Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Cambodia

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
October 2004
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Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Cambodia: Basic Data, 1997–2003
1997199819992000200120022003
Population
Total population (mid-year)11.612.212.512.813.113.513.8
Population graowth rate (annual percentage change)5.54.72.62.62.52.62.0
Income
Gross domestic product (GDP; at current prices)
(in billions of riels)9,92711,60913,13113,81014,54415,66716,748
(in millions of U.S. dollars)3,3193,0763,4433,5793,7063,9964,208
(in U.S. dollars; per capita)285252275279282296306
(Annual percentage change)
Real GDP, of which:6.83.710.87.05.75.55.2
Agriculture, fisheries, and forestry6.45.83.4-1.52.2-2.79.2
Industry19.6-2.519.330.712.917.76.7
Services3.44.810.95.74.24.51.6
(In percent of GDP)
Saving-investment balance
Gross national saving15.15.911.814.420.121.318.6
Government0.6-0.31.61.41.11.2-0.6
Nongovernment14.56.210.313.019.020.219.2
Gross investment15.111.917.017.321.222.221.0
Government4.45.15.46.36.67.87.4
Non-budgetary grant-financed investment 1/5.46.15.54.95.3
Nongovernment10.76.76.24.99.19.58.3
(Annual percentage change)
Inflation
Period average8.014.84.0-0.80.23.31.2
End of period9.213.3-0.5-0.80.73.70.5
GDP deflator3.012.82.1-1.7-0.32.11.6
(In percent of GDP)
General government budget
Total revenue, of which:8.98.110.210.410.711.210.4
Tax revenue6.05.97.47.67.87.97.3
Nontax revenue2.72.02.72.62.93.23.1
Total expenditure, of which:12.713.514.115.316.317.817.4
Current expenditure8.18.18.58.99.610.111.0
Capital expenditure4.65.45.56.56.77.97.3
Overall fiscal balance (including grants)-0.4-2.5-1.3-2.1-2.8-3.8-4.5
(Annual percentage change)
Money and credit
Broad money, of which:16.615.717.326.920.429.915.3
Riel in circulation 2/6.114.4-3.81.016.832.618.6
Foreign currency deposits 2/9.90.117.325.416.021.010.4
Credit to the economy 2/14.213.43.02.0-2.03.49.2
Of which: credit to government (net) 2/-8.111.7-6.1-6.9-4.3-2.0-0.3
(In percent; end of period)
Interest rates
Riel savings deposits7.47.57.35.92.62.21.9
Foreign currency loans18.417.617.317.415.018.618.2
(In percent of GDP)
Balance of payments
Current account balance (excluding official transfers)-7.4-12.4-13.2-11.8-9.4-9.0-10.2
Current account balance (including official transfers)-1.1-5.9-5.2-2.9-1.2-0.9-2.4
Exports of goods 3/18.922.129.035.939.441.046.6
Imports of goods 3/31.034.943.351.754.255.760.0
(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
Foreign exchange reserves
Gross official reserves 4/262390422484548663737
(in months of imports of goods and services)2.53.42.72.62.73.02.9
Net international reserves 4/197323349411468567633
External debt
Outstanding debt (in percent of GDP) 5/61.873.566.667.067.268.470.8
Debt service (in millions of U.S. dollars)124.0129.6131.4136.262.063.171.2
(in percent of exports of goods and services)23.020.410.28.03.12.82.9
(In millions of SDRs)
Fund quota65.065.087.587.587.587.587.5
(In riels per U.S. dollar)
Exchange rate
Period average2,9463,7743,8133,8593,9243,9213,980
End of period3,4523,7803,7753,9103,9003,9353,980
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Prior to 1999, non-budgetary grant-financed investment is included in nongovernment investment.

As a percent of beginning broad money stock. Represents contributions to 12-month changes of broad money.

Excluding re-exports.

Including gold holdings.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiations and rescheduling.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Prior to 1999, non-budgetary grant-financed investment is included in nongovernment investment.

As a percent of beginning broad money stock. Represents contributions to 12-month changes of broad money.

Excluding re-exports.

Including gold holdings.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiations and rescheduling.

Table 1.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector at Current Prices, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
(In billions of riels; at current prices)
Agriculture4,4755,2485,5605,1915,1625,232
Crops2,0522,4572,5852,4292,3852,250
Of which: Paddy rice1,2691,5051,5531,3121,2951,173
Livestock and poultry561677824737799840
Fisheries1,2291,4921,6101,5611,5641,801
Forestry and logging633623542464414340
Industry1,6291,9962,3723,0473,5204,115
Mining211927344047
Manufacturing1,1561,5341,7372,2392,5562,969
Food, beverages, and tobacco364433467433442450
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear3785877921,2961,6221,959
Wood, paper, and publishing15622812911083101
Rubber manufacturing494656696274
Other manufacturing209239293330347385
Electricity, gas, and water414743435776
Construction4123965657328671,023
Services3,4103,8954,4484,8565,0595,358
Trade1,1871,3131,4191,4321,4461,484
Hotels and restaurants283320396473575657
Transport and communications570638779878947960
Finance9810012917512885
Public administration305333389377359390
Real estate and business601732764826852880
Other services366458573695751903
Taxes on products less subsidies5375948658709211,040
Less: imputed bank charges12312411415511878
Gross domestic product (GDP)9,92711,60913,13113,81014,54415,667
(In percent of GDP)
Agriculture45.145.242.337.635.533.4
Crops20.721.219.717.616.414.4
Of which: Paddy rice12.813.011.89.58.97.5
Livestock and poultry5.65.86.35.35.55.4
Fisheries12.412.912.311.310.811.5
Forestry and logging6.45.44.13.42.82.2
Industry16.417.218.122.124.226.3
Mining0.20.20.20.20.30.3
Manufacturing11.613.213.216.217.619.0
Food, beverages, and tobacco3.73.73.63.13.02.9
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear3.85.16.09.411.212.5
Wood, paper, and publishing1.62.01.00.80.60.6
Rubber manufacturing0.50.40.40.50.40.5
Other manufacturing2.12.12.22.42.42.5
Electricity, gas, and water0.40.40.30.30.40.5
Construction4.13.44.35.36.06.5
Services34.333.633.935.234.834.2
Trade12.011.310.810.49.99.5
Hotels and restaurants2.92.83.03.44.04.2
Transport and communications5.75.55.96.46.56.1
Finance1.00.91.01.30.90.5
Public administration3.12.93.02.72.52.5
Real estate and business6.16.35.86.05.95.6
Other services3.73.94.45.05.25.8
Taxes on products less subsidies5.45.16.66.36.36.6
Less: imputed bank charges1.21.10.91.10.80.5
Gross domestic product (GDP)100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 2.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector at Constant Prices, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
(In billions of riels; at constant 1993 prices)
Agriculture4,814.65,094.05,269.55,191.35,307.45,162.7
Crops1,887.52,049.12,358.02,429.42,441.92,300.4
Of which: Paddy rice1,112.51,143.41,316.41,311.61,335.41,245.3
Livestock and poultry774.3822.8813.3736.8822.3831.8
Fisheries1,441.71,498.11,474.21,560.81,666.51,688.6
Forestry and logging711.2723.9623.9464.3376.7341.8
Industry2,003.21,953.92,331.73,047.23,441.04,051.3
Mining23.420.226.933.538.045.2
Manufacturing1,443.41,473.81,728.62,238.72,556.82,943.7
Food, beverages, and tobacco403.1437.6458.2433.4452.9444.0
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear453.3589.1792.91,295.81,590.11,924.7
Wood, paper, and publishing333.4148.6124.7109.974.884.8
Rubber manufacturing31.154.862.969.269.769.2
Other manufacturing222.5243.7289.9330.5369.3421.0
Electricity, gas, and water38.740.141.743.344.445.5
Construction497.7419.6534.6731.6801.81,016.9
Services3,951.64,143.04,594.94,855.65,059.45,286.9
Trade1,402.71,436.11,462.71,432.41,445.31,457.5
Hotels and restaurants353.3348.6413.2472.6558.4622.1
Transport and communications674.6684.6842.3877.7964.5972.3
Finance129.6117.4140.5174.8160.5151.3
Public administration346.9384.2379.8376.6367.4373.3
Real estate and business669.0736.5795.4826.0852.0879.1
Other services375.3435.6561.0695.4711.4831.2
Taxes on products less subsidies613.1598.1832.6870.2932.41,031.3
Less: imputed bank charges151.3141.7125.7154.8147.6139.8
Gross domestic product (GDP)11,231.211,647.312,902.913,809.514,592.615,392.4
(Annual percent change)
Agriculture46.346.743.740.540.540.5
Crops16.316.317.216.616.616.6
Of which: Paddy rice9.59.610.39.59.59.5
Livestock and poultry6.87.16.65.65.65.6
Fisheries17.317.616.316.016.016.0
Forestry and logging5.95.73.72.32.32.3
Industry15.916.717.722.122.122.1
Mining0.10.10.10.10.10.1
Manufacturing11.212.713.017.417.417.4
Food, beverages, and tobacco3.13.03.02.92.92.9
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear3.85.47.211.911.911.9
Wood, paper, and publishing2.42.10.80.60.60.6
Rubber manufacturing0.40.40.40.40.40.4
Other manufacturing1.61.61.61.71.71.7
Electricity, gas, and water0.40.50.40.40.40.4
Construction4.03.44.14.14.14.1
Services33.633.133.132.632.632.6
Trade11.310.710.29.49.49.4
Hotels and restaurants3.33.23.53.73.73.7
Transport and communications4.94.85.15.25.25.2
Finance0.90.80.91.21.21.2
Public administration3.23.33.12.82.82.8
Real estate and business6.36.46.26.06.06.0
Other services3.63.84.04.24.24.2
Taxes on products less subsidies5.34.56.66.06.06.0
Less: imputed bank charges1.11.01.11.11.11.1
Gross domestic product (GDP)6.83.710.87.05.75.5
(Excluding garment)4.92.69.53.33.93.6
(Excluding garment and agriculture)3.70.014.77.05.17.9
(Excluding garment and tourism)4.92.79.22.93.33.2
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 3.Cambodia: Aggregate Demand at Current Prices, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
(In billions of riels; at current prices)
Consumption9,73611,65912,52612,86913,16613,774
Private9,18311,09611,86512,13212,33812,860
Government553563661737828913
Gross Investment1,4981,3802,2322,3853,0863,481
Gross fixed capital formation1,3611,4632,0312,5762,7873,550
Changes in inventories137-83202-191299-69
Domestic demand11,23413,03914,75915,25516,25117,255
Foreign balance (net)6,5999,03712,16615,76817,43919,889
Exports of goods and services 1/2,9253,7475,4327,0398,0419,281
Imports of goods and services 1/-3,674-5,290-6,734-8,729-9,398-10,608
Statistical discrepancy-7,905-10,467-13,793-17,214-19,147-21,477
Gross domestic product (GDP)9,92711,60913,13113,81014,54415,667
Income from abroad (net) 1/-38-240-434-566-591-817
Gross national income (GNI) 1/2/9,89011,37012,69613,24413,95314,850
Current transfers (net) 1/8061,0891,4531,7781,7271,850
Gross national disposable income (GNDI) 1/10,69612,45814,14915,02215,68016,700
(In percent of GDP)
Memoranda items:
Domestic demand 3/33.522.27.4-14.2-19.9-26.9
Consumption 3/18.410.3-9.7-31.5-41.1-49.2
Private 3/12.95.4-14.7-36.8-46.8-55.0
Government5.64.95.05.35.75.8
Gross Investment15.111.917.017.321.222.2
Foreign balance (net)66.577.892.6114.2119.9126.9
Current account balance (including official transfer-1.2-1.1-1.8-1.4-1.4-0.4
Gross domestic savings 4/0.8-1.43.76.08.711.3
Gross national savings 5/89.397.0117.4140.2148.9155.8
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

IMF staff estimates based on latest balance of payments estimates.

Gross national income under the 1997 System of National Accounts (SNA) corresponds to the former Gross national product (GNP) aggregate.

Including statistical discrepancy.

Defined as GDP net of final consumption.

Defined as GNDI net of final consumption. Includes net income and transfers from abroad.

Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

IMF staff estimates based on latest balance of payments estimates.

Gross national income under the 1997 System of National Accounts (SNA) corresponds to the former Gross national product (GNP) aggregate.

Including statistical discrepancy.

Defined as GDP net of final consumption.

Defined as GNDI net of final consumption. Includes net income and transfers from abroad.

Table 4.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Expenditure at Constant Prices, 1997-2002 1/
199719981999200020012002
(In billions of riels; at constant 1993 prices)
Consumption10,80111,67712,41912,86912,98213,330
Private10,19411,11511,76312,13212,17312,458
Government607562656737809871
Gross Investment1,8611,4812,1962,3852,8473,146
Gross fixed capital formation1,6731,6272,0262,5762,5373,280
Changes in inventories188-146170-191311-134
Domestic demand12,66113,15814,61515,25515,82916,476
Foreign balance (net) 1/-1,413-1,527-1,613-1,666-1,463-1,363
Exports of goods and services 1/3,7953,6625,0447,0288,36110,118
Merchandise, f.o.b.3,0782,9683,9075,3686,4337,920
Services7186941,1371,6611,9282,198
Imports of goods and services 1/5,2085,1896,6578,6959,82411,481
Merchandise, c.i.f.4,5114,3505,6397,4308,4609,891
Services6978391,0181,2641,3641,589
Statistical discrepancy-1716-99221227280
Gross domestic product (GDP)11,23111,64712,90313,81014,59315,392
(In percent of GDP)
Consumption 1/96.0100.495.594.890.588.4
Private 1/90.695.690.489.585.082.8
Government5.44.85.15.35.55.7
Gross Investment16.612.717.017.319.520.4
Gross fixed capital formation14.914.015.718.717.421.3
Changes in inventories1.7-1.31.3-1.42.1-0.9
Domestic demand 1/112.6113.1112.5112.1110.0108.9
Foreign balance (net)-12.6-13.1-12.5-12.1-10.0-8.9
Exports of goods and services33.831.439.150.957.365.7
Imports of goods and services46.444.651.663.067.374.6
Gross domestic product (GDP)100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
(Annual percentage change)
Consumption 1/-2.38.45.46.30.93.0
Private 1/-2.59.44.85.90.42.7
Government2.0-7.416.812.49.77.8
Gross Investment16.4-20.448.38.619.410.5
Gross fixed capital formation23.1-2.724.527.2-1.529.3
Changes in inventories-21.5-177.8-216.6-212.1-262.7-143.2
Domestic demand 1/0.14.210.26.63.74.4
Foreign balance (net)-33.28.15.73.3-12.2-6.9
Gross domestic product (GDP)6.83.710.87.05.75.5
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Including statistical discrepancy.

Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Including statistical discrepancy.

Table 5.Cambodia: GDP Deflators, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
(Annual percentage changes)
Agriculture3.410.92.4-5.2-2.74.2
Crops7.410.3-8.6-8.8-2.30.2
Livestock and poultry2.313.523.2-1.3-2.83.9
Fisheries-1.016.89.6-8.4-6.213.7
Forestry and logging3.9-3.20.815.29.9-9.5
Industry0.525.6-0.4-1.72.3-0.7
Mining7.09.13.70.94.2-1.0
Manufacturing-2.930.0-3.5-0.50.00.9
Food, beverages, and tobacco2.49.63.1-1.9-2.33.8
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear0.719.40.20.12.0-0.2
Wood, paper, and publishing-18.9228.2-32.8-3.210.87.9
Rubber manufacturing11.0-46.14.712.8-11.520.3
Other manufacturing4.24.53.1-1.1-6.0-2.6
Electricity, gas, and water0.010.4-10.0-4.227.830.3
Construction9.314.011.9-5.38.1-7.0
Services3.79.03.03.30.01.3
Trade-1.48.06.13.10.11.7
Hotels and restaurants9.814.64.24.53.02.4
Transport and communications14.510.3-0.88.1-1.80.5
Finance9.113.37.78.6-20.0-30.0
Public administration-1.1-1.418.0-2.3-2.27.0
Real estate and business4.710.8-3.54.20.00.1
Other services0.97.9-2.9-2.15.62.9
Taxes on products5.513.44.6-3.8-1.32.2
Less: imputed bank charges17.68.03.510.0-20.0-30.0
Gross domestic product (GDP)3.012.82.1-1.7-0.32.1
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 6.Cambodia: Gross Value Added of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry at Constant Prices, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
(In billions of riels; at constant 1993 prices)
Total4,8155,0945,2695,1915,3075,163
Agricultural Crops1,8882,0492,3582,4292,4422,300
Paddy1,1131,1431,3161,3121,3351,245
Corn202346758972
Cassava4236123807766
Sweet potatoes282931272530
Mung beans191220192230
Soybean552734272438
Groundnuts141319151415
Sesame151217232130
Vegetables217266223240240175
Sugarcane241721212227
Black pepper070707070708
Tobacco666440482916
Cotton000000
Jute020100001
Rubber50156179197198197
Other crops216242282338339350
Livestock and poultry774823813737822832
Fisheries1,4421,4981,4741,5611,6661,689
Forestry and logging711724624464377342
(In percent of total production)
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agricultural Crops39.240.244.746.846.044.6
Paddy23.122.425.025.325.224.1
Other crops16.117.819.821.520.820.4
Livestock and poultry16.116.215.414.215.516.1
Fisheries29.929.428.030.131.432.7
Forestry and logging14.814.211.88.97.16.6
(Annual percentage change)
Total6.45.83.4-1.52.2-2.7
Agricultural Crops-1.58.615.13.00.5-5.8
Paddy-1.22.815.1-0.41.8-6.7
Other crops-1.916.915.07.3-1.0-4.7
Livestock and poultry-0.56.3-1.2-9.411.61.2
Fisheries5.63.9-1.65.96.81.3
Forestry and logging52.31.8-13.8-25.6-18.9-9.3
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 7.Cambodia: Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishery Production, 1997–2002
Unit199719981999200020012002
(′000)
Agriculture 1/
RiceTons3,4153,5104,0404,0264,0993,823
MaizeTons424995183186149
CassavaTons7767228145142122
Sweet potatoTons293032352632
VegetablesTons250217182166185143
MungbeanTons15916151724
PeanutTons7797910
SoybeanTons562835281739
SesameTons75710910
Sugar caneTons188133160164169209
TobaccoTons10106853
JuteTons210001
RubberTons323445423832
Livestock
CowsHeads2,8722,6802,8263,490 2/3,4953,550
BuffalosHeads694694654694626626
PigsHeads2,3472,2452,0921,8382,1142,105
PoultryHeads11,84412,86613,15915,25015,24816,678
Fisheries
Fresh fish and shrimpTons115122284296453425
CrocodilesHeads174125263651
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Harvest year for crops; tons are metric tons.

Including buffalos.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Harvest year for crops; tons are metric tons.

Including buffalos.

Table 8.Cambodia: Visitor Arrivals and Tourism, 1998-2003
199819992000200120022003199819992000200120022003
(In percent of total)
Total visitor arrivals by air 1/186,333262,907351,661408,377522,978455,972
Visitor arrivals by country of residence 2/175,910234,382264,649274,689320,187269,674100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Asian and Pacific107,421137,054155,350163,098174,345167,49461.158.558.759.454.562.1
Australia and New Zealand10,86611,28713,23715,26619,46716,8096.24.85.05.66.16.2
China18,03526,80530,58632,00231,39135,16610.311.411.611.79.813.0
Japan13,38617,88519,90617,95219,94615,3857.67.67.56.56.25.7
Malaysia11,01912,54114,70115,99414,38315,3766.35.45.65.84.55.7
Singapore9,12310,63410,73410,9829,2636,4995.24.54.14.02.92.4
South Korea4,4676,3777,5369,57910,54910,3582.52.72.83.53.33.8
Taiwan18,23920,60721,62623,09830,03531,58410.48.88.28.49.411.7
Thailand10,98315,27216,55017,49617,10913,8956.26.56.36.45.35.2
Vietnam3,0445,2178,3337,8287,6712,1021.72.23.12.82.40.8
Other8,25910,42912,14112,90114,58120,3204.74.44.64.74.67.5
Europe46,16560,03165,65766,08879,24660,66826.225.624.824.124.722.5
Germany4,1996,4907,2986,8618,3406,4802.42.82.82.52.62.4
France18,61623,75424,88323,32835,38522,45710.610.19.48.511.18.3
United Kingdom11,15613,78915,91217,68615,42515,5106.35.96.06.44.85.8
Other12,19415,99817,56418,21320,09616,2216.96.86.66.66.36.0
North, South, and Central America21,77336,23342,15643,90564,41539,94512.415.515.916.020.114.8
Canada3,2985,4155,6466,1918,2215,9151.92.32.12.32.62.2
United States17,94630,30135,81437,03355,36832,53410.212.913.513.517.312.1
Other5295176966818261,4960.30.20.30.20.30.6
Africa and Middle East5511,0641,4861,5982,1811,5670.30.50.60.60.70.6
Visitor arrivals by mode of transportation
Total visitors367,743466,365604,919786,524701,014100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Arrivals by airplane186,333262,907351,661408,377522,978455,972100.071.575.467.566.565.0
Phnom Penh175,910234,382264,649274,689320,187269,67494.463.756.745.440.738.5
Siem Reap10,42328,52587,012133,688202,791186,2985.67.818.722.125.826.6
Other types of arrivals 3/104,836114,704196,542263,546245,04228.524.632.533.535.0
Visitor arrivals by purpose of visit 1/186,333262,907351,661408,377522,978455,972100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Tourism141,926199,644209,581335,375441,411382,19376.275.959.682.185.683.8
Other 4/44,40763,263142,08073,00275,56773,77923.824.140.417.914.416.2
Memoranda items:
Total visitor arrivals by air
Annual percentage changes 1/-14.941.133.816.128.1-12.8
Of which: Asia and Pacific 2/-28.527.613.35.06.9-3.9
Europe 2/6.530.09.40.719.9-23.4
Americas 2/-11.466.416.34.146.7-38.0
Tourism receipts 4/5/
In millions US dollars107.0212.0304.0380.0454.0
Annual percentage changes57.098.043.025.019.0
Average receipt per tourist465.0576.0652.0628.0577.0
In percent of GDP3.56.28.510.311.4
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Tourism.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) and Siem Reap airports.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) airport only.

Arrivals by land and boat.

Including business and other purposes. Not available yet for 2003.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Tourism.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) and Siem Reap airports.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) airport only.

Arrivals by land and boat.

Including business and other purposes. Not available yet for 2003.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Table 9.Consumer Price Index, 1999-2204 1/
OverallHouse
ConsumerFood,Furnishings
Price IndexOverallBeveragesClothingHousingandTransportationRecreationPersonal
(July-Dec.ConsumerandandandHouseholdMedicalandandCare and
2000) =100Price IndexTobaccoFootwearUtilitiesOperationsCareCommunicationEducationEffects
(Annual average and 12-month percentage changes)
1999December100.8-0.5-0.2-2.50.114.4-12.13.2-6.3-1.7
Average100.94.07.61.70.215.0-7.13.5-0.90.3
2000December100.0-0.8-3.712.02.8-1.10.84.8-0.71.4
Average100.1-0.8-3.4-2.72.72.1-3.46.6-5.20.8
2001December100.70.7-2.3-8.14.0-2.66.1-6.512.13.4
Average100.30.2-2.5-7.03.4-0.54.7-4.27.41.7
2002December104.43.73.5-4.76.8-1.4-1.33.9-3.3-0.3
Average103.63.2-0.1-0.90.9-0.30.50.00.80.2
2003December104.90.50.3-0.80.7-0.2-2.25.70.6-0.2
Average104.81.12.2-2.42.8-0.5-1.03.8-1.70.1
FoodNonfood
House
Food,Furnishings
OverallBeveragesClothingHousingandTransportationRecreationPersonal
ConsumerandandandHouseholdMedicalandandCare and
Price IndexTobaccoFootwearUtilitiesOperationsCareCommunicationEducationEffects
Weights (in percent)100.042.72.233.30.74.08.76.22.2
(12-month percentage changes)
2001January99.4-0.2-1.2-1.00.42.4-0.60.01.21.6
February99.1-0.3-1.7-5.30.60.51.50.71.22.5
March100.00.3-1.9-5.54.4-0.13.4-6.63.9-1.2
April100.91.80.7-6.84.31.12.8-3.03.1-2.3
May98.90.3-3.1-8.33.91.12.9-0.83.1-2.0
June99.71.2-3.1-8.64.52.06.6-0.610.24.2
July99.90.7-3.9-9.73.6-1.613.7-1.710.76.0
August100.71.0-1.2-8.84.1-1.58.8-7.910.81.5
September101.3-0.6-3.0-8.63.5-2.52.9-8.911.00.6
October102.2-1.8-5.6-6.03.8-2.04.4-8.011.03.2
November101.3-0.2-3.5-6.93.7-2.14.1-5.311.02.4
December100.70.7-2.3-8.14.0-2.66.1-6.512.13.4
2002January103.13.6-1.7-10.610.7-4.06.80.410.33.0
February102.73.7-0.4-10.010.3-2.93.8-2.810.31.9
March102.82.90.3-14.73.7-3.3-5.01.06.36.3
April103.82.80.30.36.3-4.14.50.86.36.4
May102.83.93.2-10.36.3-4.93.3-0.76.38.2
June102.93.23.5-4.56.2-5.32.5-2.7-1.9-1.9
July103.73.74.5-3.76.7-2.5-3.9-0.7-1.2-1.7
August104.23.53.0-4.26.7-2.40.21.1-1.2-0.3
September104.53.22.5-4.16.8-1.50.10.5-2.30.5
October104.52.30.5-6.96.8-1.61.00.5-2.3-0.7
November104.53.12.1-5.16.8-1.60.02.4-2.30.3
December104.43.73.5-4.76.8-1.4-1.33.9-3.3-0.3
2003January104.51.42.8-3.20.9-0.6-1.33.9-3.20.0
February104.61.83.5-1.60.9-0.5-1.24.1-3.21.0
March105.02.13.43.61.10.1-1.66.3-2.00.4
April105.01.21.4-2.91.10.1-1.76.1-2.0-0.1
May104.71.93.1-0.31.11.0-1.45.1-2.0-0.1
June104.61.72.3-1.01.00.9-1.04.50.70.0
July104.81.11.5-1.50.7-0.3-1.43.20.60.1
August105.00.70.3-0.80.7-0.2-2.25.70.6-0.2
September105.10.50.0-1.20.6-0.2-2.35.20.5-1.1
October105.10.60.2-0.40.6-0.3-2.74.70.5-0.1
November105.00.5-0.1-0.90.5-1.0-2.35.60.50.2
December104.90.5-0.2-0.70.6-0.7-2.35.00.70.1
2004January105.20.60.4-0.40.30.0-1.94.70.71.0
February105.40.80.5-0.50.3-0.2-1.55.20.70.9
March105.90.90.9-0.50.3-0.1-1.14.50.50.9
April106.61.62.5-2.10.3-0.3-0.85.00.51.1
May106.92.13.1-2.00.4-0.1-0.78.40.51.4
June107.22.54.7-1.60.50.0-0.911.00.81.4
Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

As measured by the consumer price index for Phnom Penh (Jul.-Dec. 2000=100).

Source: Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

As measured by the consumer price index for Phnom Penh (Jul.-Dec. 2000=100).

Table 10.Cambodia: Central Government Operations, 1999–2003 1/
1999200020012002200319992000200120022003
(In billions of riels)(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue1,3161,4091,5211,7261,74610.010.210.511.912.0
Tax revenue9491,0261,0881,2101,2187.27.47.58.38.4
Direct taxes831361401321500.61.01.00.91.0
Indirect taxes, of which:4335005726546343.33.63.94.54.4
Excise taxes (incl. on imports)921131552101980.70.81.11.41.4
Domestic16192029330.10.10.10.20.2
Import76941351811640.60.70.91.21.1
VAT (incl. on imports)3153714034294102.42.72.82.92.8
Domestic4473851031340.30.50.60.70.9
Import2863133273473162.22.32.22.42.2
Refund (-)-15-14-9-20-40-0.1-0.1-0.1-0.1-0.3
Trade taxes4333903764243953.32.82.62.92.7
Nontax revenue, of which:3533514245005252.72.52.93.43.6
Timber royalties3641291570.30.30.20.10.0
Enterprises and immobile leases20272827280.20.20.20.20.2
Civil aviation19253834220.10.20.30.20.2
Tourism income161419200.00.00.10.10.1
Royalties (mining, etc.)202150.00.00.00.00.0
Royalties (casino)0122232300.00.10.20.20.2
Post and telecommunications (PTT)107921221231200.80.70.80.80.8
Passports and visa17203640410.10.10.20.30.3
NBC profit1013151650.10.10.10.10.0
Quota Auction872232711460.70.20.20.51.0
Garment licenses21433935390.20.30.30.20.3
Others23294787630.20.20.30.60.4
Capital revenue153191630.10.20.10.10.0
Total expenditure 2/1,8242,0852,3282,7812,82913.915.116.019.119.4
Current expenditure1,1191,2231,3911,5791,8438.58.99.610.912.7
Wages5255124885876154.03.73.44.04.2
Civil administration1942112143043271.51.51.52.12.2
Defense and security3313012742822872.52.21.91.92.0
Nonwage5716778669691,1444.34.96.06.77.9
Operating expenditure4104976026907363.13.64.14.75.1
Civil administration2763654895796262.12.63.44.04.3
Defense and security1341321131111101.01.00.80.80.8
Economic transfers12313051600.10.20.20.40.4
Social transfers1041041091361650.80.80.80.91.1
Civil administration9590971231510.70.70.70.81.0
Defense and security9141213140.10.10.10.10.1
Interest22212228340.20.20.20.20.2
Other nonwage211063641140.20.10.40.40.8
Reserve funds01300350.00.10.00.00.2
Provincial expenditure (net subsidy)22333723850.20.00.00.00.0
Capital expenditure7288969751,2411,2445.56.56.78.58.6
Locally financed2173012623383341.72.21.82.32.3
Externally financed5115947139039103.94.34.96.26.3
Cash adjustments000151730.00.00.00.11.2
Net lending0000-280.00.00.00.0-0.2
Current balance183155121131-1001.41.10.80.9-0.7
Overall balance-508-676-807-1,055-1,083-3.9-4.9-6.0-6.0-6.0
Overall balance (incl. grants)-167-292-411-964-1,032-1.3-2.1-2.8-6.6-7.1
Financing5086768071,0551,0833.94.96.06.06.0
Foreign financing (net)5157087631,1031,0103.95.15.27.66.9
Of which: Project aid5115947139039103.94.34.96.26.3
Budget support4113541781350.00.80.41.20.9
Domestic financing-7-3144-4873-0.1-0.20.3-0.30.5
Of which: Bank financing-70-100-78-44-9-0.5-0.7-0.5-0.3-0.1
Other6369122-4820.50.50.80.00.6
Memoranda items:
Defense and security outlays4774473994064113.63.22.72.82.8
Total revenue (excl. garment quotas)1,2291,3661,4821,6911,7079.49.910.211.611.7
Health, Education, Rural dev. (commitment)2502993825125291.92.22.63.53.6
Customs department revenue7967978389528756.15.85.86.56.0
GDP13,13113,81014,54415,66716,748
Debt service (scheduled)
Debt relief
Sources: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and Fund staff estimates.

Excludes provincial revenue and expenditure data.

Current expenditure is based on cash basis, while capital expenditure is based on accrual basis.

Includes expenditure committed but not yet allocated to the accounts of the government agencies that execute the budget.

Sources: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and Fund staff estimates.

Excludes provincial revenue and expenditure data.

Current expenditure is based on cash basis, while capital expenditure is based on accrual basis.

Includes expenditure committed but not yet allocated to the accounts of the government agencies that execute the budget.

Table 11.Cambodia: Structure of Central Government Revenue, 1998–2003(In billions of riels)
199819992000200120022003
Total revenue942.71,316.31,408.51,520.01,726.61,694.3
Tax revenue679.4947.71,026.01,087.11,209.81,178.6
Direct taxes55.582.7135.6140.2131.6149.7
Wage tax8.510.613.219.019.422.3
Profit tax42.163.8100.9113.087.9117.8
Property tax4.75.77.18.39.79.5
Tax on unutilized land0.20.00.00.00.00.0
Other income taxes0.02.614.40.014.70.1
Indirect taxes247.5431.6500.0571.2654.4633.7
Turnover tax65.921.812.69.97.910.9
VAT313.6371.6402.8429.3385.4
Domestic41.572.884.9102.8109.3
Import285.8312.8327.1346.56315.8
VAT refunds (-)13.714.09.320.139.7
Excise taxes76.191.8112.6154.8210.3208.0
Domestic15.915.519.020.129.133.4
Import60.276.393.7134.7181.2164.2
Others15.44.33.23.76.915.8
Taxes on international trade376.3433.4390.4375.7423.8395.2
Taxes and duties on imports372.5415.3372.8364.1407.8374.9
Taxes on exports2.716.515.810.014.417.9
Penalties1.11.61.81.71.52.4
Nontax revenue230.1354.8353.3423.8500.5525.1
Receipts on public property120.489.4135.9155.4148.9117.5
Fisheries8.29.29.95.88.85.8
Forests22.836.341.029.114.66.6
Receipts from public enterprises55.530.551.474.562.852.6
Of which: Factory leases8.78.85.26.67.77.3
Civil aviation17.719.224.840.533.521.7
Tourism receipts0.70.85.914.419.520.23
Royalties and concessions3.51.811.822.633.134.2
Of which: Petroleum & mining concessions2.50.70.00.00.854.68
Casino Royalties20.032.2129.53
Others0.70.911.51.9
Other nontax revenue109.7265.5217.4268.4318.6373.3
Post and telecommunication87.2108.991.9122.3122.6119.8
Public services17.5141.9101.4119.6146.5186.9
Of which: Visa fees7.217.220.227.940.541.1
Quota auction and export licenses108.165.471.6106.06145.76
Nontax revenue of provinces0.10.10.10.21.811.94
Banking profit10.012.815.715.594.57
Other nontax revenue1.64.611.210.532.150.2
Capital revenue33.213.729.39.116.32.6
Of which: Privatization receipts32.213.222.98.216.12.6
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 12.Cambodia: Central Government Budgetary Expenditure by Economic Classification, 1997–2003
199819992000200120022003
(In billions of riels)
Total expenditure1,571.21,846.82,118.82,366.72,805.72,913.7
Current expenditure941.21,119.01,222.91,391.51,579.31,842.9
Salaries451.1525.4512.3488.4586.5614.7
Civil administration154.3194.1211.5213.9304.3327.5
Defense and security296.8331.3300.8274.5282.2287.3
Operating costs371.7410.1497.1602.2689.6735.65
Civil administration219.6276.0365.4488.9622.9626.1
Defense and security152.2134.1131.7113.3114.4109.5
Economic transfers14.312.030.930.550.958.2
Social transfers70.9103.8103.9109.2136.4164.7
Civil administration62.894.690.196.8123.08150.6
Defense and security8.09.213.812.413.3214.1
Interest14.722.421.121.628.134.1
Other current expenditure18.445.357.6139.687.8235.6
Of which:
Subsidy to provinces16.316.019.829.623.085.0
Contribution to international organizations2.14.96.03.77.67.5
Capital expenditure630.0727.8895.9975.21241.41243.8
Locally financed120.4223.6301.4283.0338.4333.6
Externally financed509.5504.2594.5692.2903.1910.2
(In percent of total expenditure)
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Current expenditure59.960.657.758.856.363.2
Salaries28.728.424.220.620.921.1
Civil administration9.810.510.09.010.811.2
Defense and security18.917.914.211.610.19.9
Operating costs23.722.223.525.424.625.2
Civil administration14.014.917.220.722.221.5
Defense and security9.77.36.24.84.13.8
Economic transfers0.90.71.51.31.82.0
Social transfers4.55.64.94.64.95.7
Civil administration4.05.14.34.14.45.2
Defense and security0.50.50.70.50.50.5
Interest0.91.21.00.91.01.2
Other current expenditure1.22.52.75.93.18.1
Of which:
Subsidy to provinces1.00.90.91.30.82.9
Contribution to international organizations0.10.30.30.20.30.3
Capital expenditure40.139.442.341.244.242.7
Locally financed7.712.114.212.012.111.4
Externally financed32.427.328.129.232.231.2
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 13.Cambodia: Budgetary Expenditure by Ministry, 1999–2003 1/
19992000200120022003
TotalSalariesOperatingOtherCapitalTotalSalariesOperatingOtherCapitalTotalSalariesOperatingOtherCapitalTotalSalariesOperatingOtherCapitalTotalSalariesOperatingOtherCapital
MinistryCostsCurrent2/CostsCurrent2/CostsCurrent2/CostsCurrent2/CostsCurrent2/
(In billions of riels)
Total1,3265184041792241,5455174812303031,6985096282782831,9135905514333392,092615596547334
Royal Palace2063110207491985623869238610
National Assembly138500211092321218233131833415172
Senate6330010551145721769218792
Constitutional Council211002110312031203120
Council of Minister54433126855651510167915829551895106422
Foreign Affairs371322213614220411427152153705416380
National Defense33623692803092069013277198709265195619270197639
Interior1479146721429743114088484174916518171936215
National Assembly Relations and Inspection0000010101010211020.7021.6170
Economy and Finance1343226940963296419316040625911162284
Information8130492708270936012390
Public Works and Transport294322020441221461116105114761
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries217113023713330615104010151439101415
Justice5130062406150725011650
Education Youth and Sport1561123536166121387209129483229016248793001764381
Commerce413006241121741336416394
Industry, Mines and Energy412105131613173317341
Planning211003120412052305230
Health126126215010214799130137442164238853173229456
Tourism514006150917110180151140
Public Worship and Religion111002110211031204220
Post and Telecommunication114236076292270414370365320354300
Culture and Fine Arts53200734083501257014590
Social Affairs, Labor and Vocational Training1912160262322280424332526333625
Environment211004130513072508250
Rural Development161201281601219218210617395
Woman Affairs and Veteran4411411531151590455652657722763
Urbanization and Constitution211004230523063307340
Water Resources and Metrology303006150917112291142111
National Election Committee21202412307160271260
National Audit Authority31204220
Other 3/90036335001830342208455283460120339484150334
(In percent of total budgetary expenditure)
Memoranda items:
National Defense254623502040196163911314331121332112
Interior111811419199181781915124815103
Economy and Finance10163818616281130215251415
Public Works211191115111412101110
Agriculture213202131212422332223
Education1222923112383122581215289181429715
Industry000100011001000100010
Health921502273164831215941612841610
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Commitment basis.

Excludes externally financed capital expenditure.

Includes unclassified items. Capital expenditure reported in total only.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Commitment basis.

Excludes externally financed capital expenditure.

Includes unclassified items. Capital expenditure reported in total only.

Table 14.Cambodia: Official External Assistance to the Budget, 1997-2003(In billions of riels)
1997199819992000200120022003
Total official external financing445.9505.4515.4707.5763.21060.9886.1
Budget support96.01.54.4113.254.2178.2139.0
Grants46.21.54.423.836.291.552.2
Loans49.80.00.089.418.086.783.5
World Bank7.20.00.036.918.08.964.5
Asian Development Bank42.50.00.052.50.077.822.4
Project Aid350.8503.9511.0594.4713.3903.1913.2
Grants244.6340.7337.4360.0360.0360.0360.0
Loans97.0168.9166.8232.5353.0543.1550.2
World Bank66.456.369.897.8141.8160.8178.6
Asian Development Bank30.6112.696.6134.7190.4245.1249.6
Pending9.2-5.76.81.921.129.2-31.2
Amortization-0.90.00.00.0-4.3-7.5-35.9
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 15.Cambodia: Profile of the Commercial Bank System(As of end July 2004)
Name of BankNumber

of

Branches
Authorized

Capital

(000 US$)
Date

of

Operation
Majority

Shareholder
State-owned banks (1)
Foreign Trade Bank50 billion rielsOct. 10, 1979State-owned
Foreign bank branches (3)
Krung Thai Bank Public Co. Ltd.13,000Sep. 25, 1992Thai
May Bank13,000Dec. 28, 1993Malaysian
First Commercial Bank13,000Sep. 23, 1998Taiwan POC
Representative office (1)
Standard Chartered BankMay 17, 2002British
Other private banks (10)
Cambodia Commercial Bank*213,000Jul. 1, 1991Thai (Siam City Bank)
Canadia Bank Ltd.913,000Nov. 11, 1991Cambodian/Canadian
Cambodia Public Bank*15,000May 25, 1992Malaysian (Public Bank)
Cambodia Asia Bank13,000Feb. 23, 1993Malaysian
Singapore Banking Corp.13,000Oct. 27, 1993Singaporean
Union Commercial Bank313,000Apr. 20, 1994Hong Kong
Cambodia Mekong Bank313,000Jun. 4, 1994Cambodia
Advanced Bank of Asia Ltd.13,000Oct. 25, 1996Korean
Vattanac Bank13,000Jun. 7, 2002Khmer
ACLEDA Bank1413,000Dec. 1, 2003Cambodian
Specialized banks (3)
State-owned (1)4,960Jun. 22, 1998State-owned
Rural Development Bank
Privately owned (2)
Peng Heng SME Bank3,500Mar. 20, 2001Cambodian/Canadian
Cambodia Agriculture Industrial3,000Mar. 19, 2002Cambodian/Japanese
Specialized Bank
Closed banks (17)
Bangkok Bank Public Co. Ltd.Sep. 26, 1992Thai bank branch
Thai Farmers Bank Public Co. Ltd.Aug. 21, 1992Thai bank branch
Agricultural and Commercial Bank of Cambodia**Jul. 9, 1992Thai
Angkor BankFeb. 4, 1998Cambodian
Cambodia International BankJun. 30, 1994Singaporean
Cambodia Farmers Bank**Apr. 5, 1992Thai
Chansavanwong BankMay 19, 1993Thai
Global Commercial BankApr. 26, 1994Thai
Great International BankMay 30, 1994Australian
Pacific Commercial Bank**May 28, 1994Cambodian
Phnom Penh City BankSep. 15, 1993Thai
Rich Nation Bank**Jan. 25, 1994Hong Kong
Singapore Commercial BankMar. 19, 2002Singaporean
First Overseas Bank**Mar. 19, 2002Malaysian
Emperor International BankApr. 4, 2002Hong Kong
Crédit Agricole IndosuezSep. 18, 2002French
Standard Chartered Bank downgraded to representative officeMay 17, 2002British

Subsidiary of foreign banks.

Insolvent banks.

Subsidiary of foreign banks.

Insolvent banks.

Table 16.Cambodia: Monetary Survey, 1998-2003(in billions of riels; unless otherwise indicated)
199819992000200120022003
Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.
Net foreign assets1,7282,0192,5883,0813,3663,6143,6933,7383,7233,5943,6244,009
National Bank1,4251,6492,1022,4292,6802,9643,1173,2203,1703,1083,0713,494
Assets1,6751,9242,3892,7403,0163,3153,4973,5983,5833,5233,4813,906
Liabilities251275286311335350380378413415410413
Deposit money banks304370486651686649577517553486553515
Assets528585659847885839785681725760884834
Liabilities224214173196199189208164172274332318
Net domestic assets-498-576-758-877-959-965-956-849-718-641-617-692
Net domestic credit8398769048688297678549421,0531,2051,3041,219
Government (net)1791033-75-152-165-106-119-72-1918-128
National Bank1821074-75-152-165-147-160-114-91-73-219
Deposit Money Banks-4-40000414141729191
Public enterprises6103754321000
Private sector6557638989369769289581,0591,1251,2241,2871,347
Other items (net)-1,337-1,453-1,662-1,744-1,788-1,732-1,810-1,791-1,772-1,846-1,922-1,911
Capital and reserves-1,387-1,451-1,541-1,694-1,513-1,389-1,395-1,400-1,403-1,410-1,421-1,476
Other50-2-121-50-275-343-416-391-369-436-501-434
Broad money1,2301,4431,8312,2042,4082,6482,7372,8883,0042,9533,0073,319
Narrow money543532540610676748771813829871886936
Currency in circulation509490495578641711727766785831849906
Demand deposits344245323537444744403829
Quasi-money6879111,2911,5941,7311,9011,9662,0752,1752,0822,1212,383
Time deposits203246566269757475787782
Foreign currency deposits6678791,2451,5391,6701,8311,8912,0012,1012,0042,0432,301
Memoranda items:
Net foreign assets (in millions of dollars)4575356627908639229359509449019061,006
Deposit money banks8098124167176166146131140122138129
National Bank377437538623687756789818804779768877
Gross assets443510611703773846885914908883870980
Gross liabilities6673738086899696105104102104
Foreign currency deposits
(in millions of U.S. dollars)176233318395428467479508532502511578
Credit to private sector
(in millions of U.S. dollars)173202230240250237242269285307322338
Velocity 1/10.39.37.36.66.36.05.76.05.85.75.75.6
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Ratio of nominal GDP to average stock of broad money.

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Ratio of nominal GDP to average stock of broad money.

Table 17.Cambodia: Reserve Money, 1997-2003(In billions of riels; unless otherwise indicated)
199819992000200120022003
Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.
Reserve money8039301,1611,3601,5001,7521,8991,9812,0291,9661,8932,150
Currency outside banks509490495578641711727766785831849906
Currency in banks82034363445373374746961
Bank deposits2854206337468249961,1341,1821,1701,0619751,182
Required reserves6383109132145158158169171174176193
Other 1/2223375246146808379761,013999887799989
Net foreign assets1,4251,6492,1022,4292,6802,9643,1173,2203,1703,1083,0713,494
Foreign assets1,6751,9242,3892,7403,0163,3153,4973,5983,5833,5233,4813,906
Gold434439427432472499507541526551614662
Bank accounts4904717408731,0858417779328661,0261,1911,589
Foreign exchange4137189310439736411154103105
SDR holdings372012122142142131
IMF Reserve Position000000000000
Other 2/6739561,2021,3401,3411,9332,1262,0592,0661,8901,5591,549
Foreign liabilities251275286311335350380378413415410413
IMF251275286311335350380378413415410413
Net Domestic Assets-622-719-941-1,070-1,180-1,213-1,218-1,239-1,141-1,142-1,178-1,344
Net Credit to Government1821074-75-152-165-147-160-114-91-73-219
Net claims1821074-75-152-165-147-160-114-91-73-219
Claims289283272271269269269269269269269269
Deposits106176268346421434416429383361342488
Net claims on banks-67-77-69-85-82-86-94-81-78-77-86-90
Claims on banks8516535353131313141417
Restricted deposits697684989598107949191100107
Loans from deposit money ban660404041000000
Other items (net)-738-749-877-910-947-962-977-999-950-973-1,019-1,035
Assets102121124126168181186186221223242245
Liabilities8408701,0001,0351,1151,1431,1631,1841,1711,1961,2621,279
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Effective May 1994, deposits required of new commercial banks prior to their commencing operations.

Consists mainly of holdings of short-term securities issued by foreign governments.

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Effective May 1994, deposits required of new commercial banks prior to their commencing operations.

Consists mainly of holdings of short-term securities issued by foreign governments.

Table 18.Cambodia: Consolidated Balance Sheet of Deposit Money Banks, 1998-2003(In billions of riels)
199819992000200120022003
Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.
Net foreign assets304370486651686649577517553486553515
Foreign assets528585659847885839785681725760884834
Foreign liabilities224214173196199189208164172274332318
Net domestic assets7179113108148233234334375437500564
Net claims on government-4-40000414141729191
Net claims-4-40000414141729191
Claims000000414141739191
Deposits441000000000
Claims on public enterprises6103754321000
Claims on private sector 1/6557638989369769289581,0591,1251,2241,2871,347
Net claims on National Bank1411843434511-32-37-53-58
Claims20191451525210101010109
Liabilities6868979942476367
Other assets (net)-599-702-796-878-875-743-769-769-760-823-824-816
Assets248251207222228266259294306265279264
Fixed assets120109101126110112106109125126155149
Interbank claims555749153130244425242525
Other assets73865782861231291411571159890
Liabilities8479531,0031,1001,1031,0091,0281,0631,0661,0881,1031,080
Capital690767791924904791803809811830836840
Restricted deposits442114211111
Interbank liabilities294945141917213116212122
Other125132164161179197202222238236244217
Reserves3465047378679311,0551,2001,2711,2921,1991,1051,332
Cash82034363445373374746961
Deposits at National Bank3384847038318971,0101,1631,2381,2171,1251,0361,270
Other credits to National Bank000000000000
Deposits7219531,3361,6261,7661,9372,0102,1222,2192,1222,1582,412
Demand deposits344245323537444744403829
Time and savings deposits203246566269757475787782
Foreign currency deposits6678791,2451,5391,6701,8311,8912,0012,1012,0042,0432,301
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Predominantly in foreign currency.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Predominantly in foreign currency.

Table 19.Cambodia: Interest Rates, 1998-2003 1/(Percent per annum)
199819992000200120022003
Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.
Deposit rates
Riel savings deposits7.57.35.92.62.92.42.32.22.22.01.91.9
Foreign currency savings deposits2.52.22.31.61.51.61.51.51.51.51.31.3
Foreign currency term deposits3.93.53.72.72.62.92.92.82.92.92.62.6
Lending rates 2/
Foreign currency loans: rates charged to private enterprises17.717.317.415.015.016.217.118.618.618.618.218.2
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Simple averages of rates reported by the ten commercial banks with the largest deposits.

Virtually all loans to the private sector in Cambodia are denominated in foreign currencies.

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia.

Simple averages of rates reported by the ten commercial banks with the largest deposits.

Virtually all loans to the private sector in Cambodia are denominated in foreign currencies.

Table 20.Cambodia: Prudential Regulations(As of July 30, 2004)
RegulationsMain FeaturesDate of Relevant Regulation1
Large exposureBanks are not allowed to grant credit to an individual customer exceeding 20 percent of their net worth.Feb. 17, 2000
LicensingBanks must obtain a license from NBC before starting business.

In some cases, Micro Finance Institutions must be registered or licensed if their activity is above thresholds.
Jan 10, 2000

Feb.25, 2002
LiquidityBanks must at all times have a liquidity ratio of at least 80 percent.

Liquidity ratio for microfinance institutions is at least 80 percent.
Sep. 13, 2002

Feb. 25, 2002
Loan/deposit ratio for banks and financial institutionsBanks must keep the total amount of deposits collected from customers and banks inside the country under the following forms: cash, deposits with NBC and banks, Loans and advances to customers.Aug. 28, 1998
Loans to related partiesLoans to related parties must be lower than 10 percent of the bank’s net worth.

The calculation of loans to related parties does not include placements with head office or mother company if this one is a bank rated at least A. Loans to related parties cannot exceed 10% of Micro Finance Institutions net worth.
Oct. 15, 2001



Jun 07, 2002



Jan 11, 2000
Maintenance of required reserves against deposits and other borrowingReserve requirements on deposits in both foreign and domestic currency are 8%.

Reserves are defined as cash-in-vault or unremunerated deposits at the NBC, and are calculated on the basis of average daily deposit liabilities over successive 28-day periods.

Reserve requirement for microfinance is 5%.
Dec. 30, 1993



Jan. 1, 1998



Feb. 25, 2002
Minimum capitalLocally incorporated banks and foreign bank branches must have paid up minimum capital equal to at least KHR 50 billions.

Banks must maintain 10 percent of capital in a special account at the NBC as a form of guarantee.
Feb. 9, 2000



Oct. 15, 2001
Monitoring banks open foreign exchange positionsBanks are required to observe a limit on the long or short position in each currency not exceeding 5 percent of the net worth, and a limit on the aggregate short position not exceeding 15 percent of the net worth.Jan. 16, 1995
Provision for bad and doubtful debtsBanks must classify and provision bad debt into three classes:

-substandard: past due>90 days: minimum provision 10%

-doubtful: past due >180 days: minimum provision 30%

-loss: past due >360 days: minimum provision 100%

Micro finance institutions must also classify and provision bad debt according to specific criteria.
Feb. 17, 2000

Jun. 7, 2002



Sept 13, 2002
Solvency ratio (capital adequacy)Banks must maintain solvency ratio (net worth divided by the risk weighted assets) at the minimum level of 20 percent.

A similar regulation must be applied by Micro Finance Institutions.
Feb. 16, 2000





Jan 11, 2000
Fixed assetsThe total amount of fixed assets must not exceed 30 percent of net worth.

Fixed assets must be only used for operating the bank.
Nov. 8, 2001
Other operational regulations for banks and financial institutionsBanks must maintain their net worth at least equal to their paid-up capital. Banks are not allowed to grant credit to their own shareholders, members of board of directors, managers, individuals or legal entities who participate in their establishments.

Banks are not allowed to use demand deposits to grant long-term credit:
Dec. 29, 1997
Transfer of share of banks

Reporting requirement for registered NGOs and licensed microfinance institutions

Calculation of interest rate on microfinance institutions loans Standardized supervision procedures and report

Standardized procedure for prompt corrective action for banking and financial institutions

International transactions reporting system (for compiling balance of payments).

Communication and copies of documents during on-site inspections
Nov. 8, 2001

Feb. 25, 2002



Aug. 14, 2001

Oct. 17, 2002

Oct. 17, 2002



Jan. 16, 2003



Jul. 15, 2003
Money LaunderingStandardized procedure for identification of money laundering at the banking and financial institutions.

Banks must keep records for each transaction of more than KHR 40 millions and must submit to NBC any suspicious transaction. Suspicious transactions and know your customer (KYC) policy:

This circular must help commercial banks to detect suspicious transactions and to implement an efficient KYC policy. Based on FATF recommendations, it gives many examples of suspicious transactions and describes customer policy to be implemented by banks.
Oct. 21, 2002





Oct. 4, 2003
AccountingAdoption and implementation of chart of accounts for banking and financial institutions

Daily accruals and amortizations for commercial and specialized banks:

Banks must post accrued interest and amortization of assets on a daily basis for full implementation of the chart of accounts.

Payments of Dividends in Advance:

Banks are only allowed to pay dividends if the annual profits are absolutely certain and have been approved by external auditors.

Prepaid prepayments on rental and leases:

Prepaid payments on rental and leases by banks cannot exceed one year of rental or lease. These prepaid payments cannot be used by shareholders to withdraw capital from the banks.

Requirement in compliance with fact and substance:

Banks must apply the principle of substance over the form and interest accounting must be consistent with (IAS) and (CAS). If the form of a transaction allows shareholders to extract capital, the amount of transaction will be deducted from equity and net worth.

The banks expenses and income accounting must comply with CAS.
Dec. 25, 2002





Oct. 1, 2003





Jan. 14, 2004





Mar. 9, 2004





Mar. 9, 2004
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes regulations, prakas (announcement), and circulars.

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes regulations, prakas (announcement), and circulars.

Table 21.Cambodia: Balance of Payments, 1998-2003(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
199819992000200120022003

Est.
Current account excluding official transfers-382-456-421-348-359-429
Current account including official transfers-183-180-104-45-48-101
Trade balance-365-462-538-523-564-537
Exports8001,1291,4011,5711,7492,076
Domestic exports 1/6799971,2831,4621,6381,960
Imports, f.o.b.-1,166-1,591-1,939-2,094-2,314-2,613
Of which: retained imports, f.o.b.-1,072-1,490-1,849-2,010-2,228-2,524
Services and income (net)-106-99-263756-54
Receipts225345496582655568
Of which: tourism107212304380454386
Payments-331-444-522-545-599-622
Of which: interest-13-14-15-15-16-18
Private transfers89105144137149163
Official transfers199276317303312328
Capital and financial account73814291107133
Medium- and long-term loans-62-61-2464133120
Disbursements52539098168160
Amortization-114-114-114-35-34-40
Foreign direct investment22322114214213977
Short-term flows and errors and omissions-88-79-75-115-165-65
Overall balance-110-99-62456033
Financing1109962-45-60-33
Change in gross official reserves-11-32-62-64-115-73
Debt rescheduling000-1600
Change in arrears (- = reduction)123123120264642
Use of Fund credit-18499-2
Purchases/disbursements01111212212
Repurchases/repayments137121213
Memorandum items:
Current account balance
Excluding official transfers (in percent of GDP)-12.4-13.2-11.7-9.4-9.0-10.2
Including official transfers (in percent of GDP)-5.9-5.2-2.9-1.2-1.2-2.4
Gross official reserves 2/390422484548663737
In months of imports of goods and services3.42.72.62.73.02.9
Net international reserves323349411468567633
External debt 3/ (in percent of GDP)736767676871
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for unrecorded exports.

Includes $117 million associated with the return of Cambodian gold holdings by the BIS in 1998.

Includes debts owing to the Russian Federation and the United States.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for unrecorded exports.

Includes $117 million associated with the return of Cambodian gold holdings by the BIS in 1998.

Includes debts owing to the Russian Federation and the United States.

Table 22.Cambodia: Merchandise Exports, 1998-2003(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199819992000200120022003
Est.
Total exports8001,1291,4011,5711,7492,076
Domestic exports6799971,2831,4621,6381,960
GSP (incl. Garment)3776781,0171,1881,3861,645
Logs and sawn timber 1/182138100683825
Fish 1/384244426037
Rubber 1/414960526398
Rice 1/75115572490
Others 1/343947546864
Re-exports122132118109111117
Sources: Data provided by the authorities

Includes estimates for unrecorded exports.

Sources: Data provided by the authorities

Includes estimates for unrecorded exports.

Table 23.Cambodia: Merchandise Imports, 1998-2003(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199819992000200120022003
Est.
Total imports, f.o.b. 1/1,1661,5911,9392,0942,3142,613
Total imports, c.i.f.1,2621,7222,1002,2702,5032,829
Freight & insurance on imports101136165181199225
Taxable imports566716741711729751
Cigarettes14411970706869
Motorcycles443631212830
Beer323221
VCRs212211
TV sets566554
Audio cassettes233321
Gold32835121013
Vehicles152723263836
Construction materials81313141312
Clothing223346363937
Cloth443356
Petroleum products147151156175150180
Sugar14221025264
Cement132027313737
Steel11921182316
Other141233294268282304
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes imports for re-exports.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes imports for re-exports.

Table 24.Cambodia: Investment Approvals by Sector, 1998-2003(Total fixed assets approved; in millions of US dollars)
199819992000200120022003
Total854448218205238250
Agriculture5264100404
Industries64816159865286
Building Material107000
Cement5460000
Energy17005040
Food Processing9202041
Garment1246735201728
Paper1361200
Petroleum111000
Plastic112210
Shoes8110000
Textile05840140
Tobacco700400
Wood Processing17900113
Others2339951513
Services435169459846
Construction3180700
Education200000
Infrastructure100022180
Telecommunication419006410
Transporation1150000
Others14869161637
Tourism112172807447114
Hotel10625717147109
Tourism Centre61479300
Others000005
Source: Council for the Development of Cambodia.
Source: Council for the Development of Cambodia.
Table 25.Cambodia: Investment Approvals by Investor Country of Origin, 1998-2003(Total fixed assets approved; in millions of US dollars)
199819992000200120022003
Total854448218205238250
Cambodia298252586593185
Foreign55619616014014565
America112013630
Argentina000000
Canada601030
United States52012600
Asia and Pacific53417212613214059
Australia102001
China105462852433
Hong Kong91305125
Indonesia8115000
Japan120020
Korea50192792
Macau010000
Malaysia1251425115
Philippines000100
Singapore2118014
Taiwan14455195771
Thailand3321261507
Vietnam0100240
Europe10422226
Bulgaria100000
France115006
Netherlands000010
Norway000000
Portugal100000
Russia200000
Switzerland510000
United Kingdom0217211
Source: Council for the Development of Cambodia
Source: Council for the Development of Cambodia
Table 26.Cambodia: Foreign Debt, 1998-2003(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199819992000200120022003
Est.
Total external debt outstanding 1/2,2562,3152,3942,4892,7352,981
Multilateral347400471554752963
World Bank157180207239308399
AsDB124147189231333439
IMF6673738096104
Bilateral1,9091,9151,9231,9351,9832,019
New debt151516215375
Rescheduled debt312926242832
Nonrescheduled debt1,8631,8711,8811,8901,9021,911
Total disbursements5265101119189172
Multilateral496599113157151
World Bank192736404762
AsDB302650497973
IMF01111212212
Other0023105
Bilateral30263221
Total amortization116118121474753
Multilateral137121218
World Bank000003
AsDB000001
IMF137121213
Other000000
Bilateral114114114353435
New debt000000
Rescheduled debt000000
Nonrescheduled debt114114114353435
Total interest88991012
Multilateral345568
World Bank112223
AsDB112234
IMF112111
Other000000
Bilateral544444
New debt000000
Rescheduled debt111111
Nonrescheduled debt333332
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes debts owing to the Russian Federation and the United States.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes debts owing to the Russian Federation and the United States.

Table 27.Cambodia: Previously State-Owned Enterprises Sold to the Private Sector(As of April 2004)
BusinessMinistryBuyer’s

Nationality
Date of SaleSale price

(US$)
Total28,880,330
Bran Oil FactoryIndustryCambodia04/12/19971,020,000
Zeam Conte Garage1PlaningCambodia24/10/1997200,000
Zeam Conte Garage2CommerceCambodia27/01/1997200,000
Gas Station in Seam Reap ProvinceFinanceCambodia08/10/199740,000
Taprum HotelFinanceCambodia13/03/199770,000
Peace HotelFinanceCambodia30/07/199840,000
Phnom Kamchay HotelInteriorCambodia15/06/1998155,516
Vacant Land in Kampong speu ProvinceInteriorCambodia30/04/199871,160
Pailin Hotel in Batambang ProvinceCommerceCambodia18/02/199845,666
Warehouse in Posat ProvinceCommerceCambodia02/04/199821,980
C.K.CCommerceCambodia199710,680,331
Focker Air PlaneCouncil MinistersCambodia11/1998663,970
Warehouse in the Crop CompanyCommerceCambodia199863,600
Chineses HospitalHealthCambodia19982,345,324
Vacant Land near the Cigarette FactoryIndustryCambodia1997132,000
Beng trabek GarageIndustryCambodia26/01/19981,185,000
Bewerage Factory (B.G.I.No1)IndustryCambodia20/07/1998630,000
Acid Water WarehousePublic WorkCambodia21/07/1998352,000
Vacant Land behind Council of MinistersCouncil MinistersCambodia1998800,000
KAMTRANSHIPPublic WorkCambodia18/05/1998543,000
Driving School DepartmentPublic WorkCambodia05/12/1999250,000
Vacant land in PP health DepartmentPP MunicipalityCambodia18/04/200041,198
Youth ClubPP MunicipalityU.S gov’t26/09/20005,839,000
Goods Transport CompanyPublic WorkCambodia22/12/20001,189,878
Ware house in Construction CompanyCommerceCambodia29/06/2001377,355
Second Cotton Ware house in KampeximCommerceCambodia21/06/2001135,462.00
Prek Phnov Oil Stock Ware houseDefenseCambodia29/04/2003400,000
Printing FabricIndustryCambodia27/02/200479,590
Vacant Land (Front Of BKC)PP MunicipalityCambodia12/4/20041,308,300
Source: Data provided by Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Source: Data provided by Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Table 28.Cambodia: State-Owned Enterprises Leased to the Private Sector by Type of Activity(As of April 2004)
Type of Asset (No.of leases)Duration of lease (years)Payment in 2004 (US$)
1-14yrs.15 Or 20 yrs.>20 yrs.TotalAverageMinimumMaximum
Total(191)0471447,723,15745,6821,000510,000
Beverage companies(2)002700,000199,340103,100200,000
Brick, ceramics, stone manufacturers(7)016609,10015,4806,00041,200
Car repair, Ship repair(2)00240,60026,1752,60054,500
Chemical plants(l)00136,00037,62517,00055,500
Garages, gas stations(16)088108,65012,2771,25036,000
Land, buildings(55)01639620,07236,7891,000200,000
Leather, textiles manufacturers(20)0911978,500.0049,50812,000100,000
Mechanical plants(4)031105,00036,25012,00060,000
Miscellaneous manufacturing(22)0220775,00029,9918,40060,000
Restaurants, guest house(24)01232,665,83519,4504,800500,000
Sawmills(2)00230,00039,0737,000128,000
Shops, Offices(16)0016298,50033,00033,00033,000
Tire factories(l)00175,00046,44415,00091,000
Warehouses(19)0712680,90058,1506,000510,000
Source: Data Provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Source: Data Provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Table 29.Cambodia: State-Owned Enterprises Leased to the Private Sector by Ministry(As of April 2004)
MinistryNumberEarliestLatestDuration of lease(years)UnknownPayment in 2004(US$)
of leasesleaseleasel-14yrs.15 0r20 yrs>20 yrs.durationTotalMinimumMaximum
Total1917,723,1571,000510,000
Agriculture16Nov-91Jun-97110110405,5532,600200,000
Commerce14Aug-91Sep-9702120712,7511,000510,000
Culture8Jul-92Jul-961240168,67410,80050,000
Industry50Jun-89May-970302101,662,1286,000217,600
Public work7May-93Feb-971590163,9894,800100,000
Post and Telecommunications2May-96Jun-97110034,2006,00030,000
Foreign Affaire7Jan-94Jul-975210744,42312,00090,000
Defence8Jan-90Jul-942480290,6002,500225,000
Interior3Jun-94--11025,0509,6009,600
Information5Jun-91Nov-92112084,5609,60072,000
Education3Jan-96Apr-982--234,6002,40025,000
Tourism3Jan-95Jun-97-24-1,595,000--
Health2Nov-92Sep-97---146,4763,6003,600
Council ministers2Jul-94Nov-94--3-72,00012,000180,000
Urbanization4Jul-91May-97-23-95,37016,20047,208
State Secretariat of Civil Aviation3Jul-91Feb-9911---38,32242011,520
finance2Jan-00Oct-010035-1,800.003,024500,000
PP Municipality52Jan-90Oct-9931535-1,547,6613,024500,000
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).
Table 30.Cambodia: Proposed Privatization Decisions(As of April 2004)
Type of EnterpriseTotal Number of EnterprisesStatus 1/Number of Employees
ActiveReduced ActivityIdle
Total11L LLP RL P RL LR1182
Chemical industry1R164
Construction3PLL610
Fishery4LLLL158
Manufacturing0
Mining0
Printing and video1R50
Service industries2PR200
Utilities, mail, and telecommunications 2/0
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).

Each letter in a column represents an enterprise:

  • L: Enterprise to be liquidated

  • P: Enterprise to be privatized and

  • R: Enterprise to be retained

In the process of being transformed into public enterprise.

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).

Each letter in a column represents an enterprise:

  • L: Enterprise to be liquidated

  • P: Enterprise to be privatized and

  • R: Enterprise to be retained

In the process of being transformed into public enterprise.

Table 31.Cambodia: Joint Ventures Entered into by the State(As of April 2004)
CompanyBusinessMinistryShare Retained by the State in PercentNationalityPrivate Interest Share in PercentEnterprises Transformed into Public Enterprises
CASOTIM 1/Wood ProcessingAgriculture20Russia800
COLEXIM 2/Wood ProcessingAgriculture61Japan497
RAC (Royal Air Cambodge) 3/AirlineCouncil of Ministers60Malaysia403
Cambodia Samart CommunicationTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications30Thailand700
Cambodia Shinawatra Co.Post & Telecommunications301
CAMTELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications300
SOCITELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications304
Telstra International LtdTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications40Australia600
CAMFNTELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications51Indonesia490
Cambodia Phamaceutical Enterprise (CPE)Medecine ProcessingHealth48China520
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).

CASOTIM: In process of liquidation.

COLEXIM: In process of privatization.

RAC: Bankrupt (already liquidated).

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities (State Property Department of MEF).

CASOTIM: In process of liquidation.

COLEXIM: In process of privatization.

RAC: Bankrupt (already liquidated).

Table 32.Cambodia: General Education, 1997/98-2002/03
1997/981998/991999/002000/012001/022002/03
Number of students 1/2,314,8232,402,1672,553,2292,796,8733,170,4923,291,296
Primary education 2/2,011,7722,094,0002,211,7382,408,1092,705,4532,747,411
Secondary education303,051308,167341,491388,764465,039543,885
Junior high school 3/229,102226,057233,278283,678357,635415,703
Senior high school 4/73,94982,110108,213105,086113,404128,182
Number of schools5,5015,6435,7776,1306,2836,509
Primary education 1/5,0265,1565,2745,4685,7415,915
Secondary education475487503662542594
Junior high school 2/350355363511379411
Senior high school 3/125132140151163183
Number of teachers69,68471,54373,30476,12079,40371,263
Primary education 1/48,46049,40050,18852,16854,51948,433
Secondary education21,22422,14323,11623,95224,88422,830
Junior high school 2/17,38817,57018,02018,95219,65017,423
Senior high school 3/3,8364,5735,0965,0005,2345,407
Memoranda items:
Students per teacher333435374046
Primary education 1/424244465057
Secondary education141415161924
Junior high school 2/131313151824
Senior high school 3/191821212224
Sources: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

Excluding technical and vocational education and higher education.

First to sixth grade.

Seventh to ninth grade.

Tenth to twelth grade.

Sources: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

Excluding technical and vocational education and higher education.

First to sixth grade.

Seventh to ninth grade.

Tenth to twelth grade.

Table 33.Cambodia: Health Sector, 1997-2002
199719981999200020012002
Number of health personnel18,37719,07518,59417,96017,79916,581
Doctors1,4061,6801,7641,8782,0472,083
Pharmacists325391381362383397
Dentists5870698591120
Nurses8,4618,8018,3128,1608,0857,662
Other 1/8,1278,1338,0687,4757,1936,319
Number of health establishments1,2601,3291,2961,1851,4421,073
Phnom Penh888888
Other1,2521,3211,2881,1771,1771,065
Number of medical beds11,10011,00011,00010,90010,9009,800
Phnom Penh1,9001,9001,9001,9001,9001,700
Other9,2009,1009,1009,0009,0008,100
Memoranda items
Population10.411.411.612.012.013.4
Number of inhabitants per doctor7,3746,8086,5756,3905,8626,610
Source: Ministry of Public Health; and IMF staff estimates.

Including assistant doctors and pharmacists, midwifes, and other health workers.

Source: Ministry of Public Health; and IMF staff estimates.

Including assistant doctors and pharmacists, midwifes, and other health workers.

Table 34.Cambodia: Employment by Sector of Activity, 1998-2002
1998 2/1999 3/2000 4/2001 5/2002 6/1998 2/1999 3/2000 4/2001 5/2002 6/
(In thousands)(In percent of total)
Total employment4,9095,5195,2756,2436,332100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries3,7714,2143,8894,3844,43376.876.373.770.270.0
Industry2163534446406654.46.48.410.210.5
Services9229539421,2191,23518.817.317.919.519.5
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries3,7714,2143,8894,3844,43376.876.373.770.270.0
Agriculture and forestry3,6984,1093,7424,1234,21175.374.570.966.066.5
Fisheries731051472612221.51.92.84.23.5
Industry2163534446406654.46.48.410.210.5
Mining and quarrying6634110.10.10.10.10.2
Manufacturing1592593675495513.24.77.08.88.7
Utilities364450.10.10.10.10.1
Construction48837084991.01.51.31.31.6
Services9229539421,2191,23518.817.317.919.519.5
Trade3414024366446227.07.38.310.39.8
Hotels and restaurants15281910320.30.50.40.20.5
Transport and communications1181211201671732.42.22.32.72.7
Financial intermediation168670.00.10.20.10.1
Real estate, renting3118490.10.20.20.10.1
Public administration and defense2221871471491424.53.42.82.42.2
Education818887881011.71.61.71.41.6
Health and social work26283025360.50.50.60.40.6
Other social services68394052441.40.70.80.80.7
Other45444672680.90.80.91.21.1
Source: Data provided by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1997).

Based on the results of the 1998 Population Census.

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1999).

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Phnom Penh.

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Cambodia (LFS 2001)

Based on the results of (LFS 2001, extrapolation)

Source: Data provided by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1997).

Based on the results of the 1998 Population Census.

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1999).

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Phnom Penh.

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Cambodia (LFS 2001)

Based on the results of (LFS 2001, extrapolation)

Summary of the Cambodian Tax System
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and deductionsRates
1. Tax on income, profits, and capital gains
  • Tax on Salary

A monthly tax imposed on salary that has been received within the framework of fulfilling employment activities. A physical person resident in the Kingdom of Cambodia is liable to the tax on salary for Cambodian source salary and foreign source salary. A non-resident physical person is liable to the tax on salary for Cambodian source salary.Exempted from tax on salary are:

(i) salaries of officers and employees of a diplomatic and consular mission; foreign representative, officials and employees of international organizations and agencies of technical cooperation of other governments; (ii) members of the Parliament and Senate, (iii) Real refunds on professional expenses; (iv) indemnity for the layoff; (v) additional remuneration with social characteristics provided under the Labor Law, (vi) supply gains or below acquisition cost of special uniforms or professional equipment; and (vii) a flat allowance for mission and travel expenses.



Deductions of CR 75,000 from the tax base per month for each minor dependent child and spouse without occupation.
Progressive tax rates applied to monthly income as follows:

(i) 0 percent for CR 0 to 500,000;

(ii) 5 percent for CR 500,001 to 1,250,000;

(iii) 10 percent for CR 1,250,001 to 8,500,000;

(iv) 15 percent for CR 8,500,001 to 12,500,000;

(v) 20 percent for over CR 12,000,000.



For a non-resident taxpayer, 20 percent are withheld by the employer.
  • Fringe benefits

A monthly tax on fringe benefits withheld at source. Fringe benefits are valued at fair market value.Officers and employees of a diplomatic and consular mission; foreign representative, officials and employees of international organizations and agencies of technical cooperation of other governments; and member of the Parliament and Senate.20 % of the total value of fringe benefits are withheld by the employer.
  • Tax on property rental

A tax on receipts from rents on land, buildings, and certain equipment paid by the owner.Property owners whose monthly income from rent is below CR 500,000 under the estimate regime are exempted.10% of income from rent.
  • Tax on profits

A monthly tax on the profits of businesses, including capital gains from the sale of assets during the operation or at the close of the business, as well as income from financial of investments, interest, rental, and royalties income.

The assessment of the tax on profit shall be made according to the real regime (accounts-based profits), simplified regime, or estimated system of taxation (a proxy profit tax based on estimated turnover).
Exemptions under the Law on Taxation include: (i) the income of the Royal Government and institutions of the Royal Government; (ii) the income of any organizations for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or education purposes; (iii) the income of labor organizations and any chamber of commerce, industry, or agriculture; and (iv) the profit from the sale of agricultural produce. In addition, under the Law on Investment, exemptions can be granted by the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC).



Deductions allowed from the tax on profits are: (i) interest expenses that the taxpayer has paid or incurred the tax year to carry on business; (ii) depreciation of tangible, and intangible property, and natural resources, and (iii) charitable contributions. Carry forward of losses is also allowed.
For corporations, the tax rates are as follows:

(i) 0 percent for a Qualified Investment Project (QIP) during the period of tax exemption and 9 percent for 5 years of transitional period;

(ii) 30 percent for enterprises engaged in production or exploitation of oil, gas and natural resources including timber, ore, gold, and precious stones;

(iii) 20 percent for profits realized by legal persons; and

(iv) 5 percent of gross premiums for insurance companies.









For noncorporations, progressive rates applied to annual profits are as follows:

(i) 0 percent for 0 to CR 6,000,000;

(ii) 5 percent for CR 600,0001 to 15,000,000;

(iii) 10 percent for CR 15,000,001 to 102,000,000;

(iv) 15 percent for CR 102,000,001 to 150,000,000; and 20 percent for income greater than CR 150,000,000.
  • Dividend taxes

A profit tax on dividend distribution of retained earnings or annual profits.This additional profit tax shall not apply on the distribution of retained earning or annual profit after tax, if an enterprises has already paid profit tax at the normal rate of 20 percent for a legal person, or the rate of 30 percent for an oil or natural gas production sharing contract and the exploitation of natural resources including timber, ore, gold, and precious stones.20 percent of retained earning, if an enterprise is distributing profits that were subject to percent profit rate. 11/91 of retained earnings, if an enterprise is distributing profits that were subject to 9 percent profit rate.
  • Withholding tax

Any resident taxpayer carrying a business and who makes any payment in cash or in kind to a resident taxpayer and non-resident taxpayer shall withhold.Exemptions apply to:

(i) interest paid to a domestic bank or saving institution;

(ii) the payment of tax exempt income to government institutions; any religious, charitable, science, literary, or educational organization; labor organization or any chamber of commerce, industry, or agriculture; and

(iii) profit from sale of small agricultural producer
The following amounts are to be withheld by resident taxpayers making a payment to a resident taxpayer:

(i) 15 percent on income received by a physical person from performance of services including management, consulting, and similar services, as well as royalties for intangibles;

(ii) 10 percent on the income from the rental of movable and immovable property;

(iii) 6 percent on interest paid by domestic banks to resident taxpayers having a fixed term deposit account; and (iv) 4 percent on interest paid by a domestic bank to a resident taxpayer having a non-fixed savings account.



The following amounts are to be withheld by resident taxpayers making a payment to a non-resident taxpayer: (i) 14 percent on interest, royalties, rent, and income connected with use of property, management or technical service, and dividends.
2. Patent TaxAn annual registration or license fee levied on all businesses, industries, and services. The base is the previous year’s turnover, or estimated turnover. New businesses are taxed on the basis of a provisional estimate.Farmers are not subject to the tax.For business and industries, the patent is levied according to annual turnover as follows:

(i) CR 0-7,500,000 = CR 15,000;

(ii) CR 7,500,001-12,500,000 = CR 21,000;

(iii) CR 12,500,001-25,000,000 =CR 27,000;

(iv) CR 25,000,001-30,000,000 = CR 40,000;

(v) CR 30,000,001-37,500,000 =CR 60,000;

(vi) CR 37,500,001-50,000,000 = CR 90,000;

(vii) CR 50,000,001-62,000,000 = CR 140,000;

(viii) CR 62,000,001-75,000,000 = CR 180,000;

(ix) CR 75,000,001-100 million = CR 240,000,

(x) CR 100,000,001-1 billion (max.) = 0.1 percent of turnover.



For services, the patent is levied according to annual turnover as follows:

(i) CR 0-3,000,000 = CR 15,000;

(ii) CR 3,000,001-5,000,000 = CR 21,000;

(iii) CR 5,000,001-10,000,000 = CR 27,000;

(iv) CR 10,000,001-12,000,000 = CR 40,000;

(v) CR 12,000,001-15,000,000 = CR 60,000;

(vi) CR 15,000,001-20,000,000 = CR 90,000;

(vii) CR 20,000,001-24,800,000 = CR 140,000;

(viii) CR 24,800,001-30,000,000 = CR 180,000;

(ix) CR 30,000,001-40,000,000 = CR 240,000,

(x) CR 40,000,001-400,000,000 (max.) = 0.25 percent of turnover.
3. Taxes on domestic goods or service
  • VAT

Value-added tax, applied to any person subject to the Real Regime system. It covers both goods and services, extending through all stages of importation, production and distribution.Exempted from the VAT are: (i) public postal service, (ii) hospitals, clinics, medical and dental services, and the sale of medical and dental goods, (iii) public transportation services, (iv) insurance services, (v) primary financial services, (vi) the import of goods for personal use exempted from customs duties, (vii) nonprofit activities in the public interest, (viii) the import of goods for or by foreign diplomats and consular missions, international organization and agencies of technical cooperation of other governments for use in the exercise of their official function.



The calculation of tax payable in a tax period, a credit is allowed to the taxable person for the tax payable in respect of: (i) all taxable supplies made to that person during the tax period, (ii) all imports of goods by that person during the tax period. The credit is only allowed if the supply or import is for use for taxable supplies of the taxable person.



Shall not be allowed input tax credit for any tax paid on: (i) purchases or imports of automobiles, unless the taxable person is in the business of dealing in, or hiring such automobiles, (ii) entertainment, amusement and recreation expenses, unless the taxable person is in the business of providing entertainment, amusement and recreation, (iii) purchases of petroleum products for use as road fuel, unless the taxable person is in the business of supplying petroleum products.
Uniform rate of 10 percent.
  • Turnover tax

A monthly tax on business turnover, applied to any person subject to real regime or the presumptive tax regime. In the latter case, turnover tax payable each month may be fixed in advance for periods of 3, 6, 12 months. It also covers the first sale of imported products (to be phased out with full introduction of VAT).Agricultural products sold by primary producers (not those sold by traders. Exemptions apply imports of 200 cigarettes; 2 liters of wine; petroleum products in your tank or machine up to 30 liters per car and 5 liters or oil per car;Uniform rate of 2 percent.
  • Minimum tax

The Minimum Tax is applied as a percentage of the annual taxpayer’s turnover. It is due irrespective of the taxpayer’s profit or loss positionAn exemption has been provided to those taxpayers that have been granted the status of Qualified Investment Project under the Law on Investment on profits under the Qualified Investment Project.1 percent of the taxpayer’s annual turnover.
  • Excise tax

A tax levied on select products, both locally produced and imported.None.Rates are as follows:

(i) airline tickets and telecommunication services: 10 percent;

(ii) motor vehicles: 45 percent;

(iii) spare parts for motor vehicles: 25 percent;

(iv) motorcycles and spare parts: 10 percent;

(v) cigarettes: 10 percent;

(vi) cigars: 25%;

(vii) beer: 20 percent;

(viii) other alcoholic products (spirits and wine) 10, 20, and 33.33 percent;

(ix) gasoline: 33.33 percent;

(x) diesel: 4.35 percent;

(xi) kerosene and lamp kerosene: 10 percent;

(xii) lubricating oil: 25 percent;

(xiii) base oil, carbon, black feedstock oil, hydraulic oil and lubricating grease: 10 percent; and

(xiv) air conditioners, cosmetics, telephones, video and camera equipment: 10 percent.
  • Fiscal Stamp tax

A tax payable in the form of stamps affixed to some documents.None.Specific small amounts depending on the type of document ranging from CR 100 for school registration to CR 2,000 for investment authorizations.
4. Slaughter taxTax levied on slaughterhouses based on the value of the livestock that is slaughtered.Exempted from slaughter tax are livestock (i) slaughtered for celebrating national tradition, (ii) slaughtered for research uses, and (iii) killed in accident.Uniform rate of 3 percent of the set price for each animal.
5. Registration Tax (Tax on property transfer)Tax levied on the transfer of land, buildings, motor vehicles, motorcycles, and ships.Transfers of property ordered by the State are exempted, as are government transfers, public utilities, and charitable organizations. The sale of motor vehicles is also exempted if the seller is subject to the turnover tax or the profits tax.Tax is paid by purchaser at 4 percent of presumptive values.
6. Tax on Unused LandTax levied on land without any construction, or with construction that is not in use.Unused land less than 1,200 square meters.2 percent.
7. Taxes on international trade
Import dutiesEffective January 2004, a general tariff (based on the Harmonized System classification) has been levied on all imports. All rates are ad valorem and duties are levied on c.i.f. basis, except for a number of products including automobiles, petroleum products, steel, cigarette, and chemical fertilizers. For these products, values for duty purposes are fixed by the Minister of Economy and Finance.Exempted from import duties are:

(i) imports for projects and investments approved by the CDC, on approval at the time of import; (ii) insecticides, pesticides, and agricultural machinery (excluding tractors); and (iii) imports of embassies, international organizations providing humanitarian aid, and projects financed through bilateral grants and aid.
There are essentially four rate categories:

(i) 0 percent for essential goods and basic raw materials;

(ii) 7 percent for intermediate goods seed and others;

(iii) 15 percent for machinery and equipment; and

(iv) 35 for luxury goods including automobiles.



Petroleum products:

(i) Gasoline: 35 percent of the prescribed value of $320 per ton.

(ii) Diesel: 15 percent of the prescribed value of $275 per ton.
Additional TaxLevied on selected imported products.None.(i) Gasoline: 2 cents per liter.

(ii) Diesel: 4 cents per liter.
Export tax on timberAd valorem tax levied on the value of processed woods at export. Exports of woods are limited to those cut on government-agreed concessions. An export ban on all logs was introduced on December 31, 1996.None0, 5, and 10 percent.
Tax on rubberAd valorem tax levied on rubber.None.0 percent.
Other productsAd valorem tax levied on livestock.None.0 and 10 percent.
8. Other tax
  • Motor Vehicle Tax

Annual levy on automobiles and boats.Exempted vehicles: ambulance and fire truck; vehicles of the Royal Cambodia Force, military police, national police; vehicles owned by diplomatic missions and international organizations.Trucks: (i) from 0-3 tons: CR 150,000; (ii) from 3-10: CR 250,000; from 10-20 tons: CR 450,000; (iii) over 20 tons: CR 750,000;



Buses: from CR 150,000 to 250,000;



Cars: (i) to 9 horsepower: from CR 80,000 to 100,000;

(ii) from 9 to 12 horsepower: from CR 100,000 to 150,000;

(iii) over 12 horsepower: from CR 180,000 to 250,000; Tractors from 35 to 82 horsepower: from CR 30,000 to 50,000;



Motorcycles: (i) to 70 cm3: CR 3000; (ii) from 70-120 cm: CR 4,500; (iii) over 120 cm:3CR 7,500;



Ships: (i) for river use: from CR 10,000 to 500,000; (ii) for the sea: CR 100,000 to 200,000;



Fishing boats: from CR 10,000 to 1,200,000.
  • Public Lighting Tax

Tax levied on purchase of wines and cigarettes.None.3 percent on the product price.

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