−1.1
Debt
Total public debt (end of year]14.536.345.255.957.357.9
Central government (including F1DF debt)5.224.131.838.738.838.8
Nonfinancial Public Enterprises9.312.113.417.218.519.2
1995199619971998199920002001
Total external debt (end of year) 4/60.059.770.193.277.665.158.6
Of which: public debt9.89.215.428.029.627.724.6
(Annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)
National Accounts and Prices
Real GDP per capita8.04.8−2.3−11.43.43.61.0
Real GDP9.25.9−1.4−10.54.44.61.8
Nominal GDP15.310.12.6−2.20.15.94.0
Nominal GDP (in billions of batit)4,186.24,611.04,732.64,626.44,632.14,904.75,099.6
GDP deflator5.64.04.19.2−4.11.22.1
Consumer prices (average)5.85.95.58.10.31.61.6
Consumer prices (end of period)7.44.87.64.30.71.30.8
Core inflation5.35.14.77.21.80.71.3
Unemployment rate1.71.5154.44.23.63.3
1995199619971998199920002001
(Annual percentage charge, unless otherwise indicated)
Money and Credit 5/
Private sector (adjusted, end of period) 6/14.223.4−9.7−3.2−0.10.7
Money and quasi-money (M2a) (end of period)18.112.72.02.11.33.54.7
Stock in percent of GDP1.01.01.01.11.1l.l1.1
Money (MO) (end of period)17.47.19.8−4.748.4−13.98.4
Real M2a (end of period)12.36.8−3.6−6.01.01.93.1
Net domestic credit24.314.215.4−12.9−7.9−14.2−7.5
Credit to private sector14.617.412.6−4.46.6−13.25.4
Credit to non financial public sector (net)25.614.513.8−18.5−9.6−15.7−9.2
Interest Rates and Exchange Rates
Overnight interbank rate10.312.121.72.61.21.72.1
Minimum Lending Rate (average of five largest banks)13.813.115.311.88.47.97.3
Baht/dollar (average of period)24.925.331.441.437.840.244.5
Nominal effective exchange rate (1994=100)87.998.688.172.075.272.068.2
Real effective exchange rate (1994=100)91.4104.796.583.786.883.479.5
Terms of trade (deterioration −)n/an/a0.5−5.91.3−8.9−9.4
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
Balance of payments
Current account balance−13.2−14.3−3.114.312.59.36.2
Merchandise Trade balance−7.6−9.11.516.314.011.78.6
Exports (f.o.b.)55.754.756.752.956.867.963.2
Annual growth in percent24.8−1.93.8−6.87.419.5−6.9
Imports (f.o.b.)63.363.855.236.642.856.254.6
Annual growth in percent31.90.7−13.3−33.816.931.3−2.8
Factor services and transfers (net)−5.6−5.2−4.6−2.0−1.5−2.4−2.4
Capital and financial account balance20.416.5−15.5−17.5−10.3−11.0−2.0
Direct investment1.21.73.37.25.93.22.9
Other private capital (including errors and omissions)18.113.5−14.1−25.5−19.4−13.6−6.8
Public sector 7/1.11.3−4.70.83.2−0.61.9
Net official reserve change (increase −)−7.2−2.218.63.2−2.21.7−4.2
International reserves and external debt8/
Central bank (net)
Central bank (gross)37.038.727.029.534.832.733.0
In months of imports6.36.65.38.78.86.36.5
Outstanding external debt100.8108.7109.3105.195.079.767.3
Of which: public debt16.416.824.131.636.233.928.3
Of which: private, short-term52.347.738.328.319.414.713.2
Ratio of gross reserves to private short-term debt (in percent)70.881.270.5104.5179.2222.7249.9
Sources: Information provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash (GFS) and fiscal year basis (October through September). Central government includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial sector restructuring costs. Data from MOF sources.

Includes extrabudgetary funds, local governments and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Primary Balance is Overall Balance plus interest payments of central government.

Data provided by the BOT.

Excludes data from 56 closed finance companies.

Adjusted forbad debt transfers to Asset Management Companies and write-offs.

Includes offshore forward and swap transactions by monetary authorities.

End of period.

Sources: Information provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash (GFS) and fiscal year basis (October through September). Central government includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial sector restructuring costs. Data from MOF sources.

Includes extrabudgetary funds, local governments and nonfinancial public enterprises.

Primary Balance is Overall Balance plus interest payments of central government.

Data provided by the BOT.

Excludes data from 56 closed finance companies.

Adjusted forbad debt transfers to Asset Management Companies and write-offs.

Includes offshore forward and swap transactions by monetary authorities.

End of period.

Table 2.Thailand: Construction and the Property Market, 1995–2002
19951996199719981999200020012002 1/
Area permitted for construction
in Bangkok (thousand square metres)
Total25,38015,84412,8494,2683,8844,0205,066484
Housing17,26310,9447,6362,8442,1812,9204,011337
Commercial6,4114,1914,7421,0641,43280771887
Industrial85491164041235
Services and transportation41026420525910213817521
Other1,211396150971691511504
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

First two months of year.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

First two months of year.

Table 3.Thailand: Promotional Activities of the Board of Investment, 1995–2002 1/(In millions of baht; except where otherwise indicated)
19951996199719981999200020012002 2/
Number of applications received1,4071,1988086919021,030891166
Value of investment901,400834,700380,100242,400189,300355,300190,70035,700
Number of applications approved1,2059748686486801.111820178
Value of investment584,700529,400468,600287,500162,200279,200266,30042,200
Number of promotion certificates issued978942792569554784766218
Value of investment328,300427,100404,700244,500139,500290,300183,40059,000
Number of firms starting operations322611465697526625611168
Value of investment132,500230,300267,400283,800205,300304,900267,90068,300
Number of Thai employees93,563171,711133,882160,086100,073141,376129,52940,759
Value of approved investments by sector
Agriculture and agricultural products20,42917,98419,00018,40015,80037,30029,6007,800
Minerals, metals, and ceramics150,24899,12430,6001,3001,00011,0006,000500
Light industry10,6566,7377,60010,80010,60036,70014,8006,100
Metal products, machinery, and transport53,04453,30333,20010,80013,30031,00027,1009,000
equipment
Electronics and electrical products44,30385,31131,60061,20058,80077,20054,00011,200
Chemical products, paper, and plastics227.110126,015171,20054,40043,90072,80072,7003,700
Services and public utilities77,668140,949175,400130,60018,80013,20062,0004,000
Direction of approved investments
Export-oriented production
(over 80 percent exported)67,49098,70094,900111,200120,600171,400123,70027,100
Ownership of approved investments
Total584,700529,400468,600287,500162,200279,200266,30042,200
Domestic174,200173,500147,80029,90017,90061,30052,10011,500
Foreign35,20075,80036,00080,00082,900123,200106,70022,000
Joint venture375,300280,100284,800177,60061,40094,700107,4008,700
Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

From June 1999 onward statistics do not include applications submitted for (a) relocation; (b) BOI privileges tranferred; and (c) existing projects applying for nontax incentives.

January-March 2002.

Source: Data provided by the Office of the Board of Investment.

From June 1999 onward statistics do not include applications submitted for (a) relocation; (b) BOI privileges tranferred; and (c) existing projects applying for nontax incentives.

January-March 2002.

Table 4.Thailand: Population, Labor Force, and Employment by Major Economic Sectors, 1996–2001 1/
199619971998199920002001
(In millions of persons)
Population59.9060.5061.1761.7862.4062.94
Labor force 1/32.1232.5732.4632.7233.2233.92
Open unemployed 2/0.110.140.460.390.320.29
Passive unemployed 3/0.380.350.960.980.880.81
Employment 1/30.9831.5230.1030.6631.2932.17
Agriculture14.0314.2013.4513.8813.8913.59
Non-agriculture16.9517.3316.6516.7917.4018.59
Mining0.530.520.450.640.450.47
Manufacturing4.634.624.564.604.995.68
Construction2.632.491.631.401.501.58
water supplies0.150.180.200.160.170.17
Commerce and banking4.374.584.614.764.894.49
Transportation1.001.040.991.010.971.02
Services and others4.114.374.614.794.835.60
(Changes in percent, except otherwise indicated)
Participation rate (labor force in percent73.973.572.171.671.572.1
of population 15 years of age and over)
Rate of unemployment (as percent of labor force)1.51.54.44.23.63.2
Populationn.a.1.01.11.01.00.9
Labor force 1/n.a.1.4−0.40.81.52.1
Open unemployed 2/n.a.20.0234.6−15.1−17.8−9.8
Passive unemployed 3/n.a.−7.1172.22.7−10.9−7.7
Employment 1/n.a.1.8−4.51.92.12.8
Agriculturen.a.1.2−5.23.10.1−2.2
Non-agriculturen.a.2.2−3.90.83.76.8
Miningn.a.−2.4−14.644.3−30.85.4
Manufacturingn.a.−0.1−1.30.78.613.7
Constructionn.a.−5.4−34.5−14.27.45.2
Electricity & water suppliesn.a.16.310.9−19.75.65.1
Commerce and bankingn.a.4.60.83.32.6−8.1
Transportationn.a.4.4−4.81.9−3.94.7
Services and othersn.a.6.25.63.80.915.8
Source: Data provided by the National Economic & Social Development Board (NESDB).

Since 1996, covers fifteen years of age and above.

Includes persons 15 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons 15 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Source: Data provided by the National Economic & Social Development Board (NESDB).

Since 1996, covers fifteen years of age and above.

Includes persons 15 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were looking for work.

Includes persons 15 years of age and above who were available for work but did not work at all and were not looking for work.

Table 5.Thailand: Average Earnings, Classified by Manufacturing Categories, 1995–2001 1/
1995199619971998199920002001
(In baht per month)
Manufacturing (whole Kingdom)5,7335,9506,5896,5046,5246,4967,103
Food, beverages, and tobacco5,1785,2635,7795,9175,7016,0146,512
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather, and leather products4,2304,5405,1595,1365,4405,1954,983
Wood and wood products including furniture3,4213,5703,8624,6984,8904,0334,217
Paper and paper products, printing and publishing7,4186,9919,9167,0747,7656,97612,531
Chemicals and chemical, petroleum, Cool and rubber and plastic products10,68010,6798,0047,9948,4888,96211,118
Non-metallic mineral products, except products of petroleum and coal5,6135,8616,3907,3706,9597,7486,508
Basic metal industrics6,7216,6066,5858,5997,0137,1067,240
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment4,9296,6766,7827,2756,0316,3636,544
Other manufacturing industries6,0796,0287,6307,3557,3467,0798,720
Construction5,7755,5287,5725,5125,5287,49811,808
(Percent change from year earlier)
Manufacturing (whole Kingdom)14.93.810.7−1.30.3−0.49.3
Food, beverages, and tobacco4.01.69.82.4−3.75.58.3
Textiles, wearing apparel leather, and leather products13.07.313.6−0.45.9−4.5−4.1
Wood and wood products including furniture37.14.48.221.64.1−17.54.6
Paper and paper products, printing and publishing23.0−5.841.8−28.79.8−10.279.6
Chemicals and chemical, petroleum, coal, rubber and plastic products61.00.0−25.0−0.16.25.624.1
Non-metallic mineral products, except products of petroleum and coal24.74.49.015.3−5.611.3−16.0
Basic metal industries19.3−1.7−0.330.6−18.41.31.9
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment−6.235.41.67.3−17.15.52.6
Other manufacturing industries2.0−0.826.6−3.6−0.1−3.623.2
Construction−13.1−4.337.0−27.20.335.657.5
Source: Data provided by the National Economic & Social Development Board (NFSDB)

Earnings are in the form of monetary value (daily, weekly, and monthly wages together with overtime, bonus and other remunerations).

Source: Data provided by the National Economic & Social Development Board (NFSDB)

Earnings are in the form of monetary value (daily, weekly, and monthly wages together with overtime, bonus and other remunerations).

Table 6.Thailand: Selected Energy Prices, 1995–2002 1/
19951996199719981999200020012002 5/
Average import price of crude oil (baht/barrel)17.5120.7119.9713.2117.4228.5924.4821.27
Index (1994 = 100)108.4128.2123.681.7107.8176.90151.5131.62
Electricity (baht/kwh) 2/1.932.001.992.162.092.342.51
Index (1994 = 100)106.4110.1109.4118.9114.9128.8138.7
Premium gasoline (baht/liter) 3/8.879.2310.4811.8611.9815.6315.4814.15
Index (1994 = 100)105.7110.0124.9141.4136.7186.10184.3168.45
Tax (baht/liter)2.592.682.843.944.054.054.054.05
High-speed diesel (baht/liter) 3/7.608.629.499.198.9612.9513.5111.88
Index (1994 = 100)102.8116.4128.4124.4114.7175.00182.6160.54
Tax (baht/liter)2.202.282.442.442.072.542.542.54
Fuel oil (baht/liter) 3/4.054.525.346.866.299.229.308.40
lndex(1994 = 100)96.9108.1127.8153.6137.8263.40265.7240.00
Tax (baht/liter) 4/0.430.490.590.550.190.290.290.37
Kerosene (baht per liter)8.7010.0211.1711.7011.6315.1016.0314.79
Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA) including VAT.

Retail price for Bangkok; 1995 column reports the price of fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

In 1992–97, tax rate of fuel oil was 17 percent of ex-refinery value, in 1997–98, tax rate of fuel oil was 17.5 percent of ex-refinery value. Since 1999, tax rate of fuel oil is 5 percent of ex-refinery value.

Through February.

Source: Data provided by the National Energy Policy Office (NEPO).

Annual average of monthly prices.

Average price of electricity sold (MEA, PEA) including VAT.

Retail price for Bangkok; 1995 column reports the price of fuel oil grade 2 (1,500).

In 1992–97, tax rate of fuel oil was 17 percent of ex-refinery value, in 1997–98, tax rate of fuel oil was 17.5 percent of ex-refinery value. Since 1999, tax rate of fuel oil is 5 percent of ex-refinery value.

Through February.

Table 7.Thailand: Central Government Fiscal Accounts, 1995/96–2000/01 1/(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Total revenue and grant876.1873.4757.8743.1795.0900.4
Revenue873.0870.4753.3739.1790.8896.6
Tax792.4777.5665.7641.0691.0741.1
Nontax80.692.987.698.199.8155.5
Grants3.13.04.54.04.23.8
Total expenditure and net lending767.9971.41114.31225.2947.21090.9
Current expenditure485.3530.6532.2596.5655.4838.7
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7227.8223.9
Net lending9.913.762.665.064.028.3
Overall balance108.2−98.0−356.5−482.1−152.3−190.5
Financing−108.297.9356.3482.1152.1140.9
External2.910.271.452.733.032.3
Domestic−111.187.7284.9429.4119.1108.6
Bank 2/−120.489.8204.6260.789.6100.9
Nonbank−3.8−2.1116.693.429.57.7
Float13.10.0−36.375.30.00.0
(In percent of fiscal year GDP)
Total revenue and grant19.518.616.216.216.517.8
Revenue19.418.516.116.116.417.7
Tax17.616.514.214.014.314.6
Nontax1.82.01.92.12.13.1
Grants0.10.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending17.120.623.826.719.621.5
Current expenditure10.811.311.413.013.616.6
Capital expenditure6.19.111.112.34.74.4
Net lending0.20.31.31.41.30.6
Overall balance2.4−2.1−7.6−10.5−3.2−3.8
Financing−2.4−2.17.610.53.12.8
External0.10.21.51.10.70.6
Domestic−2.51.96.19.42.52.1
Bank 2/−2.71.94.45.71.92.0
Nonbank−0.10.02.52.00.60.2
Float0.3−0.3−0.81.60.00.0
Memorandum item:
Fiscal year GDP4,503.04,705.94,673.54,587.84,831.35,064.6
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

The fiscal year runs from October to September. Data are based on GFS definitions and the coverage corresponds to the consolidatated central government, which includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial-sector restructuring costs.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

The fiscal year runs from October to September. Data are based on GFS definitions and the coverage corresponds to the consolidatated central government, which includes extra-budgetary funds, social security funds, and the fiscalization of financial-sector restructuring costs.

As recorded in the monetary survey.

Table 8.Thailand: Central Government Revenue and Grants, 1995/96–2000/01(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Total revenue and grants876.1873.4757.8743.1795.0900.4
Total revenue873.0870.4753.3739.1790.8896.6
Tax revenue792.4777.5665.7641.0691.0741.1
Taxes on income and profits277.7276.2214.8213.7235.4253.6
Personal105.3111.5118.9101.287.497.0
Corporate169.0159.490.7101.3137.4139.6
Petroleum income tax3.45.35.311.210.616.9
Taxes on property13.59.55.14.43.60.3
Taxes on consumption349.2353.1354.1319.4322.0341.5
Business tax/VAT148.4139.0162.7132.1138.0144.2
Specific business tax32.633.034.020.816.612.6
Excise taxes168.2181.1157.4166.5167.4184.6
Beer and spirits38.543.739.448.631.433.7
Tobacco23.829.525.526.123.125.5
Petroleum products60.466.368.169.065.762.8
Motor cars37.032.08.914.224.10.9
Other8.59.615.58.623.161.7
Profits on tobacco monopoly0.07.11.97.75.35.2
Taxes on international trade127.7105.267.868.187.193.1
Import duties126.2103.666.166.484.991.0
Export duties1.51.61.71.72.22.1
License fees and other taxes24.326.421.927.737.647.5
Nontax revenue80.692.987.698.199.8155.5
Profits45.956.944.346.438.553.3
State lottery4.04.77.37.39.44.9
Bank of Thailand10.414.50.00.00.00.0
Slate enterprises31.537.737.039.129.148.4
Other34.736.043.351.761.3102.3
Grants3.13.04.54.04.23.8
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 9.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure by Economic Classification, 1995/96–2000/01(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Total expenditure and net lending767.9971.41,114.31225.2947.31,090.9
Total expenditure758.0957.41,051.71,160.2883.21.062.6
Current expenditure485.3530.3532.2596.5655.4838.7
Wages and salaries 1/241.6262.3281.1298.3298.9302.3
Interest10.215.38.744.758.373.3
Other goods and services179.5192.8179.3173.7183.2243.4
Subsidies and current transfers54.059.963.179.8115.0219.8
Local government6.06.36.812.913.315.1
Public enterprises7.88.611.811.218.426.4
Households and others 2/40.245.044.555.783.3178.3
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7227.8223.9
Acquisition of fixed assets239.1334.5278.4223.8200.8171.5
Capital transfers33.692.6241.1339.927.052.4
Local government19.623.624.432.817.840.4
Public enterprises9.39.812.85.88.011.2
Households and others4.759.2203.9301.31.30.8
Net lending9.913.762.665.064.028.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes remuneration annual salary adjustments, overtime, and travel expenses.

Includes pensions.

Table 10.Thailand: Central Government Expenditure, Classified by Purpose, 1995/96–2000/01(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Total expenditure758.0957.71,051.71,160.2883.31,013.0
Current expenditure485.3530.6532.2596.5655.5789.1
General public services32.232.731.135.639.383.0
Defense91.698.384.373.171.573.0
Public order and safety39.340.741.644.447.751.8
Education133.1146.4154.7170.9171.7181.3
Health48.451.755.563.461.565.8
Social security and welfare28.233.334.837.056.460.2
Housing and community amenities6.66.36.09.414.118.8
Recreational, cultural, and religious4.85.05.85.95.35.3
Economic services61.262.761.572.491.4140.4
Fuel and energy2.32.43.41.79.18.4
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries37.939.130.740.744.143.4
Mining and mineral2.63.03.34.64.611.5
Transportation and communication9.69.714.010.413.334.1
Road transport5.15.39.34.86.812.2
Water transport0.40.30.40.70.40.0
Railway and other transport2.11.81.92.43.41.9
Communication2.02.32.42.52.60.0
Other8.88.510.115.020.563.0
Other39.953.556.984.496.5109.5
Interest payments10.215.38.744.756.663.7
Domestic6.211.41.735.146.1n.a
External4.03.97.09.610.5n.a
Unclassified29.738.248.239.739.945.8
Capital expenditure272.7427.1519.5563.7227.8223.9
General public services10.111.58.95.17.03.9
Defensen.an.an.an.a2.21.9
Public order and safety7.410.210.79.57.27.4
Education25.948.541.829.823.919.8
Health13.425.622.412.27.96.5
Social security and welfaren.an.an.an.a0.10.1
Housing and community amenities34.245.534.638.331.132.5
Recreational, cultural, and religious2.97.77.74.22.21.6
Economic services167.2266.2380.0454.6139.3129.9
Fuel and energy0.71.01.40.80.81.3
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries40.544.233.030.426.933.4
Mining and mineral1.01.40.93.71.61.8
Transportation and communication100.1133.4121.894.792.271.2
Road transport95.5123.6109.087.886.171.1
Water transport0.82.23.82.63.30.0
Railway and other transport3.16.48.34.12.50.0
Communication0.71.20.70.20.40.0
Other24.986.2222.9325.017.722.2
Other11.611.913.4106.920.5
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 11.Thailand: Nonfmancial Public Sector Debt, 1995/96–2000/01(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
(In billions of baht)
Total public sector debt652.61706.12114.52562.62770.32931.7
Central government175.4241.9500.1958.51093.01263.7
Domestic50.335.5227.2598.7697.8814.1
Bank of Thailand2.53.654.5113.478.8133.0
Commercial banks12.58.196.0226.8325.5316.0
Government Savings Bank29.220.027.5129.5124.4107.1
Other financial institutions5.12.937.868.573.4103.2
Other1.00.911.460.595.7154.8
External125.1206.4272.9359.8395.2449.6
Non-financial public enterprises420.0571.1627.7789.5895.9970.6
Domestic195.3231.7253.1308.7424.8510.9
Guaranteed167.4194.0215.4259.7345.1411.6
Non-guaranteed27.937.737.749.079.899.2
External224.7339.4374.6480.8471.1459.7
Guaranteed224.7302.2339.5442.7422.6384.8
Non-guaranteed0.037.235.138.148.574.9
FIDF 1/57.2893.1986.7814.6781.4697.5
(In percent of Fiscal year GDP)
Total public sector debt14.536.345.255.957.357.9
Central government3.95.110.720.922.625.0
Domestic1.10.84.913.014.416.1
Bank of Thailand0.10.11.22.51.62.6
Commercial banks0.30.22.14.96.76.2
Government Savings Bank0.60.40.62.82.62.1
Other financial institutions0.10.10.81.51.52.0
Other0.00.00.21.32.03.1
External2.84.45.87.88.28.9
Non-financial public enterprises9.312.113.417.218.519.2
Domestic4.34.95.46.78.810.1
Guaranteed3.74.14.65.77.18.1
Non-guaranteed0.60.80.81.11.72.0
External5.07.28.010.59.89.1
Guaranteed5.06.47.39.68.77.6
Non-guaranteed0.00.80.80.81.01.5
FIDF 1/1.319.021.117.816.213.8
Memorandum items:
Exchange rate (top) Baht/US$25.536.939.541.042.444.5
Nominal GDP (fiscal year)4,5034,7064,6734,5884,8315,065
External debt (US$ billions)13.714.816.420.520.520
Central government4.95.66.98.89.310.1
Non-financial public enterprises8.89.29.511.711.210.3
Guaranteed8.88.28.610.810.08.6
Non-Guaranteed0.01.00.90.91.21.7
Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Although included in this table, GFS classifies Financial Institutions Development Fund (FIDF) liabilities as part of the financial public sector.

Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Although included in this table, GFS classifies Financial Institutions Development Fund (FIDF) liabilities as part of the financial public sector.

Table 12.Thailand: Operating Profits/Losses of Nonfinancial State Enterprises,

1995/96–2000/01 1/
(In billions of baht)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Total103.466.565.6−35.474.477.7
Power53.716.049.3−28.743.541.8
Electricity Generating Authority27.112.818.5−24.322.715.3
Metropolitan Electricity Authority4.84.12.7−0.92.54.8
Provincial Electricity Authority12.09.110.5−7.49.05.8
Petroleum Authority7.7−3.211.65.69.318.9
Other2.1−6.86−1.70.0−3.0
Transport and Communication37.138.410.2−15.418.227.0
Thai Airways International3.42.83.95.37.41.9
Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority0.60.6−0.1−4.2−0.70.2
State Railways of Thailand−1.6−1.8−3.2−7.3−5.4−3.8
Bangkok Mass Transit Authority−2.1−2.5−2.8−6.0−2.7−3.7
Port Authority of Thailand2.92.31.6−0.21.21.6
Telephone Organization21.022.2−2.7−9.97.213.2
Communication Authority of Thailand7.59.27.43.74.87.1
Others 2/5.45.66.13.26.410.5
Manufacturing5.76.365.25.86.6
Tobacco Monopoly4.75.55.25.55.25.6
Others1.00.80.8−0.30.61.0
Agriculture−0.1−0.3−0.1−0.10.00.0
Government Lottery Bureau4.84.85.34.95.20.5
Others2.21.3−5.1−1.31.71.8
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

After corporate income tax.

Includes Airport Authority of Thailand.

Table 13.Thailand: Summary of Local Government Operations, 1995/96–2000/01
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
(In billions of baht)
Total revenue and grants83.794.5100.4107.097.1144.2
Taxes and other revenue58.164.669.261.360.485.0
Transfers from central government25.629.931.245.736.755.5
Total expenditure77.889.174.599.295.2141.7
Current expenditure31.535.430.753.141.663.0
Capital expenditure46.353.743.846.253.678.7
Overall balance5.95.425.97.81.92.5
Overall balance excluding transfers
from the central government−19.7−24.5−5.3−37.9−34.8−56.7
(In percent of fiscal year GDP)
Total revenue and grants1.92.02.12.32.02.8
Taxes and other revenue1.31.41.51.31.31.7
Transfers from central government0.60.60.71.00.81.1
Total expenditure1.71.91.62.22.02.8
Current expenditure0.70.80.71.20.91.2
Capital expenditure1.01.10.91.01.11.6
Overall balance0.10.10.60.20.00.0
Overall balance excluding transfers from the central government−0.4−0.5−0.1−0.8−0.7−1.1
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 14.Thailand: Consolidated Nonfinancial Public Sector Operations, 1995/96–2000/01
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
(In billions of baht)
Overall Balance126.3−152.2−394.8−565.9−198.9−127.5
Total revenue and grants1,060.71,036.7936.0888.5966.51,115.3
Total revenue1.057.61.033.7931.5884.5962.01,110.8
Of which:Central government873.0870.4753.3739.1790.8896.6
Local government58.164.669.261.360.485.0
Public enterprises126.598.7109.084.1110.6129.2
Grants to central government3.13.04.54.04.54.5
Total expenditure and net lending934.41,188.91,330.81,454.41,165.41,242.8
Current expenditure503.0551.1544.3625.5666.0810.6
Central government471.5515.7513.6572.4624.4747.6
Local government31.535.430.753.141.663.0
Capital expenditure427.2626.1723.9764.0435.4403.9
Of which:Central government243.8393.7482.3525.1210.8172-4
Local government46.353.743.846.253.678.7
Public enterprises137.1178.7197.8192.7.171.0152.8
Net lending4.211.762.665.064.028.3
Financing (net)−126.3152.2394.8565.9198.9127.5
External15.814.863.2106.040.58.4
Domestic−142.1137.4331.6459.9158.4119.1
Banking system−143.9166.4238.8247.061.491.8
Other1.8−29.092.8212.997.027.3
(In percent of GDP)
Public sector overall balance2.8−3.2−8.4−12.3−4.1−2.5
Total revenue and grants23.622.020.019.420.022.0
Total revenue23.522.019.919.319.921.9
Of which:Central government19.413.516.116.116.417.7
Local government1.31.41.51.31.31.7
Public enterprises2.82.12.31.82.32.6
Grants to central government0.10.10.10.10.10.1
Total expenditure and net lending20.825.32S.531.724.124.5
Current expenditure11.211.711.613.613.816.0
Central government10.511.011.012.512.914.8
Local government0.70.80.71.20.91.2
Capital expenditure9.513.315.516.79.08.0
Of which:Central government5.48.410.311.44.43.4
Local government1.01.10.91.01.11.6
Public enterprises3.03.84.24.23.53.0
Net lending0.10.21.31.41.30.6
Financing (net)−2.83.28.412.34.12.5
External0.40.31.42.30.80.2
Domestic−3.22.97.110.03.32.4
Banking system−3.23.55.15.41.31.8
Other0.0−0.62.04.62.00.5
Sources: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Derived from data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 15.Thailand: Summary of the Central Government Tax System
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionRates
1.Taxes on Income and profits
1.1Takes on companies (Revenue Code Act of 1938, last amended In 1999)1.1 Taxes on companies are taxed based on the resitling principle.Taxable net profits are determined after business expenses and depreciation allowances, ranging from 5% in 20% of original cost for most types of assets. For the purpose of encouraging Investment, an Initial depreciation of 40% of cost value for machinery and accessories is allowed.

The depreciation may take up to the whole residual value at the final year. Net losses may be carried forward to five consecutive years. No allowance for carrying bark losses to previous years.
  • a. General 30%.

    • − For BIBFs: 10%.

    • − For newly registered company or partnership in Stock Exchange of Thailand: 25% for 5 accounting periods)

    • − For newly registered company or partnership In Market for Alternative Investment (MAI): 20% (for 5 accounting periods)

    • − For existing company or partnership In Stock Exchange of Thailand: 25% on net profit not over 300 million baht (for 5 accounting periods)

    • − For small entrepreneurs with registered capital not over 5 million baht

50%s of Intercorporate dividends are exempt for holding companies and companies listed on SET. dividends are completely exempted provided the shares are held 3 months prior to and after the receipt of dividends.
Net ProfitTax Rate
1–1.000.000 haht20%
1,000.001–3,000.000 baht25%
more than 3,000.001 baht30%
Providing SMEs with preliminary depreciation deduction at special rate for

  • − Computer and Its equipment

  • − Plant

  • − Machinery

b. Companies Incorporated abroad are also subject to a withholding tax on Income from Thailand In the form of dividends, property rights, rentals. Interest, and fees for certain services.b. Withholding tax is calculated on gross income.b. Withholding tax is 15% except on dividends which are taxed at 10%, same as interest paid to the financial Institutions in the treaty countries
c. Foreign companies in the transportation sector.c. 3% on passenger and freight transport.
d. Nonprofit foundations and associationsd. A tax of 10% Is levied on gross revenue before deduction of any expenses. The computation of gross revenue does not include registration or subscription fees or any money or property received by way of donation
1.2.1. Wages and salaries

(Revenue Code Act of 1938. amended in 1997)
Residents are subject to tax on Income Non-residents are subject to tax only on Income from sources within Thailand. All tax payers file Income tax return.The following types of income are exempted; superannuation, and Insurance policies: gifts and bequests: proceeds from sales of movable property acquted through Inheritance or for a purpose other than profit; income received from companies operating under the Promotion of Investment Act; prizes, awards, and lottery winnings: worker’ compensation. Insurance claims, medical benefits; income from rice farming; profits received from business already subject to individual income tax. Tax Allowances: Personal allowance B30.000 Spouse allowance B 30.000 Child allowance R 15.000 per child, not exceeding D 45,000 per family) Education allowance B 2,000 (per child) Contributions to life Insurance Provident fund Mortgage interest Social Security Charitable contributions up to 10% of taxable income
Net Income bracketTax Rate
0 – R50.0000%
50.001–B 100.0005%
B100.001–B500.00010%
B500.001–B1.000.00020%
B1.000.001–B4.000.00030%
over B4.000.00037%
Gross income (for minimum tax)
B60.000 or more0.5%
Down payment for real estate

  • − B 200.000 (cash)

  • − 100.000 (Installment payment)

1.2.2. Business IncomeTax on employment and business Income is Imposed at progressive rates on net Income (after deductions and allowances), Bui ft cannot be less than the minimum tax on gross Income.Rental Income: 40% of gross income or actual expenses Lawyers, doctors, etc.: 40% of or actual expenses All other business income; 40%–85% of gross income or actual expenses Exemptions are given on:Same as above.
1.2.3. interest Incomea. Demand deposits with Government Savings Hank and savings deposits with cooperatives arid the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives.Final withholding tax at a rate of 15%
b. Savings deposit with any banks in Thailand not exceeding B20.000.
1.2.3. interest Income(continued)c. Two-year contractual saving deposits which are not exceeding B 600.000
Tax on dividends or share of profit received from domestic companies and mutual funds when the income earner does not claim a tax refund or Tax. credit.
  • Withholding tax at the rate of 10%. Full Imputation system with personal Income tax according to formula:

    (Dividends paid out) (Corporate Income tax rate)

    • (1 - Corporate income tax rate)

1 2.4. Tax on Income from the sate of real estate.Tax on Income from sale or transfer of Immovable property, other than exempt.Final withholding tax era graduated rate structure with a maximum of 20% of sale price after deductions granted in accordance with the nature of the transfer and years of ownership.
2.Social Security Contributions
Payroll taxTaxes on wages of employees. Mandatory for employees in private firms with 10 or more workers.A maximum of B15.000 per month Is subject to tax.
  • Social security

    • − employee: 1.0 percent

    • − employer. 1.0 percent

  • Pension and child allowance

    • − employee, 2.0 percent

    • − employer: 2.0 percent.

3.Employers’ payroll or Manpower Taxes
None
4.Taxes on property
4.1Real estate transfer tax (Land Code Act of 1954. amended In 1973).Transfer (whether by sale, gift, or succession at death] of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value: 0.5% If the transfer Is made to parents, spouses, or children. (Temporarily reduce from 2% to 0.01% effective from July 11, 2000–Dec. 31, 2002)
5.Taxes on goods and services
5.1Value-Added Tax (Revenue Code Art of 1938. amended In 1991)VAT replaced Business Tax on January 1, 1992. Ad valorem (axon goods and services are subjects to VAT.
  • Exemptions Include:

    • − Business with annual turnover not more than B1.300.000

    • − Agricultural products and related inputs e.g. fertilizer, animal feed, medicine and chemicals

    • − Newspaper magazines, textbooks

    • − Education

    • − Arts and crafts

    • − Medical practices, auditing, legal practices and other professional services

    • − Hospitals

    • − Research or technical services

    • − Library, museum, zoo

    • − Labor contract

    • − Sports (non professional)

    • − Acting, performance

    • − Domestic transport

    • − International transport (excluding air and sea transport)

    • − etc.

Temporarily reduced from 10% to 7% effective from April 1, 1999–Sept 30, 2002

For export. 0%
5.2Specific business tax
  • Specific; business lax Is Imposed In lieu of VAT on (he following businesses:

    • − Banks

    • − Finance companies

    • − Life Insurance companies

    • − Pawn shops

    • − Other business with similar operations as commercial banking

    • − Sales of real estate

    • − Stock exchange transactions

    • − Other as decreed (e.g., Factoring)

Following businesses are exempted;

  • − Bank of Thailand. Government Savings Bank. Government Housing Bank. BAAC,

  • − International Finance Corporation of Thailand Saving Cooperatives

  • − Provident Fund

  • − National Housing Authority

  • − Exim Bank

  • − Environmental Fund

  • − Sale of stocks In SET

  • − Others as decreed (e.g., securitization and real estate mutual fund)

  • − Banking and financial institutions

    • − Interest 3% earning

    • − profit 3%

  • − Life Insurance

    • − interest 2.5%

    • − premiums 3%

  • − Pawnshops 2 5%%

  • − Sale of commercial real estaie3% (temporarily reduced from 3% to 0.1% elective from July 5, 2000–Dec.11, 2002)

5.3Selective excises on goods

Liquor Act of 1950. Tobacco Act of 1966. playing Cards Act of 1943. and Excise Tax Act of 1984)
Excises are levied on selected locally produced and imported goods, petroleum products, cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages. playing cards, electrical appliances, automobiles, crystal wares, yacht, perfumes, wool carpets, motorcycle, batteries, marble horse racing course, and golf. The value of domestic goods is based on ex-factory price plus excise duty but sometimes the value is based on the price which Director General has published In the Royal Gazette from lime to time. In the case of Imported goods the value Is based on CIF price plus Import duty and excise duty.
  • − Diplomatic sales and sales of fuel to ships and International airlines are exempted

  • − Tax is refunded when an excisable Item Is exported.

  • − Unfermented Vegetable or fruit juices with their content are met by the Departmental Regulation

  • − Marble Is exempted.

  • − Diesel sold In the connected territory area is exempted

  • − Diesel remained in regular tank of register fishing slaps is exempted.

  • − absolute alcohol blened for fuel

  • Specific rates. Most excisable goods are subject to specific or ad valorem rates. whichever is higher.

  • 1. Petroleum and petroleum products

    • 1.1 Gasoline

      • a) Unleaded gasoline 3.G850 baht/litre

      • b) Other gasoline 4.6850 baht/litre

      • c) Gasolrat with ethanal content not less than 10% 3.3165 baht/litre

    • 1.2 Kerosene 3 055 baht/litre

    • 1.3 Fuel for let aircraft

      • a) used directly In let aircraft 1% or 0.20 baht/litre

      • b) used for others 23% or 3 baht/litre

    • 1.4 Diesel

      • a) Diesel (sulfuric acid over 0 25%) 2.4050 baht/litre

      • b) Diesel (sulfuric acid not over 0.25% 2.3050 baht/litre

    • 1.5 Liquefied Petroleum Gas [L.PG) 2 17 baht/ kg.

    • 1.6 Natural Gas Liquid (NCL) 36% or 3.15 baht/litre

    • 1.7 Fuel oil 5%

    • 1.8 Petrument product 12%

    • 1.9 Hydrocarbon solvent 30 %

  • 2. Spirits

  • 2.1 Fermented spirits

    • a) Beer 55% or 100 baht/litre or pure alcohol

    • b) Wine and Champagne 60% or 100baht/litre of pure alcohol

    • c) Other fermented liquors 25% or 100 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 2.2 Distilled spirits

    • a) Whiskey 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

    • b) Brandy 30%or %bath/litre of pure alcohol

    • c) Other Spirits 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 2.3 Absolute alcohol (over 80%

    • a) In general 10% or 6 baht/litre

    • b) used for Industries 2% or bahtt/litre of pure alcohol

    • c) used for medicine, pharmacy. science 0.1% or 0.05 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 2.4 While spirit 28% or 100 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 2.5 Blended spirit 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 2.6 Special blended spirit 45% or 240 baht/litre of pure alcohol

  • 3. Tobacco

  • 3.1 Shredded Tobacco 0.1% or 0.01 baht/10 gramme

  • 3.2 Tobacco

    • a) Cigarettes 75%

    • b) Cigar 10% or 0.50 baht/gramme

    • c) Other Rolled Tobacco 0.1% or 0.02 baht/5gramme

    • d) Blended Shredded Tobacco 10% or 0.50 baht/gramme

    • e) Chewing Tobacco 0.1% or 0.09 baht/gramme

  • 4. Non alcoholic beverages

  • 4.1 Soda water 25% or 0.77 baht/440 c.c.

  • 4.2 Soft drink 20% or 0.37 baltt/440 c.c.

  • 4.3 Unfermented vegetable. or fruit Juices 20% or 0.37 baht/440 c.c.

  • 5. Electrical Appliances

  • 5.1 Air conditioners (capacity not over 72.000 BTU/hour) 15%

  • 5.2 Chandeliers 15%

  • 6. Automobile

  • 6.1 Passenger cars with the engine

    • a) not over 2.400 c.c. 35%

    • b) between 2.401 – 3.000 c.c. or having the power not over 220 HP. 41%

    • c) over 3.000 c.c. or having the power over220H.P. 48%

  • 6.2 Off-Road Passenger Vehicle IOPV) 29%

  • 6.3 Pick up Passenger Vehicle(PPV) 18%

  • 6.4 Double cab 12%

  • 6.5 Modified pickup 20% of modified value

  • 6.6 Public transport cars seated not more than 10 person

    • a) not over 2.400 c.c. 35%

    • b) over 2.400 c.c. 41%

  • 6.7 Pick up

    • a) specified characteristic by Director-General 3%

    • b) others 18%

  • 7. Lead crystals 15%

  • 8. Yachts 5%

  • 9. Perfumes 15%

  • 10. Wool carpets 20%

  • 11. Motor cycle 2 strokes engine 5% 4 strokes engine 3%

  • 12. Batteries

    • 12.1 Batteries 10%

    • 12.2 recycle S%

  • 13. Halogenated derivertives of acyclle hydrocarbons

    • − from Feb 14–Dee 31, 2002 is 15%

    • − from Jan 1, 2003 Increased to 30%

  • 14. Cards

    • 14.1 Poker cards 30baht/l00cards

    • 14.2 Others 2 baht/100 cards

  • 15. Service Places

    • 15.1 Horse racing courses (from ticket fee for the horse-racing spectators and gain from horse-racing 20%

    • 15.2 Golf (from member fee and green fee) 10%

5.4Profits of fiscal monopoliesCentral Government is recipient of the profits of the following fiscal monopolies: the That Tobacco Monopoly, the State Lottery. and the production of playing cards by the Excise Department.NoneRates are negotiated between the Ministry of Finance and individual monopolies.
6Taxes on International trade and transactions
6.1Import duties (Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended in 1987Ad valorem (on c.f. value) and/or specific duties are Imposed on Imports, classified according to the Harmonized System. In additions, special duties are levied on certain commodities.Exemption Is granted to personnel of United Nations Organizations and of accredited diplomatic missions Companies operating under the Promotion the Investment Act [♯1301] are exempted on machinery, parts. accessories based on the Promotional zone and also there are other exemptions by granting the exemption on the import duty for machinery of those 61 promoted activities that the board considered as priority activities Located in zone 1 and zone 2, and items to be re-exported. Also, they are granted reductionThe current tariff structure Is undergoing a reform aiming to lower tariff barriers and reduce number of rates to 3 basic rates and having protected rate for some goods as follows:

  • − Raw material 1%

  • − Intermediate goods 5%

  • − Finished goods 10%

  • − Protected goods 20%

  • − Inputs cannot produce in domestic 1%

6.1Import duties (continued) Customs Tariff Act of 1935, amended In 1987)of up (o 90 percent of the duty on raw materials for not more than one year Re-exports of goods that have been Imported within the preceding two years and have not undergone change In character or form are exempted. Companies operating under the Petroleum Act, and Industrial Authority of Thailand Ad (bonded warehouses and export processing zones) are exempted, Crude oil, fertilizers, Jewelry, munitions of war, art zero rated. Duties on Inputs used In the production of exports are refunded.
6.2Export taxes (Customs Tariff Act of 1035. amended in 1987)Ad valorem or specific duties on exports.Because of exporting promotion. most export taxes are exempted, except raw hides and wood.− Rawhides BO 40/kg

− Wood 3–10%
7.Other taxes
7.1Stamp duties (Revenue Code Act of 1938, amended in 19731Stamp duties are Imposed on documents (government forms, legal contracts, and other Instruments on an ad valorem basis or per transaction.Rates range from BI-O per BI.000 (on lease of property, contractor’s services. Insurance policy, transfer of securities, arbitrator’s award) to B100 (on articles of association of a limited company)
8.Local Governments

1. Municipality (Municipal Income Act of 1954).

2. Provincial Administrative Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of I997). 3. Tambon Council and Tambon Administrative Organization. (Tambon Council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994). and 4 the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act or 1995 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980)
Table 16.Thailand: Summary of the Local Government Tax System 1/
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionRates
1. Taxes on property
1.1 Real estate taxes
1.1.1 House and rent taxThe house and rent tax is levied annually on buildings rented or used for other commercial purposes. The lax is allocated to all levels of local government.Owner-occupied dwellings are exempted. Also exempted are buildings used by government agencies, public hospitals.12.5 % of annual rent
(House and Land Tax Act of 1932)
1.1.2 Land development tax
(Land Development Act of 1965)The land development tax is levied annually on the value of unimproved land not subject to the house and rent tax. The tax is allocated to all levels of local government.Land occupied by owner or used for annual crops is hilly or partially exempted. A person who owns land in several provinces is allowed exemption only on land in one province, although his land holdings are taxed separately in each province. Land owned by government agencies, public hospitals, schools, public utilities, and religious organizations are also exempted.34 different rates ranging from B0.50 per tal with an assessed value of under B200 to B70 per ral with an assessed value of over B30.000 and B25 per raj for each additional B10,000 (one ral Is equtvalent to 0.16 herlare).
1.1.3 Real estate transfer taxTransfer (whether by sale. gift, or succession at death) of real estate is taxed on the basis of the assessed value of the property.2% of the assessed value: 0.5% if the transfer is made to parents, spouses, or children.
(For Tambon Administration Organization)
2. Taxes on goods and services
2.1 VAT surchargeSurcharge on the VAT imposed by the Central Government (see A.5.1). The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated in all levels of local government.10 % of the total VAT. (Temporary VAT rate of 7% is Inclusive of the local surcharge of 0.7%)
5% of the total VAT collection In all of the provincial jurisdictions except for Bangkok
2.2 Specific Business Tax: surchargeSurcharge on specific business tax Imposed by the Central Government. The surcharge is collected by the Revenue Department and allocated to all levels of local government.10% of the specific business tax
5.3 Surcharge on selected excises
1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beveragesSurcharge on selected excises imposed by the Central Government (See A.5.3).10% of excise tax.
2. Petroleum and petroleum productsThe surcharge is collected by the Excise
3. Electrical appliancesDepartment and allocated to local governments.
4. Crystals
5. Automobiles
6. Yachts
7. Horse Racing courses
5.4 Profits of fiscal monopolies
None
5.5 Taxes on specific services
None
5.6 Taxes on use of goods and property and permission to perform activities
5.6. 1 Licenses and fees− Slaughtering postling signboards, and various other activities, are subject to taxes and license fees, which are allocated to all levels of local government.Multiple
− Bird nest, groundwater, fishery, forestry, petroleum and mineral resources (For Tambon Administration Organization)
5.6.2. Motor vehicle tax

(Motor Vehicle Act of 1979

Inland Transport Act of 1979)
Motor Vehicle (passenger cars, motorcycles and special vehicles; buses and trucks) are subject to an annual tax. The tax is collected by the Central Government (Inland Transport Department) and allocated to Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) for the amount collected In BMA area. The amount collected In other provinces are allocated to all local government in the following proportions: 25% to provinces; 50% to municipalities; and 25% to municipalities upgraded from sanitary districts.Automobiles Deronging to government departments and local authorities are exempted. Tractors used In agriculture, ambulances and antomobiles belonging to Red Cross are also exempted.For passenger cars tarrying 7 passengers or less. the tax is based on cylinder capacity.
  • B0.50 per cc for portion of the cylinder capacity under 600 cc.

  • B1.50 per cc for the portion between 600 cc- 1,800 cc.

  • B4.00 per cc for the portion over 1,800 cc.

  • For passenger cars carrying more than 7 passengers the fee is based on weight ranging from

  • B150 to B3.600.

  • For motorcycles, the fee is B100 per unit

  • For passenger cars regisitered for more than 5 years, the fee 15 reduced at a rate of 10% increments per year, e.g, 10% reduction is given on the 6 th year,20% reduction on the 7th year to 50% reduction after the 9th year

50% to municipalities; and 25% to municipalities upgraded from sanitary districts.B4.00 pet cc for the portion over 1.800 cc.

For passenger cars carrying more than 7 passenger;;, the fee is based on weight ranging from B150 to B8,600.



For motorcycles, the fee is B100 per unit



For passenger cars registered for more than 5 years, the fee is reduced at a rate of 10% Increments per year, e.g, 10% reduction is given on the 6th year. 20% reduction on the 7th year to 50% reduction after the 8th year.

Local governments include: I. Municipality (Municipal income Act of 1954), 2. Provincial Administrative Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of 1997l. 3. Tambon Council and Tambon Administrative Organization (Tambon Council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994). and 4. the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act of 1985 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980).

Local governments include: I. Municipality (Municipal income Act of 1954), 2. Provincial Administrative Organization (Provincial Administration Organization Act of 1997l. 3. Tambon Council and Tambon Administrative Organization (Tambon Council and Tambon Administration Organization Act of 1994). and 4. the special cities which are Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and City of Pataya (Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act of 1985 and City of Pataya Administration Act of 1980).

Table 17.Thailand: Financial Survey, 1996−2001 1/(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Net foreign assets−301.3−884.3−121.1124.2281.5432.6520.6552.8604.3735.7887.71035.51088.71184.11215.5
Net domestic assets5309.36054.05750.95483.15327.05211.15198.15170.75121.85096.55084.75022.34976.74993.15095.7
Domestic credit6496.67643.77483.27359.37145.26858.46588.56595.36358.35920.45889.95951.05655.85760.85635.1
Government (net)−515.1−467.10.640.055.8108.7144.1173.0170.7216.8211.7244.5220.6262.0284.3
Claims on government83.866.9431.1527.7550.0551.7573.6559.7581.2639.2593.7636.9612.6681.9680.9
Government deposits598.9534.0430.5487.7494.2443.0429.5386.7410.5422.4382.0392.4392.0419.9396.6
Nonfinancial public enterprises222.9265.4280.4290.5297.2317.7315.6339.8341.4356.9344.3344.7353.1363.0368.7
Businesses and households6788.87845.47202.27028.86792.26432.06128.86082.55846.25346.75333.95361.85082.15135.84982.1
Capital and other items−1187.3−1589.7−1732.3−1876.2−1818.2−1647.3−1390.4−1424.6−1236.5−823.9−805.2−928.7−679.1−767.7−539.4
Capital accounts−1275.9−1772.3−2135.9−2297.9−2263.5−2222.7−1972.8−1896.6−1738.5−1607.6−1619.7−1660.1−1580.8−1602.3−1518.8
Other borrowings−192.3−211.2−221.4−201.6−202.0−201.8−217.0−215.1−217.2−220.3−224.7−222.3−224.9−223.5−225.3
Other items net280.9393.8625.0623.3647.3777.2799.4687.1719.21004.01039.2953.71126.61058.11204.7
Liquid liabilities (M3)5008.05169.75629.85607.35608.55643.75718.75723.55726.15832.25972.46057.86065.46177.26311.2
Currency302.3331.7315.7310.8302.6319.3466.1369.6350.1358.3401.7396.5382.6392.7436.4
Demand deposits91.277.085.883.585.294.889.8105.4100.6110.9105.5120.0119.0128.5128.3
Saving, time, and other deposits3574.44298.04772.04793.44811.64837.54807.44897.24921.85042.55161.75234.05255.35331.05422.2
Promissory notes1040.1463.0456.3419.6409.1392.1355.4351.3353.6320.5303.5307.3308.5325.0324.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheets of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks, finance companies and other state-owned financial institutions.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheets of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks, finance companies and other state-owned financial institutions.

Table 18Thailand: Bank and Finance Company Survey, 1996–2001 1/(In billions of baht)
199619971998199920002001
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.
Net foreign assets−210.4−681.626.1262.6414.9575.2646.2675.1719.7851.11,002.61144.81,197.11283.21,300.5
Net domestic assets4,935.65,503.45,092.04,863.64,659.24,526.54,536.34,468.94,416.34,352.04,294.44,237.44,195.34,160.94,237.9
Domestic credit5,957.86,877.66,675.46,525.46,253.85,938.75.653.85,642.45,381.64,879.14,843.14,889.04,586.84,644.24,486.0
Government (net)−462.1−424.930.354.620.962.788.3117.3124.3144.5153.2182.4177.4185.3195.2
Claims on government57.748.9356.7438.8398.1397.5412.2395.4421.2467.8438.6474.2468.8506.8486.1
Government deposits519.8473.8326.4384.2377.2334.8323.9278.1296.9323.3285.4291.8291.4321.5290.9
Nonfinancial public enterprises175.6197.8192.3196.8198.8203.8201.8209.7198.4199.3175.3175.1176.9181.4184.4
Businesses and households6,244.37,104.76,452.86,274.06,034.15,672.25,363.75,315.45,058.94.535.34,514.64,531.54,232.54,277.54,106.4
Capital and other items−1,022.2−1,374.2−1,583.4−1,661.8−1,594.6−1,412.2−1,117.5−1,173.5−965.3−527.1−548.7−651.6−391.5−483.3−248.1
Capital accounts−1,204.1−1,691.3−2,031.3−2,177.1−2,134.0−2,090.6−1,822.3−1,742.8−1,578.6−1,448.0−1,457.6−1,488.6−1,415.9−1,430.3−1,330.6
Other borrowings−41.0−44.2−37.7−28.5−26.4−27.8−28.2−31.1−32.1−32.2−35.4−33.5−33.3−32.2−32.1
Other items net222.9361.3485.6543.8565.8706.2733.0600.4645.4953.1944.3870.51057.7979.21114.6
Liabilities (M2A)4,725.24.821.85,118.15,126.25.074.15.101.75,182.55,143.95.136.05,203.15,297.05,382.25,392.45,444.15,538.4
Currency304.2333.9318.3313.4305.0322472.4372.8353.9362.4406.8399.4386.5397.4440.9
Demand deposits102.685.291.5121.791.598.493.6108102.6112.8107.5122121.1129.3130
Saving, time, and other deposits3,278.33,897.14,251.94,271.64,268.54,289.34,261.14,311.84,325.94,407.34,479.14,553.54,576.34,592.34,643.2
Promissory notes1,040.1505.6456.4419.5409.1392.0355.4351.3353.6320.6303.6307.3308.5325.1324.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheet of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks (including local lending by BIBFs), finance companies, and finance and securities companies.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consolidated balance sheet of the Bank of Thailand, commercial banks (including local lending by BIBFs), finance companies, and finance and securities companies.

Table 19.Thailand: Monetary Survey, 1996–2002(In billions of baht)
1996199719981999200020012002
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets−78.7−559.168.7293.6440.3602.9672.7700.6745.8878.91,030.11,173.51,226.21,311.61,326.31,410.5
Assets1,170.71,683.71,545.91,720.01,744.01,963.31,871.21,834.61,892.92,030.62,133.22,262.62,267.72,247.22,227.52,211.7
Liabilities1,249.42,242.81,477.21,426.41,303.71,360.41,198.51,134.01,147.11,151.71,103.11,089.11,041.5935.6901.2801.2
Net domestic assets3,805.34,898.44,684.74,495.54,323.84,183.74,182.04,123.94,055.54,028.64,002.63,940.03,896.23,854.13,917.33,958.6
Domestic credit4,638.66,237.46,163.46,054.45,949.16,026.95,905.25,917.65,644.95,496.25,466.35,489.65,429.35,333.75,135.05,234.6
Government (net)−466.1−426.4−1.0−2.03.545.365.194.099.1118.4130.0159.2154.9162.9173.7205.9
Claims on government53.747.4325.4382.2380.7380.1389.0372.1396.0441.8415.4451446.3484.4464.7528.1
Government deposits519.8473.8326.4384.2377.2334.8323.9278.1296.9323.4285.4291.8291.4321.5291322.2
Nonfinancial public enterprises130.7171.3183.5185.1189.5200.8199.1206.1195.5195.1172.1172.9175.1180.4183.4178.0
Businesses and households4,689.65,730.95,301.15,338.95,246.95,176.55,016.04,991.14,755.64,223.24,213.24,223.23,933.13,952.83,776.44,240.6
Other financial institutions284.4761.6679.8532.4509.2604.3625.0626.4594.7959.5951.0934.31166.21037.61001.5610.1
Capital and other items−833.3−1,339.0−1,478.7−1,558.9−1,625.3−1,843.2−1,723.2−1,793.7−1,589.4−1,467.6−1,463.7−1,549.6−1,533.1−1,479.6−1,217.7−1,276.0
Capital accounts−977.9−1,493.9−1881.7−2080.6−2173.2−2364.0−2175.5−2129.0−1987.0−1856.5−1876.4−1895.2−1824.9−1838.7−1736.4−1828.7
Borrowing from other
financial institutions−96.1−195.9−251.4−266.9−292.8−350.2−394.9−453.4−412.4−408.1−363.2−364.2−331.5−327.9−276.1−233.5
Other items net240.7350.8654.4788.6840.7871.0847.2788.7810.0797.0775.9709.8623.3687.0794.8786.2
Broad money (M2)3,726.64,339.34,753.44,789.14,764.14,786.64,854.74,824.54,801.34,907.55,032.75,113.55,122.45,165.75,243.65,369.1
Narrow money (MI)423.7428.8441.8458.1429.2431.9575.0495.0463.1483.5525.7533.3517.7538.2579.4600.2
Currency304.3334.0318.3313.4305.1322.0472.4372.8353.9362.4406.8399.4386.6397.4440.8443.7
Deposits119.494.8123.5144.7124.1109.9102.6122.2109.2121.1118.9133.9131.1140.8138.6156.5
Quasi-money3,302.93,910.54,311.64,331.04,334.94,354.74,279.74,329.54,338.24,424.04,507.04,580.24,604.74,627.54,664.24,768.9
Savings deposits743.7755.2851928.1972.91049.7995.31,085.91,070.61,155.31,219.51,320.11,348.21,400.53,139.13,142.6
Time deposits2,546.43,102.13412.53344.13299.83247.53223.03179.33207.13204.53220.43191.73187.83156.614611564.1
Other deposits12.853.248.158.862.257.561.464.360.564.267.168.468.770.464.162.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 20.Thailand: Accounts of the Bank of Thailand, 1996–2002 1/(In billions of baht, end of period)
1996199719981999200020012002
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Net foreign assets990.6935.9672.3701.5719.2805.4822.9739.1764.9837.4875.6932.4942.11,005.01,039.61,125.2
Assets990.71,274.31,083.41,126.21,157.91,326.11,303.31,220.51,257.41.361.41,413.21,445.91,429.11,448.41,479.21,474.2
Liabilities−0.1−338.4−411.1−424.7−438.7−520.7−480.4−481.4−492.5−524.0−537.6−513.5−487−443.4−439.6−349
Net domestic assets−537.7−461.8−197.0−212.4−286.9−378.8−201.1−241.4−315.0−358.5−348.4−420.0−457.4−491.7−483.3−560.4
Government (net)−308.2−251.574.181.169.163.058.257.552.424.463.274.4107.586.5108.3120.3
Claims on government17.214.5152.9217.5174.3132.9120.795.188.693.288.3106.7138.8153.9124.4142.1
Government deposits−348.0−296.5−108.0−171.9−134.7−99.8−110.7−71.5−67.9−100.2−53.9−66.8−65−99.5−47.8−56.5
Government currency holdings6313.211.417.511.111.229.213.911.611.08.113.412.110.29.512.1
Treasury coin issue16.317.317.818.018.418.719.020.020.120.420.721.121.621.922.222.6
Claims on nonfinancial public enterprises17.271.475.073.770.365.764.060.958.955.648.342.64139.933.429.2
Claims on commercial banks (net)26.5276.3139.6242.1140.460.778.971.769.391.558.89.5−47.8−20.7−56.2−46.1
Claims on other financial institutions (net)36.742.5−66.8−60.9−54.1−67.254.313.33.022.763.567.969.461.448.7−30.2
Capital and other items−309.9−600.5−418.9−548.4−512.6−501.0−456.5−444.8−498.6−552.7−582.2−614.4−627.5−658.8−617.5−633.6
Other assets54.6164.4419.2402.1439.2555.6544.6535.1539.2547.4557.2535.1537.5544.1500.7482.9
Capital accounts−377.8−803.2−814.0−944.8−933.9−1,115.0−1,013.2−974.2−1,044.6−1,129.4−1,159.7−1,159.9−1,154.1−1,191.8−1,092.4−1,102.9
Other liabilities13.338.3−24.1−5.7−17.958.412.1−5.76.829.320.310.4−10.9−11.1−25.8−13.6
Reserve money452.9474.1475.3489.1432.3426.6621.8497.7449.9478.9527.2512.4484.7513.3556.3564.8
Currency365.6387.7365.4351.8344.1361.0558.2413.9394.5405.5467.0446.8434.3447.0502.9497.8
Held by commercial banks61.353.847.138.439.039.085.741.140.643.160.147.447.849.561.854.1
Held by businesses and households302.3331.6315.7310.8302.4319.3467.4369350.2358.9401.6394.8382.6392.8436.6437.9
Held by other financial institutions2.02.32.62.62.72.75.13.83.73.55.34.63.94.74.55.8
Deposits87.386.4109.9137.388.265.663.683.855.473.460.265.650.466.353.467.0
Held by commercial banks74.078.280.3114.755.854.555.371.450.166.954.16043.858.247.759.9
Held by other financial institutions10.75.428.821.731.49.26.711.544.74.54.25.15.23.35.6
Held by other domestic sectors2.62.80.80.91.01.91.60.91.31.81.61.41.52.92.41.5
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At current exchange rates.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

At current exchange rates.

Table 21.Thailand: Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks, 1996–2002(In billions of baht)
1996199719981999200020012002
Dec.Dec.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.
Total assets5,7177,4287,1657,3347,2007,3016,9736,9966,7526,6846,6406,8806,7626,7156,6166,887
Cash and claims on the Bank of Thailand183466502453394369238232206271268321315340316421
Claims on commercial banks41361536305646705465536962784758
Claims on other financial institutions214331173137117201234224208527512511759673673309
Foreign assets180409463594586637568614635669720817839799748738
Claims on Government 1/2016155147188229249257287328306323286309318363
Claims on nonfinancial public enterprises113100109112119135135145137140124130134141150149
Claims on businesses and households4,6885,7305,3005,3375,2455,1755,0154,9904,7544,2224,2124,2223,9313,9513,7754,239
Other278340450518521500489465471462445487435426590610
Total liabilities5,7177,4287,1657,3347,2007,3016,9736,9966,7526,6846,6406,8806,7626,7146,6166,887
Credit from the Bank of Thailand54313155158542948393963263418511727
Liabilities to commercial banks37312742275439563752376249653755
Liabilities to other financial institutions192229229323306303264292245270246284258291226232
Total deposits of nongovernment sector3,2703,8604,2014,2094,2134,2604,2334,3034,3114,4004,4914,5764,5854,6144,6674,775
Demand deposits8773848i83908710398106102117116123124139
Savings deposits7167307898589049639481,0401,0301,1061,1691,2651,2811,3291,3981,486
Time deposits2,4553,0053,2813,2113,1683,1493,1373,0973,1243,1253,1543,1273,1213,0933,0813,088
Foreign currency deposits12504557585760625962656666686260
Marginal deposits1231111111111212
Foreign liabilities1,2491,9041,0661,002865840718653655628566576555492462452
Liabilities to government178191230230254246242221241234240238239232253278
Local government deposits33273233393530313230262530343040
Capital account6046911,0683,1361,2391,2491,1621,155942727717735671647644726
Other101183158202203285237248251280293351359288281301
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes claims on local government, which were zero, except for September 1996 (B 0.5 billion).

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes claims on local government, which were zero, except for September 1996 (B 0.5 billion).

Table 22.Thailand: BIBF Out-In Operations, 1996–2002 1/
1996199719981999200020012002 2/
(In billions of baht)
Thai banks
Sources of funds331.1508.2149.1109.464.038.719.4
Maturities of less than one year0.051.834.211.016.517.217.3
Maturities of one year or more331.1456.4114.998.447.521.52.1
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing327.9528.2149.1109.263.538.719.4
Uses of funds330.0513.2213.5100.162.234.633.6
Maturities of less than one year101.996.7l1.l10.13.20.70.6
Maturities of one year or more228.1416.5202.4905933.933.0
Foreign bank branches
Sources of funds223.7670.9421.2314.8239.5201.6196.5
Maturities of less than one year104.3320.1145.466.753.690.979.1
Maturities of one year or more119.4350.8275.8248.1185.9110.7117.4
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing112.4359.4280.7282.0213.8176.8179.0
Uses of funds222.8691.5431.9304.2253.1194.8189.2
Maturities of less than one year138.3254.1190.7128.6105.369.961.4
Maturities of one year or more84.5437.4241.2175.6147.8124.9127.8
Other BIBF units
Sources of funds252.0201.1119.377.761.142.134.3
Maturities of less than one year150.9102.342.533.20.03.82.4
Maturities of one year or more101.198.876.844.561.138.331.9
Memo item: Inter-office borrowing59.086.057.768.960.941.733.9
Uses of funds254.6206.9121.682.871.747.538.5
Maturities of less than one year143.194.546.631.421.917.914.6
Maturities of one year or more111.5112.475.051.449.829.623.9
Purpose of lending
Agriculture6.29.34.22.51.30.80.8
Mining9.921.512.410.35.62.62.6
Manufacturing390.5735.3459287.9220.5147.4140.3
Exports18.728.315.610.37.44.03.9
Wholesale trade in agricultural products2.34.00.60.70.70.60.6
Services for entertainments3.24.11.51.40.80.80.8
Import of luxury goods2.54.92.20.10.00.00.0
Personal consumption2.20.80.40.51.21.11.2
Luxury resident condominium17.620.08.14.22.41.01.0
Construction21.533.914.710.48.54.73.9
Commerce92.0161.080.650.633.422.523.9
Banking and finance business119.6160.257.928.126.225.522.8
Real estate business23.733.111.27.55.83.43.3
Public utility39.882.955.850.961.554.454.3
Hotel and restaurant32.354.116.35.62.91.82.3
General housing finance0.10.10.00.00.00.00.0
Others25.258.125.116.18.87.06.3
Total807.41,411.4765.6487.1387.0277.6268.0
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Total foreign borrowings, on-lent to residents.

Data on maturities are through March; data on purpose of lending are through February.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Total foreign borrowings, on-lent to residents.

Data on maturities are through March; data on purpose of lending are through February.

Table 23.Thailand: Flow of Credit from the Monetary System and Net Capital

Inflow to Private and Public Enterprises, 1996–2002
(In billions of baht)
19961997199819992000200020012001
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV
Total credit992.71,510.6−583.1−416.3−58.1−346.5−161.3−76.2−642.1−19.0−35.7−134.9−298.0−487.6
Private businesses955.51,463.3−616.0−452.7−85.7−299.9−167.1−31.1−583.8−15.6−26.9−128.5−289.3−460.3
Public enterprises37.247.332.936.427.6−46.65.8−45.1−58.3−3.4−8.8−6.4−8.7−27.3
Financial20.96.813.1−14.33.4−20.00.0−7.6−24.2−2.9−1.1−9.6−19.6−33.2
Nonfinancial16.340.519.850.724.2−26.65.8−37.5−34.1−0.5−7.73.210.95.9
Credit from banking system642.61,561.5−503.3−326.2−16.8−278.1−169.2−41.4−505.5−0.9−51.7−103.3−209.6−365.5
(increase)
Private businesses621.71,515.9−195.5−344.6−29.7−247.9−170.3−15.4−463.31.1−53.1−113.6−200.9−366.5
Public enterprises20.945.6−7.818.412.9−30.21.1−26.0−42.2−2.01.410.3−8.71.0
Financial7.05.1−19.92.75.8−19.51.5−3.0−15.2−2.8−0.95.1−11.6−10.2
Nonfinancial13.940.512.115.77.1−10.7−0.4−23.0−27.00.82.35.22.911.2
Foreign credit (net inflow)350.1−50.9−79.8−90.1−41.3−68.47.9−34.8−136.6−18.116.0−31.6−88.4−122.1
Private businesses333.8−52.6−120.5−108.1−56−52.03.2−15.7−120.5−16.726.2−14.9−88.4−93.8
Public enterprises16.31.740.718.014.7−16.44.7−19.1−16.1−14−10.2−16.70.0−28.3
Financial13.91.733.0−17.0−2.4−0.5−1.5−4.6−9.0−0.1−0.2−14.7−8.0−23.0
Nonfinancial2.40.07.735.017.1−15.96.2−14.5−7.1−1.3−10.0−2.08.0−5.3
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.
Table 24.Thailand: Foreign Investor Participation in the Securities Exchange of Thailand, 1996–2002
199619971998199920002000200120012002
IIIIIIIVIIIIIIIVI
Turnover involving foreign investors
In billions of baht900.9804.2592.1946.9292.2127.0108.497.0594.6187.3123.7134.8141.7587.6301.5
In percent of total turnover34.643.334.629.432.836.836.024.232.218.219.218.119.318.620.3
Net purchases by foreign investors12.355.430.2−3.1−17.1−11.0−3.8−1.2−33.1−1.4−0.12.3−7.1−6.418.6
Purchases (in billions of baht)456.6429.8311.1471.9122.658.052.347.9280.893.061.868.567.3290.6160.0
Sales (in billions of baht)444.3374.4280.9475.0139.669.056.149.1313.994.461.966.374.4297.0141.4
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Source: Data provided by the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
Table 25.Thailand: Stock Market Indicators, 1996–2002
1996199719981999200020012002 1/
Number of quoted companies454431418392381382381
Capitalization (billions of baht) 2/2,559.61,133.31,268.22,193.11,279.21,607.31,979.2
Percent of GDP55.523.927.447.326.131.5
New capital raisings (billions of baht) 2/117.963.3330.0465.7119.899.20.9
Trading value (billions of baht)1,303.1929.6855.21,609.8923.71,577.8741.2
Percent of capitalization50.982.067.473.472.298.237.4
Foreign/total turnover (percent) 3/34.643.334.629.432.218.620.3
SET index (1975=100)831.6372.7355.8481.9269.2303.9374.0
Percent change−35.1−55.2−4.535.4−44.112.928.1
Average dividend yield (percent)3.56.01.40.61.82.12.5
Average price/earnings ratio12.06.610.014.75.54.96.2
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Through March 2002.

At market prices.

Including transactions through sub-brokers.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Through March 2002.

At market prices.

Including transactions through sub-brokers.

Table 26.Thailand: Net Medium- and Long-Term Nonmonetary

Capital Flows by Borrower, 1995–2001
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995199619971998199920002001
Prel.
Total9,47011,27011,4545,9762,032−2,245−3,884
Private sector8,2789,94110,5225,7431,474−1,696−2,933
Direct investment1,2321,6583,3477,1735,8923,1992,894
Foreign direct investment2,1182,5913,9317,3056,2413,1773,056
Equity capital1,9632,4533,7436,8686,0803,3892,625
Bank666825523492,52953755
Nonbank1,8972,3853,488451935512,8522,570
Loans155138188437161−212431
Thai investment abroad−886−933−584−132−34922−162
Bank−51−117−137−8−5749
Nonbank−835−816−447−124−344−52−171
Portfolio investment;3,2861,3594,299457444290−1,157
Bank741−604−179−70106−240−287
Nonbank2,5451,9634,478527338530−870
Equity securities2.2541,1233,98726594689717
Inflow7,1627,26121,3766,7615,1144,7661,492
Outflow4,9086,13817.3896,4964,1683.8691,475
Debt securities291840491262−608−367−887
Inflow3009095433750189519
Outflow969521136085561,406
Long-term loans3,8176,8992,630−2,110−4,978−4,897−4,277
Bank1,0811,7071,773−2,219−2,973−1,194−1,786
BIBF8301,528769−2,348−1,960−757−994
Non-BIBF2511791,004129−1,013−437−792
Nonbank2,7365,192857109−2,005−3,703−2,491
Drawings5,2557,4784,2714,1983,3472,4302,436
Trade credits106532822637
Other5,2547,4784,2063,8703,3252,4242,399
Repayments2,5192,2863,4144,0895,3526,1334,927
Trade credits149824515219112380
Other2,3702,2043,3693,9375,1616,0104,847
Others (net)−5725246223116−288−393
Bank0000000
Nonbank−5725246223116−288−393
Public enterprises810878−188356236−349−881
Long-term loans847246117109294−216−416
Drawings1,6321,0758378281,5311,6181,195
Trade credits5200000
Other1,6271,0738378281,5311,6181,195
Repayments7858297207191,2371,8341,611
Trade credits53392624272743
Other7327906946951,2101,8071,568
Portfolio investment (net) 1/52600−131196−140−228−242
Others (net)−8932−174518295−223
Central government 2/3824511,120−123322−200−70
Long-term loans180586630−67472−77−35
Drawings6748691,0342951,118671700
Repayments494283404362646748735
Other (net)202−135490−56−150−123−35
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes bonds issued in Thailand and held by nonresidents,

Excludes structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank disbursed as part of the original financing package,

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes bonds issued in Thailand and held by nonresidents,

Excludes structural adjustment loans from the AsDB and the World Bank disbursed as part of the original financing package,

Table 27.Thailand: Net Short-Term Nonmonetary Capital Flows by Borrowers, 1995–2001(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995199619971998199920002001
Prel.
Total9,0735,310−12,365−16,796−12,126−7,759229
Private sector (net)9,1655,336−12,333−16,926−12,106−7,66190
Borrowings11,904459−9,672−13,600−10,422−5,492−153
Banks12,141−928−4,768−9,449−8,590−3,614−286
BIBF8,5622,156−947−7,040−7,678−3,410−457
Non-BIBF3,579−3,084−3,821−2,409−912−204171
Nonbanks−2371,387−4,904−4,151−1,832−1,878133
Trade credits302−63−402−587788−704−428
Loans−1,414−75−4,574−3,459−2,673−750428
Debt securities8751,52572−10553−424133
Bank assets−2,7394,877−2,661−3,326−1,684−2,169243
Public enterprises (net)0200130−20−1300
Trade credits0000000
Others0200130−20−1300
Central government (net)−92−46−320032139
Memorandum item:
Nonresident baht accounts 1/3,4062,924−5,812−4,300−2,909−413−1,376
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consists mostly of unidentified portfolio flows.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Consists mostly of unidentified portfolio flows.

Table 28.Thailand: Gross External Borrowing by Nonbank Sector, 1995–l2001 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995199619971998199920002001
Short-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotalShort-TermTotal
Prel.Prel.
Total16,60622.06418,22825,94314,54819,0087,63812,1564,2258,2333,7987,2516,24610,174
Financial institutions8,5289,6857,3388,7453,6903,8658761,2356786934259295711,658
Trade3,1473,4603,8064,1484,9445,6252,3983,6308511,6057711,2411,6122,574
Construction1101452007914433117192131721161017
Industry3.3316,1744,1786,2164,6186,5383,7705,8772,3353,7012,1013,9812,3163,603
Food8735284414191382180232428121692839
Textiles145282125252209309164248669026613872
Metal based and non-metallic316523235492309641268858120448131240116204
Electrical appliances1,1011,4021,1721,5481,4391,7031,3511,5808531,2447251,5311,0371,511
Machinery and transport equipment9371,0791,9902,0151,9552,1331,2501,9081.0821,2989331,483613782
Chemicals23792226490620872223368155367104289114435
Petroleum products21956210729225340215624252553258338448
Others2891,052201297542461681286511812925032112
Services 2/15750429462331763221728471170104167117190
Others1,3332,0962,4125,4209352,0173601,1112692,0333258171,6202,132
Source; Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes borrowing from affiliates; excludes commercial banks and BIBFs.

Excludes real estate.

Source; Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Includes borrowing from affiliates; excludes commercial banks and BIBFs.

Excludes real estate.

Table 29.Thailand: Borrowing Terms of Private External Loans, 1995–2001 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995199619971998199920002001
Amount of BorrowingAmount of BorrowingAmount of BorrowingAmount of BorrowingAmount of BorrowingAmount of BorrowingAmount of Borrowing
Millions ofPercentMillions ofPercentMillions ofPercentMillions ofPercentMillions ofPercentMillions ofPercentMillions ofPercent
U.S. Dollarsof TotalU.S. Dollarsor TotalUS. Dollarsof TotalU.S. Dollarsof TotalU.S. Dollarsof TotalU.S. Dollarsof TotalU.S. Dollarsof Total
Prel.Prel.
Total22,064100.025,943100.019,008100.012,156100.08,233100.07,251100.010,174100.0
Short-term16,60675.318,22870.314,54876.57,63862.84,22551.33,79852.46.24661.4
On demand and less than one month4,48620.34,54617.53,93020.71.94316.01,14513.9108615.0325232.0
1–3 months8,49538.59,60437.07,06037.12,55221.01,70520.7123217.0190618.7
4–6 months1,9809.02,5229.72,76414.51,98216391611.1101113.95075.0
7–11 months610.32160.82411.31,0318.53644.43965.52162.1
12 months1,5847.21,3405.25532.91301.1951.2731.03653.6
Long-term5,45824.77,71529.74,46023.54,51837.24,00848.73,15347.63,92838.6
No age6212.88923.46873.63292.74545.5105914.69159.0
More than 1–3 years1,8938.62,99411.51,5348.17946.51,61319.6671939369.2
More than 3–5 years1,4616.61,9947.78594.59437.85556.7112215.5158015.5
More than 5–10 years1,0024.51,2434.8954501,9391601,1491404596.34484.4
More than 10 years4812.25922.34262.25134.22372.91422.0490.5
Source: Data provided by the That authorities.

Includes borrowings from affiliates; excludes commercial banks and BINFs.

Source: Data provided by the That authorities.

Includes borrowings from affiliates; excludes commercial banks and BINFs.

Table 30.Thailand: External Debt and Debt Service, 1995–2001(In millions of U.S. dollars; end-of-period data)
1995199619971998199920002001
Prel.
Total outstanding debt 1/100,832108,742109,276105,06295,05179,71567,350
Outstanding medium- and long-term debt 2/48,43460,99970,98276,64175,51265,02153,980
Public sector16,31716,74724,06231,42836,09833,88728,161
By lender16,31716,74724.06231,42836,09833,88728,161
IMF002,4293,2393,4313,0621,679
Other international institutions2,4772,7133,5854,4585,4445,3555,481
Foreign governments8,3878,0059,03812,58016,35414,80512,815
Foreign banks5,0995,7488,78510,92210,64110,4888,072
Suppliers credits354281225229228177114
By borrower16,31716,74724,06231,42836,09833,88728,161
Bank of Thailand007,15711,20412,81712,0198,325
Central government4,7915,1186,0516,9478,8888,8608,588
Public enterprises11,52611,62910,85413,27714,39313,00811,248
Nonbank private sector23,87531,24132,10234,32831,17824,40321,485
Loans19,93825,17225,69527,24424,47319,11637,407
Suppliers’ credits87183206437277162117
Debt securities3,8505,8866,2016,6476,4285,1253,961
Commercial banks8,24213,01114,81810,8858,2366,7314,334
BIBF3,79910,69710,8956,9455,2694,1512,569
Non-BIBF4,4432,3143,9233,9402,9672,5801,765
Outstanding short-term debt (disbursed)52,39847,74338,29428,42119,53914,69413,370
Public sector85542015013026147
Nonbank private sector18,61618,83113,87110,8349,9439,2428,203
Commercial banks33,69728,85824,40317,4379,4665,4265,020
BIBF23,70420,49019,18514,8917,8374,0853,523
Non-BIBF9,9938,3685,2182,5461,6291,3411,497
Total debt service payments8,2539,02411,62914,43014,13612,89315,817
Amortization, medium- and long-term debt4,0593,8226,0718,9519,6238,81112,710
Public sector 3/1,1259871,0779061,3731,6824,752
Of which: IMF000001931289
Nonbank private sector1,9152,2883,0783,7304,6764,7074,892
Commercial banks1,0195471,9164,3153,5742,4223,066
BIBF1,0195471,9164,3152,6481,7092,309
Non-BIBF926713757
Interest, medium- and long-term debt2,6513,0953,4473,7013,4103,2862,514
Public sector9008588811,2771,4961,6681,464
Of which: IMF0015122129175124
Private sector1,7512,2372,5662,4241,9141,6181,050
Nonbank1,7512,2372,5661,7001,4081,211809
Banks000725506408241
Interest, short-term debt1,5432,1072,1111,7781,103796593
Of which: Commercial banks1,5392,1072,1101,232646332275
BIBF1,2481,6461,7451,093583255187
Non-BIBF291461365139637788
Average maturity of medium- and long-term debt contracted (years)
Public sector 4/20.319.619.220.119.519.319.1
Private sector5.15.04.85.57.07.67.6
Average interest rate on medium- and long-term debt contracted (percent)
Public sector 4/4.94.54.64.54.94.63.6
Private sector6.77.36.75.65.86.64.4
Total debt service ratio 5/11.412.315.721.419.415.420.4
Memorandum item:
Nonresident baht deposits395669370527583381.0269.0
Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Nonbank debt is based on BOT’s external debt survey result as of end-2001. Historical series have been adjusted back to 1995 using flow data obtained through ITRS.

Debt with original maturity of more than one year.

Includes repayments of bonds locally issued by the Thai Government that are held by nonresidents. 4/ Excludes borrowing from the IMF and official bilateral creditors under the financing package. 5/ Percent of exports of goods and services (including workers’ remittances).

Sources: Data provided by the Thai authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Nonbank debt is based on BOT’s external debt survey result as of end-2001. Historical series have been adjusted back to 1995 using flow data obtained through ITRS.

Debt with original maturity of more than one year.

Includes repayments of bonds locally issued by the Thai Government that are held by nonresidents. 4/ Excludes borrowing from the IMF and official bilateral creditors under the financing package. 5/ Percent of exports of goods and services (including workers’ remittances).

Table 31.Thailand: Average Effective Rates of Import Duties, 1995–2001 1/(In percent)
1995199619971998199920002001
Total7.17.04.73.33.63.53.4
Consumer goods12.311.89.37.27.77.78.3
Nondurable16.116.113.411.812.112.311.7
Durable10.29.26.64.34.84.95.7
Capital goods4.44.83.52.32.42.32.3
Intermediate goods6.15.84.53.73.73.12.8
For consumer goods6.66.25.03.93.83.12.7
For capital goods5.04.93.43.23.73.23.2
Other16.514.512.47.84.45.14.1
Motor vehicles and parts25.024.422.923.721.624.620.7
Fuels, lubricants 2/4.13.85.45.93.72.61.4
Others0.40.30.30.30.30.10.1
Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Calculated as import duties in percent of import value.

Excluding crude oil.

Source: Data provided by the Thai authorities.

Calculated as import duties in percent of import value.

Excluding crude oil.

Table 32.Thailand: Changes in the Trade System During 1995–2001
A. Exports and Export Proceeds
June 22, 1999
Regulations of exporting durian, logan and orchid to foreign countries took effect. The exporters of these three fruits have to register at the Department of Agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.
B. Imports and Import Payments
January 1, 1995
Thailand opened its markets for 23 agricultural products, a measure that included the removal of surcharges on soya been cake imports. Tariff reductions on almost 4,000 products were begun, which reduced the average tariff from about 30 percent to 17 percent by January 1, 1997. Tariff reductions for ASEAN members on over 8,000 products were also initiated and scheduled for completion by January 1, 2000.
March 1, 1995
Copyright Act took effect to better safeguard intellectual property rights. This Act covers the protection of computer software as literary work.
May 18, 1999
Thailand set the regulation to implement the protection measures on foreign products based on WTO’s Agreements on Protectionism Measures.
Specific Tariff Changes in 1995
January 27, 1995
Dumpers designed for off-highway use (reduced from 40 percent to 5 percent).
March 1, 1995
Cement clinker (reduced from 10 percent to zero percent).
April 21, 1995
Raw materials imported for the production and assemble for export (reduced import duty or bank guarantee by 50 percent.
June 2,1995
Catalytic converters imported for the production or assemble of automobile (exempted from import duty).
Oxygen sensor used with catalytic converters (reduced from 5 percent to zero percent).
Instrument and-apparatus for automatically controlling fuel-flow Instrument and apparatus for automatically controlling fuel-flow system and spark-ignition system of automobile engine used with catalytic converter (reduced from 5 percent to zero percent)
Specific Tariff Changes in 1996
May 2, 1996
Suit-cases, executive-cases, similar containers (reduced from 100 percent to 20 percent).
Belts (reduced from 100 percent to 10 percent, 20 percent).
Objective lenses (reduced from 35 percent to 5 percent).
Sunglasses, corrective, protective or other (reduced from 60 percent to B5 each to B -1.75).
Photographic cameras, photographic flashlight, apparatus (reduced from 40 percent to 5 percent).
Watches (reduced from 40 percent to 5 percent).
Pens (reduced from 40 percent to 5 percent).
Cigarette and other lighter (reduced from 50 percent to 5 percent)
June 20,1996
Certain chemicals, skin leather articles of base metal (reduced from 40 percent to 10–20 percent).
September 10, 1996
Green cabbage in brine, bamboo shoot in brine (reduced from 60 percent to 20 percent).
Ginger and ginger in brine (reduced from 30 percent to 20 percent or from B4.20 per kilogram to B2.50 per kilogram).
Cruise ships, excursion boats and similar vessels principally designed for the transport of persons, ferry-boats of all kinds, fishing vessels, factory ship, tugs and pusher craft (reduced from 35 percent to 0–20 percent).
Nuts (educed from 60 percent to 10 percent, or from B50 per kilogram to B8.50 per kilogram).
Certain inorganic chemicals (reduced from 30 percent to 1–10 percent).
Unwrought aluminum, aluminum waste, and scrap (reduced from 6 percent to 1 percent).
Parts and accessories of the motor (reduced from 60 percent to 17–42 percent).
Specific Tariff Changes in 1997
March 8, 1997
Certain electronics components used in electronics industry such as electric motors, microphones, and printed circuits (reduced from 20–30 percent to 1 percent)
May 27, 1997
School buses and their CKD (exempted from duty)
August 22, 1997
Duty rates on all imported goods used as raw materials for exports were reduced by
-50 percent for companies meeting certain requirements
-95 percent for companies classified as “customs special exporter”
September5, 1997
Sodium dichromate (reduced from 10 percent to 5 percent)
Artificial ornament (reduced from 45 percent to 20 percent)
Paper used for printing postal and excise stamps (reduced from 45 percent to 20 percent)
September 15, 1997
Unrefillable gas lighter and matches (raised from 5 percent to 20 percent)
Components for lighter (raised from 5 percent to 10 percent)
October 15, 1997
Completely built passenger cars (raised from 42 −68.5 percent to 80 percent)
Perfume, cosmetic, leather products (bag, belt, and shoes), sneaker, glassware and crystal accessory, and costume jewelry (raised from 20 percent to 30 percent)
Lens, eye glasses and frame, camera, watch, pen, and lighter (raised from 5 percent to 30 percent)
A 10 percent surcharge all imports with the exception of the above products and those subject to import duties of less than 5 percent, raw materials, items with special duties, items specified in accordance to international law or international agreements.
Specific Tariff Changes in 1998
January 1, 1998
Downstream petrochemical products which are locally produced (reduced from 27 percent to 23.5 percent)
Plastic products (reduced from 40.5 percent to 35.3 percent)
February 25, 1998
Cloches, ties, underwear, and crystal accessories (raised from 30 percent to 60 percent)
Perfume, cosmetic, leather bag and shoes, and sneaker (raised from 30 percent to 40 percent).
Crystal ware (raised from 30 percent to 35 percent)
Jewelry, clothes, and tobacco (raised from 30 percent to 60 percent).
Wool cloths (raised from 10 percent to 40 percent)
March 12, 1998
All machinery, electrical machinery and equipment used in garment industries (reduced from 20–30 percent to 5 percent)
March 28, 1998
All machinery and parts used in bonded warehouse (duty exemption)
Specific Tariff Changes in 1999
January 26,1999
Opening market of import soybean with non limited quality and timing within 5% for under quota and 119% for those out of quota.
Corn for animal feed within 20% for under quota of 53,253tons
February 23, 1999
Autoparts for passenger cars and small truck (increased from 22% to 33%)
Autoparts for not exceeding 150 cc. motorcycles (set to 33%)
Passenger cars (reduced from 32–50% to 29–48%)
Small truck (reduced from 5% to 3%)
April 20, 1999
Vitamins used, as ingredient in instant noodle (duty exemption)
July 5, 1999
Palm fruit (Look Chid) only imported from the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos (reduced from over 5% to 5%)
August 10, 1999
Machinery and mechanical appliances and parts (Chapter 84) 155 items (reduced 153 items from 5% to 3% and 2 items from 20% to 3%)
Electrical machinery and equipment, electro-magnets, electro-mechanical appliance and parts (Chapter 85) 105 items (reduced 104 items from 5% to 3% and 1 item from 20% to 3%)
Measuring, checking, precision instruments, microscope parts and accessories (Chapter 90) 66 items (reduced from 5% to 3 %)
Fish or crustaceans, mollusc or other aquatic invertebrates, for breeding (All breeding items in Chapter 03) (Exempt tarriff, which is currently imposed at 60%)
Lanolin, jojoba oil, dried glands and other organs for organo therapeutic uses 5 items (reduced from 10% and 30% to 1%)
Essential oil, mixtures of odoriferous substances 17 items (reduced from 10% to 5 %)
Artificial waxes and prepared waxed 3 items (reduced from 20% to 10%)
Vitamin premix (reduced from 30% to 1 %)
Lupins seeds and dehulled lupins (reduced from 40% and 30% to 5 %)
Alfalfa (reduced from 10% and 30% to 5 %)
Canola meal (reduced from 10% to 5 %)
Inorganic chemicals (Chapter 28) and organic chemicals (Chapter 29) 148 items (reduced from 5 % and 10% to 1%)
Fertilizers (Chapter 31) and miscellaneous chemical products (Chapter 38) (reduced 69 items from 10% to 5 % and exempt tarriff of 4 items which is currently imposed at 5 %)
August 10, 1999 (Continued)
Plastic (reduced 11 items from 20% to 10%)
Cotton (exempted tariff on 5 items of cotton, which are currently imposed at 5% or not exceeding 1 baht per kilogram)
Precious metal comprising pearl, silver and platinum 21 itmes (exempted tariff which are currently imposed at 1,5, 10%)
Precious metal 2 items (reduced from 30% and 60% to 20%)
TMBP iron (reduced from 2% to 1% but valid until 31 December 2003, then increasing to 10%)
Hi-carbon iron 10 items (reduced from 10-12% to 1% valid until 31 Dec 2003)
Copper cathode (reduced from 6% to 1%, valid until 31 December 2000)
Skin and other parts of birds 4 items (reduced from 20% and 35% to 10%)
Waste and scrap of glass (reduced from 5% to 1 %) Rods of glass (reduced from 10% to 5%)
Plywood, veneered, panels, and similar laminted wood (reduced from 60% to 20%)
Analogue or hybrid automatic and data processing machine (reduced from 40% to 3%)
Wood or wooden parts for producing pipes (reduced from 60% to 5%)
All commodities, from which import duty surcharge has been collected since 35 October 1997 (cancelled of 10% surcharge imposed on top of the import duties)
Specific Tariff Changes in 2000
January 1, 2000
IT products from Information Technology Agreement 1 (duty exemption on 153 items of 1TA-1 products)
February 3, 2000
Tomatoes, Young corn, Ground-nuts, Plywood, Veneered, Panels and similar laminated wood only imported from the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos (reduced from over 15% to 5%)
July 4, 2000
Inorganic chemical (Chapter 28) 141 items reduced from 5% and 10% to 1% and 14 items reduced from 10% to 5 %
Organic chemical (Chapter 29) 160 itmes reduced from 5% and 10% to 1% and 1 item reduced from 20% to 10%
Pharmarceutical products (Chapter 30) 2 items reduced from 10% to 1%; 5 itmes reduced from 15% to 10% and 17 items reduced from 20% to 10%
Tanning or dyeing extracts (Chapter 32) 4 items reduced from 10% to 5%
Soap; organic surface-active agents, washing productions (Chapter 34) 6 items reduced from 10% to 5%
Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes (Chapter 35) 2 items reduced from 10% to 5%
Miscellaneous chemical products (Chapter38) 2 items reduced from 10% to 5%
Folding cartons, boxes and cases, of non-corrugated paper or paperboard (reduced from 10%, 20% and 30% to 5%
Paper and paperboard coated, impregnated or covered with wax, paraffin wax, stearin, oil or glycerol (reduced from 20% to 5%)
Paper and paperboard of a kind used for writing, printing or other graphic purposes (reduced from 20% to 1 %)
Polyethylene having a specific gravity of less than 0.94 (reduced from 20% to 1 %)
Aluminium foil (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Aseptic PM bag (reduced from 30% to 1%) and Aluminium pouch (reduced from 30% to 15%)
Aluminium plates, made of alloys (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Coniferous (reduced from 5% to 1%)
Textile products and articles, for technical uses (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Chemical in rubber industry 4 items (reduced from 5% and 10% to 1%)
Synthetic rubber in plates, sheets or strip excluding SBR and BR 18 items (reduced from 20% to 10%)
Aluminium oxide, other than artificial corundum and Barium carbonate (reduced from 105% to 1%)
Vitrifiable enamels and glazes (reduced from 10% to 5%)
Ceramic wares for laboratory 3 items (reduced from 30% to 5%)
Flat-rolled products of iron non-alloy steel (TMBP type) 2items (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils, of stainless steel 1 item (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Other bars and rods of other alloy steel (reduced from 12% to 1%)
Woven fabrics of carded wool or of cared fine animal hair and woven fabrics of combed wool or of combed fine animal hair 10 items (reduced from 40% to 10%)
Air or vacunm pump 3 items (reduced from 20% to 3%)
Appliance safety valves 13 items (reduced from 5% to 3%)
Motor 7 items (reduced from 10% to 3%)
Factors of auto motive part production 59 items (imposed at 10%); 21 items (imposed at 5%) and safety seat belt and accessories 2 items (reduced from 30%, 35% and 42% to 10%)
Carboxipolymethelyn (reduced from 20% to 5%)
Flours, meals and pellets, of meat or meat offal (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Walking-sticks, seat-sticks, whips, riding-crops (reduced from 30% to 0%)
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled planed, sanded or finger-joited (reduced from 5% to 1%)
Chocolate and other food preparation containing cocoa 5 items (reduced from 30 % and 10%)
November 1,2000
Raw materials of goods under information Technology Agreement including computer parts, rubber gaskets, washer and other rubber seals, optical fibers, rosin and resin acids, non-ionic organic surface-active agents, self-adhesive paper, 8 items (exempted from 3%, 5% and 30%)
Plastic in primary forms (polymers), 22 items (reduced from 10%, 20% to 5%)
Plastic articles including artificial guts (sausage casings), plastic sheets, spools, cops and bobbins, 11 items (reduced from 30% to 5%)
Plastic sheets used to produced telephone or electrical wire industries only, 3 items (reduced from 10 to 5%)
Synthetic organic coloring matter (reduced from 10% to 1 % for 4 items and reduced from 10% to 5% for 6 items)
Titanium dioxide, 2 items (reduced from 5%, 10% to 1-5%)
Cyclohexane (reduced from 5% to 1 %)
High tenacity yarn of nylon (reduced from 10% to 5%)
Nylon, polyester and other tyre cord, 4 items (reduced from 20% to 10-15%)
Silicon-electrical steel, 8 items (reduced from 10%, 12% to 1 %)
Alpha Olefin (reduced from 20% to 1 %)
Glass beads, imitation pearls, imitation precious or semi-precious stones and similar glass small wares (reduced from 10% to 1%)
Aluminium sheet (reduced to 1% that was announced on 4 July 2000 will be applied to only the paper for packaging with the size of sheet wider than 1,200 millimeters and longer than 28,000 meters)
Copper cathodes (extending the tariff reduced to 1% on copper cathodes for three years which would be ended on 31 December 2000, will be extended to 31 December 2003)
Specific Tariff Changes in 2001
September 27, 2001
Reduced and exempted tariff on mechanical appliances and equipments, used for Natural Gas for Vehicle (NGV). (10 items).
December 28,2001
Increased tariff on fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates (Chapter 3) excluding frozen albacore or long-finned tunas, yellowfin tunas, skipjack or strip-bellied bonito, sardines, sardinella, brisling or sprats and others, from exempted to 5%

The Statistical Appendix for the current Article IV consultation has been shortened as compared with the appendix for the previous consultation (see SM/01/232 Supplement 1). This reflects the availability of most of the relevant data via the internet at the official web sites of the Bank of Thailand (http://www.bot.or.th/) and Ministry of Finance, Government of Thailand (http://www.mof.go.th/).

Other Resources Citing This Publication