Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Cambodia

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
February 2002
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Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Cambodia: Basic Data, 1995–2001
1995199619971998199920002001
Est.
Population
Total population (mid-year)10.511.011.612.312.713.013.2
Population growth rate (annual percentage change)5.25.45.55.53.12.42.0
Income
Gross domestic product (GDP; at current prices)
(in billions of riels)7,5978,3259,14910,5431,64611,92312,932
(in millions of U.S. dollars)3,0993,1723,1052,8163,0543,0943,296
(in U.S. dollars; per capita)296288267229241239249
(Annual percentage change)
Real GDP8.43.53.71.56.95.45.3
Of which: agriculture, fisheries, and forestry10.0−0.7582.54.8−2.74.0
industry20.911.120.47.712.029.012.5
services5.73.1−3.7−0.65.83.124
(In percent of GDP)
Saving-investment balance
Gross national saving7.49.213.310.915.212.813.9
Government−0.8−1.20.7−0.31.81.61.4
Nongovernment8.210.412.611.213.411.212.5
Gross investment12.815.214.412.017.014.114.5
Government 1/6.67.14.85.76.17.37.1
Nongovernment6.28.29.66.310.96.97.4
(Annual percentage change)
Inflation
Period average1.37.28.014.840−0.8−0.6
End of period1.110.09.213.3−0.5−0.8−0.6
GDP deflator13.35.96.013.63.3−2.93.0
(In percent of GDP)
Government budget
Total revenue8.59.09.68.911.512.112.4
Of which: tax revenue5.96.46.56.48.38.88.9
nontax revenue2.52.13.02.23.13.03.4
Total expenditure15.917.313.814.915.917.818.2
Of which: current expenditure9.19.83.88.99.610.311.0
capital expenditure6.77.64.96.06.37.57.2
Overall fiscal balance (including grants)−1.4−1.4−0.4−2.7−1.4−1.7−2.4
(Annual percentage change)
Money and credit
Broad money44.240.516.615.717.326.921.6
Of which: riel in circulation 2/16.7766.114.4−1.50.32.6
foreign currency deposits 2/29.632.2990.117.325.418.6
Credit to the economy 2/13.318.614.213.43.02.02.7
Of which: credit to government (net) 2/1.1−3.1−8.111.7−6.1−6.9−2.8
Interest rates (in percent, end of period)
Riel savings deposits8.78.87.47.57.35.93.3
Foreign currency loans18.718.618.417.617317.415.5
(In percent of GDP)
Balance of payments
Current account balance (excluding official transfers)−16.7−15.5−7.9−8.0−9.0−10.2−9.1
Current account balance (including official transfers)−5.4−6.1−1.2−1.1−1.8−1.4−0.6
Exports of goods 3/8.69.317.221.423.235.740.1
Imports of goods 3/23.024.325.729.531.746.549.2
(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
Foreign exchange reserves
Gross official reserves 4/181.7233.7262.1390.1422.2485.0548.1
(in months of imports of goods and services)1.52.12.43.53.32.82.9
Net international reserves 4/110.0164.3197.0322.9349.4410.8466.9
External debt
Outstanding debt (in percent of GDP)18.119.466.072.672.071.066.3
Debt service (in millions of U.S. dollars)130.0145.4131.9124.0125.4129.154.2
(in percent of exports of goods and services)32.529.524.520.913.69.13.3
(In millions of SDRs)
Fund quota6.065.065.065.087.587.587.5
Exchange rate(In riels per U.S. dollar)
Period average2,4512,6242,9463,7443,6133,8543,924
End of period2,5262,7133,4523,7803,7753,9103,900
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including externally-financed technical assistance in relation to development projects.

As a percent of beginning broad money stock. Represents contributions to 12-month changes of broad money.

Excluding re-exports.

Including gold holdings.

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Including externally-financed technical assistance in relation to development projects.

As a percent of beginning broad money stock. Represents contributions to 12-month changes of broad money.

Excluding re-exports.

Including gold holdings.

Table 1.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector at Current Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In billions of riels; at current prices)
Agriculture3,5073,4713,8574,4144,7044,241
Crops1,9841,9652,0632,3862,4782,327
Of which: Paddy rice1,3171,1711,2691,5051,5531,312
Livestock and poultry439551569683836733
Fisheries535555592726933878
Forestry and logging500400633619456297
Industry9861,2121,4601,8142,1402,708
Mining121314151717
Manufacturing58075498913391,4861,997
Food, beverages, and tobacco249299330390420399
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear691323055077171,251
Wood, paper, and publishing831131482249388
Rubber manufacturing314533273330
Other manufacturing148165174191224228
Electricity, gas, and water404041474343
Construction335406416414593651
Services2,7813,2213,4193,8614,3074,495
Trade9731,0781,1491,2411,3321,316
Hotels and restaurants285350375418525582
Transport and communications423510534587712773
Finance778798100112134
Public administration234296305333370376
Real estate and business483537601732764821
Other services307362357449493492
Taxes on products less subsidies395483537579638638
Less: imputed bank charges7363123124142159
Gross domestic product (GDP)7,5978,3259,14910,54311,64611,923
(In percent of GDP)
Agriculture46.241.742.241.940.435.6
Crops26.123.622.522.621.319.5
Of which: Paddy rice17.314.113.914.313.311.0
Livestock and poultry6.46.66.26.57.26.2
Fisheries7.06.76.56.98.07.4
Forestry and logging6.64.86.95.93.92.5
Industry13.014.616.017.218.422.7
Mining0.20.20.20.10.10.1
Manufacturing7.69.110.812.712.816.7
Food, beverages, and tobacco3.33.63.63.73.63.3
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear0.91.63.34.86.210.5
Wood, paper, and publishing1.11.41.6210.80.7
Rubber manufacturing0.40.50.40.30.30.3
Other manufacturing2.02.01.91.81.91.9
Electricity, gas, and water0.50.50.40.40.40.4
Construction4.74.94.53.95.15.5
Services36.638.737.436.637.037.7
Trade12.813.012.611.311.411.0
Hotels and restaurants3.74.24.14.04.54.9
Transport and communications5.66.15.85.66.16.5
Finance1.01.01.11.01.01.1
Public administration3.13.63.33.23.23.2
Real estate and business6.46.56.66.96.66.9
Other services4.04.43.94.34.24.1
Taxes on products less subsidies5.25.85.95.55.55.4
Less: imputed bank charges1.00.81.31.21.21.3
Gross domestic product (GDP)100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 2.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector at Constant Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In billions of riels, at constant 1993 prices)
Agriculture2,8932,8743,0393,1153,2633,174
Crops1,3011,3581,3211,3291,5161,566
Of which: Paddy rice781783773795915912
Livestock and poultry532555561593592544
Fisheries672630679716330844
Forestry and logging388331478477326219
Industry9531,0581,2741,3721,5361,981
Mining121212121313
Manufacturing5746759121,0501,1531,555
Food, beverages, and tobacco227245249253263267
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear741363094536371,043
Wood, paper, and publishing1051191921787056
Rubber manufacturing253428293835
Other manufacturing142142133137146154
Electricity, gas, and water353636383941
Construction331335314272331373
Services2,7402,8252,7212,7062,8622,952
Trade919917895848862858
Hotels and restaurants332305295283334356
Transport and communications405440377367418436
Finance697476697186
Public administration215252261278262267
Real estate and business493497511531551570
Other services309340307331365377
Taxes on products less subsidies356412433376434431
Less: imputed bank charges6754898392104
Gross domestic product (GDP)6,8757,1157,3787,4858,0038,434
(Annual percentage change)
Agriculture10.0−0.75.82.54.8−2.7
Crops28.24.4−2.70.614.03.3
Of which: Paddy rice−21.555.5−1.32.815.1−0.3
Livestock and poultry10.84.31.25.6−0.2−8.0
Fisheries9.8−6.27.85.416.01.7
Forestry and logging−25.8−14.744.3−0.1−31.8−32.7
Industry20.911.120.47.712.029.0
Mining2.8−4.60.11.48.00.0
Manufacturing11.817.735.115.19.834.9
Food, beverages, and tobacco2.07.91.71.43.81.7
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear28.883.0128.046.540.663.8
Wood, paper, and publishing23.312.861.6−7.2−60.5−20.6
Rubber manufacturing30.935.5−16.83.527.6−6.4
Other manufacturing10.5−0.4−5.72.56.65.6
Electricity, gas, and water37.00.91.63.73.84.0
Construction39.81.3−6.4−13.221.612.6
Services5.73.1−3.7−0.65.83.1
Trade−0.7−0.2−2.4−5.31.7−0.4
Hotels and restaurants36.4−8.2−3.3−4.118.46.4
Transport and communications0.13.3−14.4−2.613.94.5
Finance138.96.73.6−9.53.321.2
Public administration−0.817.33.56.7−5.92.2
Real estate and business3.00.92.73.93.73.6
Other services4.410.1−9.97.910.33.4
Taxes on products less subsidies1.315.85.0−13.115.2−0.6
Less: imputed bank charges269.1−19.865.6−6.410.212.9
Gross domestic product (GDP)8.43053.71.56.95.4
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 3.Cambodia: Aggregate Demand at current Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In billions of riels; at current prices)
Consumption7,2137,8838,5949,96810,85811,090
Private6,7997,3548,0419,37710,13810,297
Government413529553590720793
Gross Investment9741,2691,3211,2631,9771,684
Gross fixed capital formation9571,1251,1991,3601,7871,842
Changes in inventories18144122−98190−158
Domestic demand8,1879,1529,91511,23012,83512,774
Foreign balance (net)−1,258−1,321−764−885−993−1,172
Exports of goods and services 1/2,2522,1122,8813,8984,4776,492
Imports of goods and services 1/3,5103,4333,6454,7835,4707,664
Statistical discrepancy667494−2198−196320
Gross domestic product (GDP)7,5978,3259,14910,54311,64611,923
Income from abroad (net) 1/−79−91−138−179−291−315
Gross national income (GNI) 1/2/7,5188,2339,01110,36411,35611,608
Current transfers (net) 1/9249067949511,1071,325
Gross national disposable income (GNDI) 1/8,4429,1399,80611,31612,46212,934
(In percent of GDP)
Memorandum items:
Domestic demand 5/116.6115.9108.4108.4108.5109.8
Consumption 5/103.7100.693.996.491.595.7
Private 5/98.394.387.990.885.489.0
Government5.46.46.05.66.26.7
Gross Investment12.815.214.412.017.014.1
Foreign balance (net)−16.6−15.9−8.4−8.4−8.5−9.8
Current account balance (including official transfers)−5.4−6.1−1.2−1.1−1.8−1.4
Gross domestic savings 3/3.53.94.84.45.86.0
Gross national savings 4/7.49.213.310.915.212.8
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Fund staff estimates based on latest balance of payments estimates

Gross national income under the 1994 System of National Accounts (SNA); corresponds to the former Gross National Product (GNP) aggregate.

Defined as GDP net of final consumption.

Defined as GNDI net of final consumption. Includes net income and transfers from abroad.

Including statistical discrepancy.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Fund staff estimates based on latest balance of payments estimates

Gross national income under the 1994 System of National Accounts (SNA); corresponds to the former Gross National Product (GNP) aggregate.

Defined as GDP net of final consumption.

Defined as GNDI net of final consumption. Includes net income and transfers from abroad.

Including statistical discrepancy.

Table 4.Cambodia: Gross Domestic Product by Expenditure at Constant Prices, 1995–2000 1/
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In billions of riels; at constant 1993 prices)
Consumption6,8446,9926,9787,0467,3527,772
Private6,4646,5426,5476,6516,9197,290
Government380450431395434481
Gross investment8541,1121,1651,0171,4021,193
Gross fixed capital formation8419681,0491,1071,2731,294
Changes in inventories14144115−90129−101
Domestic demand7,6988,1048,1428,0638,7558,965
Foreign balance (net)−1,099−1,160−450−255−6091
Exports of goods and services2,2411,8152,6883,0863,6114,812
Merchandise, f.o.b.1,9721,4562,3442,8103,2894,394
Services269359343276322418
Imports of goods and services3,3402,9753,1383,3414,2204,812
Merchandise, c.i.f.2,9132,4952,6712,8983,6894,211
Services427480468443532601
Statistical discrepancy276172−314−323−142−531
Gross domestic product (GDP)6,8757,1157,3787,4858,0038,434
(In percent of GDP)
Consumption 1/101.6100.396.596.093.693.8
Private 1/96.193.990.790.788.288.1
Government5.56.35.85.35.45.7
Gross Investment12.415.615.813.617.514.1
Gross fixed capital formation12.213.614.214.815.915.3
Changes in inventories0.22.01.6−1.21.6−1.2
Domestic demand 1/114.0115.9112.3109.6111.2108.0
Foreign balance (net)−16.0−16.3−6.1−3.4−7.60.0
Exports of goods and services32.625.536.441.245.157.1
Imports of goods and services48.641.842.544.652.757.1
Gross domestic product (GDP)100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
(Annual percentage change)
Consumption1/16.50.6−7.00.97.20.4
Private 1/19.4−0.4−7.21.57.1−0.2
Government−18.618.5−4.2−8.39.711.1
Gross Investment23.030.14.8−12.737.8−14.9
Domestic demand 1/17.23.8−5.4−1.111.3−2.1
Foreign balance (net)138.45.5−61.2−43.4139.0−100.1
Gross domestic product (GDP)8.43.53.71.56.95.4
Source: Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Including statistical discrepancy.

Source: Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Including statistical discrepancy.

Table 5.Cambodia: Annual Changes in GDP Deflators, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(Annual percentage changes)
Agriculture23.0−0.45.111.71.7−7.3
Crops36.7−5.17.914.9−8.9−9.1
Livestock and poultry−0.68.22.113.622.7−4.0
Fisheries−1.510.5−1.016.510.8−7.5
Forestry and logging29.0−6.29.7−2.18.1−3.2
Industry1.210.60.015.45.3−1.9
Mining1.416.77.09.13.70.9
Manufacturing−0.610.4−2.817.51.1−0.4
Food, beverages, and tobacco10.911.28.516.63.7−6.5
Textile, wearing apparel, and footwear6.44.81.013.60.56.5
Wood, paper, and publishing−30.220.2−18.963.35.119.7
Rubber manufacturing17.97.1−10.4−21.8−3.3−3.3
Other manufacturing−0.811.811.87.09.8−3.2
Electricity, gas, and water−6.50.6−0.310.4−10.0−4.2
Construction4.912.79.514.617.9−2.5
Services6.512.410.213.65.41.2
Trade12.711.09.114.15.6−0.8
Hotels and restaurants−11.734.010.716.26.04.3
Transport and communications9.610.822.312.86.63.9
Finance17.06.09.113.37.7−0.8
Public administration3.18.0−0.52.418.0−0.5
Real estate and business3.910.18.917.30.53.8
Other services8.57.39.416.5−0.5−3.5
Taxes on products16.75.75.824.1−4.30.5
Less: imputed bank charges14.88.017.68.03.5−0.8
Gross domestic product (GDP)13.35.96.013.63.3−2.9
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 6.Cambodia: Gross value Added of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry, at constant Prices, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In billions of riels; at constant 1993 prices)
Total2,8932,8753,0393,1153,2633,174
Agricultural crops1,3011,3591,3211,3291,5161,566
Paddy781783773795915912
Corn232718214078
Cassava302528243952
Sweet potatoes141410111212
Mung beans261820122120
Soybean152649243125
Groundnuts100911101411
Sesame040607060811
Vegetables140182129158156156
Sugarcane242022161925
Black pepper0101
Tobacco201819191211
Cotton
Jute0101010100
Rubber486059536258
Other crops162169174180187195
Livestock and poultry532555561593592544
Fisheries672630679716830844
Forestry and logging388331478477326219
(In percent of total production).
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agricultural crops45.047.343.542.746.549.4
Paddy27.027.225.425.528.028.7
Other crops18.020.018.017.218.420.6
Livestock and poultry18.419.318.519.018.117.1
Fisheries23.221.922.323.025.426.6
Forestry and logging13.411.515.715.310.06.9
(Annual percentage change)
Total10.0−0.65.72.54.8−2.7
Agricultural crops28.24.5−2.80.614.03.3
Paddy55.10.2−1.32.815.1−0.4
Other crops1.710.9−4.9−2.412.48.9
Livestock and poultry10.84.31.25.6−0.2−8.0
Fisheries9.8−6.27.85.416.01.7
Forestry and logging−25.8−14.744.3−0.1−31.8−32.7
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 7.Cambodia: Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishery Production, 1995–2000
Unit199519961997199819992000
(’000)Est.
Agriculture 1/
RiceTons3,4483,4583,4153,5104,0404,026
MaizeTons5565424995183
CassavaTons82707767228145
Sweet potatoTons393829303235
VegetablesTons193250250217182166
MungbeanTons20141591615
PeanutTons767797
SoybeanTons172856283528
SesameTons4575710
Sugar caneTons202171188133160213
TobaccoTons1110101066
JuteTons1221
RubberTons354432344542
Livestock
CowsHeads2,7782,7622,8722,6802,8263,490
BuffalosHeads765744766694654
PigsHeads2,0392,1512,2372,3392,1891,979
PoultryHeads10,06711,41211,98213,16713,41715,028
Fisheries
Fresh fish and shrimpTons11310411512212486
CrocodilesHeads152017412526
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Harvest year for crops; tons are metric tons.

Including buffalos.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Harvest year for crops; tons are metric tons.

Including buffalos.

Table 8.Cambodia: Visitors Arrivals and Tourism, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000199519961997199819992000
(In percent of total)
Total visitor arrivals by air 1/219,680260,489218,843186,333262,907351,661
Visitor arrivals by country of residence 2/219,680260,489218,843175,910234,382264,649100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Asian and Pacific156,978178,015150,205107,421137,054155,35071.568.368.661.158.558.7
Australia and New Zealand7,9689,4318,75810,86611,28713,2373.63.64.06.24.85.0
China22,88622,02917,28218,03526,80530,58610.48.57.910.311.411.6
Japan21,62933,03925,36213,38617,88519,9069.812.711.67.67.67.5
Malaysia11,55322,57918,38111,01912,54114,7015.38.78.46.35.45.6
Singapore9,15514,04513,5369,12310,63410,7344.25.46.25.24.54.1
South Korea4,1418,9828,4694,4676,3777,5361.93.43.92.52.72.8
Taiwan22,42235,32928,11618,23920,60721,62610.213.612.810.48.88.2
Thailand13,59516,21516,05610,98315,27216,5506.26.27.36.26.56.3
Vietnam1,8342,9112,8383,0445,2178,3330.81.11.31.72.23.1
Other41,79513,45511,4078,25910,42912,14119.05.25.24.74.44.6
Europe37,90753,76143,33146,16560,03165,65717.320.619.826.225.624.8
Germany3,4995,4334,6044,1996,4907,2981.62.12.12.42.82.8
France19,43723,33317,53818,61623,75424,8838.89.08.010.610.19.4
United Kingdom5,8099,3069,19311,15613,78915,9122.63.64.26.35.96.0
Other9,16215,63411,99612,19415,99817,5644.26.05.56.96.86.6
North, South, and Central America21,53827,81224,56121,77336,23342,1569.810.711.212.415.515.9
Canada3,6925,1433,7163,2985,4155,6461.72.01.71.92.32.1
United States17,84621,96720,29117,94630,30135,8148.18.49.310.212.913.5
Other-7025545295176960.00.30.30.30.20.3
Africa and Middle East3,2579017465511,0641,4861.50.30.30.30.50.6
Visitor arrivals by mode of transportation
Total visitors367,743466,365100.0100.0
Arrivals by airplane219,680260,489218,843186,333262,907351,66171.575.4
Phnom Penh219,680260,439218,843175,910234,382264,64963.756.7
Seam Reap10,42328,52587,0127.818.7
Other types of arrivals 3/104,423114,70428.524.6
Visitor arrivals by purpose of visit 1/219,680260,489218,843186,333262,907351,661100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Tourism162,317194,419163,005141,926199,644209,58173.974.674.576.275.959.6
Other 4/57,36366,07055,83844,40763,263142,08026.125.425.523.824.140.4
Memoranda items
Total visitor arrivals by air (Annual percentage changes) 1/24.418.6−16.0−14.941.133.8
Of which: Asia and Pacific 2/37.713.4−15.6−28.527.613.3
Europe 2/3.641.8−19.46.530.09.4
Americas 2/−10.329.1−11.7−11.466.416.3
Tourism receipts
In millions of U.S. dollars53326866119178
Annual percentage changes55−17−38050
Average receipt per tourist327422417465596849
In percent of GDP1.72.62.22.33.95.8
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Tourism; and Fund staff estimates.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) and Siem Reap airports.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) airport only.

Arrivals by land and boat.

Including business and other purposes.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Tourism; and Fund staff estimates.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) and Siem Reap airports.

Arrivals at Pochentong (Phnom Penh) airport only.

Arrivals by land and boat.

Including business and other purposes.

Table 9.Cambodia: Consumer Price Inflation, 1996–2001
Overall Consumer Price Index (Sept. 1994=100)Overall Consumer Price IndexFood Beverages, and TobaccoClothing and FootwearHousing and UtilitiesHousing Furnishings and Household OperationsMedical CareTransportation and CommunicationRecreation and EducationPersonal Care and Effects
(Annual average and 12-month percentage changes)
1996December115.910.011.63.610.515.24.50.42.32.7
Average110.87.25.73.610.515.24.50.42.32.7
1997December126.69.23.07.912.70.026.729.03.06.2
Average119.68.06.70.63.4−3.67.914.31.91.2
1998December143.413.320.66.35.618.58.64.47.67.6
Average137.214.814.013.015.019.724.115.17.711.0
1999December142.6−0.5−0.2−2.50.114.4−12.13.2−6.3−1.7
Average142.84.07.61.70.213.0−7.33.5−0.90.3
2000December141.5−0.8−3.7−1.82.8−1.10.84.8−0.71.4
Average141.7−0.8−3.4−2.72.82.1−3.26.6−5.20.8
2001December140.6−0.6−2.5−9.25.0−3.61.4−3.01.63.2
Average140.8−0.6−2.6−8.64.4−0.52.0−1.10.22.2
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
FoodNonfood
Overall Consumer Price IndexFood Beverages, and TobaccoClothing and FootwearHousing and UtilitiesHousing Furnishings and Household OperationsMedical CareTransportation and CommunicationRecreation and EducationPersonal Care and Effects
Weights (in percent)100.049.83.624.02.05.89.03.22.6
(12-month percentage changes)
1999January140.59.016.68.5−0.514.7−0.62.66.08.3
February141.18.615.610.0−0.213.7−0.32.66.15.2
March140.78.015.410.2−0.99.1−5.32.79.05.5
April141.57.913.84.00.111.2−3.56.69.0
May143.36.412.52.50.010.6−7.72.68.5
June144.24.910.53.0−0.310.2−5.8−0.1−3.5−2.1
July144.41.84.2−2.01.114.0−8.1−0.2−6.2−4.0
August143.62.94.2−3.01.214.7−7.210.0−6.2−1.0
September144.00.71.4−1.50.815.6−12.56.0−7.7−1.4
October143.70.00.5−2.30.813.5−12.04.0−7.7−3.3
November143.80.51.8−1.50.713.8−11.12.8−7.7−3.6
December142.6−0.5−0.2−2.50.114.4−12.13.2−6.3−1.7
2000January141.00.4−0.3−3.43.14.4−6.34.4−6.1−2.0
February140.6−0.3−2.5−1.13.15.3−5.17.8−6.1−1.9
March140.90.2−2.0−3.23.17.6−5.510.3−8.1−2.4
April140.3−0.9−2.80.32.67.0−5.93.8−7.30.4
May139.5−2.7−6.10.63.16.4−6.12.3−7.3−0.6
June139.4−3.3−7.6−4.72.76.2−5.34.8−5.41.7
July140.4−2.7−6.8−3.32.1−1.5−2.56.8−5.82.1
August141.1−1.7−5.3−3.41.9−1.8−2.38.7−5.93.0
September144.30.2−3.1−3.23.0−2.02.810.8−2.82.5
October147.12.41.9−3.42.7−1.7−1.410.3−2.82.4
November143.7−0.1−2.1−2.52.8−1.2−0.85.0−2.82.7
December141.5−0.8−3.7−1.82.8−1.10.84.8−0.714
2001January140.1−0.6−2.1−4.01.03.5−1.53.2−0.2−0.1
February139.2−1.0−1.3−8.01.01.90.52.3−0.21.1
March139.8−0.8−2.9−7.85.51.21.0−3.7−2.21.5
April141.71.00.1−8.95.42.30.30.2−2.90.7
May138.3−0.8−3.8−10.54.92.20.02.4−2.9−0.1
June139.70.2−2.9−9.55.52.53.62.61.54.8
July140.0−0.3−3.9−10.44.6−3.16.11.71.86.5
August141.80.5−0.4−9.65.2−2.75.8−4.71.81.4
September142.4−1.3−2.8−9.44.6−3.57.2−5.71.60.8
October143.8−2.2−5.5−7.45.0−3.13.3−4.61.6
November142.3−1.0−3.4−8.14.8−3.22.4−2.51.62.3
December140.6−0.6−2.5−9.25.0−3.61.4−3.01.63.2
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Planning, National Institute of Statistics (NIS).
Table 10.Cambodia: Central Government Operations, 1997–2001 1/
1997199819992000200119971998199920002001
ActualBudgetActualBudgetActualBudgetActualBudget
(In billions of riels)(In billions of GDP)
Total revenue8819431,3161,4751,4091,6519.69.011.511.811.812.8
Tax revenue5976799481,0351,0261,1876.56.58.38.38.69.2
Direct taxes4456831041361310.50.50.70.81.11.0
Indirect taxes2062484324395006772.32.43.83.54.25.2
Of which: Excise taxes (incl. on imports)747692941132480.80.70.80.80.91.9
Domestic1116162219230.10.20.10.20.20.2
Import63607672942250.70.60.70.60.81.7
VAT (incl. on imports) 2/3153293714172.72.63.13.2
Domestic437373860.40.60.60.7
Import286286313331252.32.62.6
Refund (-)1430140.10.20.1
Trade taxes3473764334923913793.83.63.83.93.32.9
Nontax revenue2712303554203534393.02.23.13.43.03.4
Of which: Timber royalties3723365241550.40.20.30.40.30.4
Enterprises and immobile leases2127203927350.20.30.20.30.20.3
Civil aviation1518194325250.20.20.20.30.20.2
Tourism income11146150.00.00.00.00.00.1
Operating surplus of SOEs413001300.00.10.00.00.10.0
Royalties (mining, etc.)33422020.40.00.00.00.00.0
Royalties (casino)01612160.00.10.10.1
Post and telecommunications (PTT)8387109150921440.90.80.91.20.81.1
Quota Auction871022100.80.10.20.1
Garment licenses213643500.20.30.40.4
Others6542271629290.70.40.20.10.20.2
Capital revenue1233142029250.10.30.10.20.20.2
Total expenditure 3/####1,5711,8252,3352,0852,45113.814.915.918.017.519.0
Current expenditure8089411,0971,3151,1891,4268.88.99.610.310.011.0
Wages3824515255275125424.24.34.64.24.34.2
Civil administration1321541942182112351.41.51.71.71.81.8
Defense and security2502973313093013072.72.82.92.52.52.4
Nonwage4264905727886778834.74.75.06.15.76.8
Operating expenditures3223724105054975763.53.53.64.04.24.5
Civil administration1642202763763654761.82.12.43.03.13.7
Defense and security1581521341291321001.71.41.21.01.10.8
Economic transfers714124631380.10.10.10.40.30.3
Social transfers68711041171041220.70.70.90.90.90.9
Civil administration616395100901080.70.60.80.80.80.8
Defense and security7891714140.10.10.10.10.10.1
Interest1015222521250.10.10.20.20.20.2
Other nonwage1818215111580.20.20.20.20.10.4
Reserve funds2004513640.00.00.00.30.10.5
Election0025100.00.00.00.00.1
Capital expenditure4526307281,0208961,0254.96.06.37.77.57.9
Locally financed1101202243203033251.21.11.92.12.52.5
Externally financed3425105047005937003.74.84.45.65.05.4
Current balance61−322051701902000.7−0.31.81.41.61.6
Overall balance−379−628−509−767−676−800−4.1−6.0−4.4−6.1−5.7−6.2
Overall balance (incl. grants)−38−286−167−217−191−400−0.4−2.7−1.5−1.7−1.6−3.1
Financing3796285097676768004.16.04.46.15.76.2
Foreign financing (net)4465055158437088134.94.84.56.85.96.3
Of which: Project aid3515045117005947003.84.84.55.65.05.4
Budget support962411312501.00.00.01.21.00.0
Domestic financing−57117−45−76−11−14−0.61.1−0.4−0.6−0.1−0.1
Central bank financing−75120−70−76−113−14−0.81.1−0.6−0.6−0.9−0.1
Nonbank financing18−426010300.20.00.20.00.90.0
Outstanding operations 4/−106330−200−0.10.10.30.0−0.20.0
Memorandum items:
Defense and security outlays4154574774554474214.54.34.23.63.73.3
Revenue from forestry4125495241680.40.20.40.40.30.5
Total revenue (excl. garment quotas)8819431,2291,4651,3661,6019.69.010.711.711.512.4
Health, Education, Rural dev. (commitment)1291492323122994151.41.42.02.52.53.2
Customs department revenue4865277968507979355.35.06.96.86.77.2
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and Fund staff estimates.

Excludes provincial revenue and expenditure data.

VAT refunds are adjusted.

Total expenditure is based on a mixture of cash and accrual data.

Includes expenditure committed but not yet allocated to the accounts of the government agencies that execute the budget.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and Fund staff estimates.

Excludes provincial revenue and expenditure data.

VAT refunds are adjusted.

Total expenditure is based on a mixture of cash and accrual data.

Includes expenditure committed but not yet allocated to the accounts of the government agencies that execute the budget.

Table 11.Cambodia: Structure of Central Government Revenue, 1996–2001
199619971998199920002001
Budget
(In billions of riels)
Total revenue749.1881.0942.71,316.31,408.51,651.0
Tax revenue534.3597.4679.4947.71,026.01,187.0
Direct taxes26.543.655.582.7135.6131.0
Wage tax2.75.78.510.613.215.0
Profit tax18.535.042.163.8100.9108.0
Property tax2.12.64.75.77.18.0
Tax on unutilized land0.00.30.20.00.00.0
Other income taxes3.20.00.02.614.40.0
Indirect taxes163.7206.5247.5431.6500.0677.0
Turnover tax27.446.665.921.812.68.0
Consumption tax70.475.290.1
VAT314.9371.6417.0
Domestic42.872.886.0
Import285.8312.8331.0
VAT refunds (-)13.714.0
Excise taxes56.674.176.191.8112.6248.0
Domestic6.811.115.915.519.023.0
Import49.863.060.276.393.7225.0
Others9.210.615.42.93.24.0
Taxes on international trade344.2347.3376.3433.4390.4379.0
Taxes and duties on imports334.8335.5372.5415.3372.8356.4
Taxes on exports8.29.92.716.515.818.5
Penalties1.22.01.11.61.84.1
Nontax revenue175.5271.3230.1354.8353.3439.0
Receipts on public property92.7134.1120.489.4135.9170.5
Fisheries7.17.48.29.29.911.5
Forests27.537.422.836.341.055.0
Receipts from public enterprises34.936.455.530.551.450.1
Of which: Factory leases10.18.48.78.85.29.2
Civil aviation17.117.117.719.224.825.0
Tourism receipts0.01.00.70.85.914.7
Royalties and concessions6.233.23.51.811.818.9
User fees8.06.610.90.10.00.0
Building leases8.712.618.811.521.825.3
Other0.20.60.80.00.09.6
Other nontax revenue82.9137.2109.7265.5217.4268.5
Posts and telecommunication63.683.087.2108.991.9143.9
Ratio-TV (advertisement)0.10.00.00.00.00.5
Public services12.846.017.5141.9101.4104.8
Of which: Visa fees8.023.87.217.220.232.7
Quota auction and export licenses108.165.460.0
Interest2.90.03.40.00.00.0
Nontax revenue of provinces1.40.10.10.10.10.0
Banking profit10.012.814.0
Other nontax revenue2.28.11.64.611.25.3
Capital revenue39.212.333.213.729.325.0
Of which: Privatization receipts21.810.532.213.222.923.5
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 12.Cambodia: Central Government Budgetary Expenditure by Economic Classification, 1995–2001
1995199619971998199920002001
Budget
(In billions of riel)
Total expenditure1,205.71,441.51,259.71,571.21,825.02,085.52,451.0
Current expenditure694.6812.9807.8941.21,097.21,189.61,426.0
Salaries326.3354.2381.9451.1525.4512.3542.3
Civil administration109.9125.3132.2154.3194.1211.5235.3
Defense and security216.4228.9249.7296.8331.3300.8307.0
Operating costs289.5344.9321.9371.7410.1497.1576.0
Civil administration104.2165.7163.7219.6276.0365.4476.2
Defense and security185.3179.2158.3152.2134.1131.799.8
Economic transfers14.315.56.614.312.030.938.3
Social transfers44.562.068.070.9103.8103.9122.0
Civil administration40.255.160.862.894.690.1107.7
Defense and security4.36.97.18.09.213.814.3
Interest1.912.89.514.722.421.125.0
Other current expenditure18.023.419.918.423.524.3122.4
Of which:
Subsidy to provinces17.216.716.316.019.833.0
Contribution to international org.6.21.12.14.96.010.3
Capital expenditure511.1628.6451.9630.0727.8895.91,025.0
Locally financed56.961.6110.3120.4223.6303.4325.0
Externally financed454.2567.0341.6509.5504.2592.5700.0
(In percent of total expenditure)
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Current expenditure57.656.464.159.960.157.058.2
Salaries27.124.630.328.728.824.622.1
Civil administration9.18.710.59.810.610.19.6
Defense and security18.015.919.818.918.214.412.5
Operating costs24.023.925.623.722.523.823.5
Civil administration8.611.513.014.015.117.519.4
Defense and security15.412.412.69.77.36.34.1
Economic transfers1.21.10.50.90.71.51.6
Social transfers3.74.35.44.55.75.05.0
Civil administration3.33.84.84.05.24.34.4
Defense and security0.40.50.60.50.50.70.6
Interest0.20.90.80.91.21.01.0
Other current expenditure1.51.61.61.21.31.25.0
Of which:
Subsidy to provinces1.21.31.00.90.91.3
Contribution to international org.0.40.10.10.30.30.4
Capital expenditure42.443.635.940.139.943.041.8
Locally financed4.74.38.87.712.314.513.3
Externally financed37.739.327.132.427.628.428.6
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 13.Cambodia: Budgetary Expenditure by Ministry, 1998–2001 1/
1998199920002001
MinistryTotalSalariesOperating CostsOther CurrentCapital 2/TotalSalariesOperating CostsOther CurrentCapital 2/TotalSalariesOperating CostsOther CurrentCapital 2/TotalSalariesOperating CostsOther CurrentCapital 2/
(In billions of riels)
Total1,0544483691211161,3195184041792181,5455174812303031,751542576307325
Royal Palace1343702063110207490216590
National Assembly129300138500211092029121520
Senate63300105510146720
Constitutional Council211002110031200
Council of Ministers577407354433126855651504863570
Foreign Affairs26111320371322213614220052143440
National Defense312213937033623692803092069013027720858120
Interior1738766210147914672142974310144994230
National Assembly Relation and Inspection000001010010100
Economy and Finance10931827621343226940963296402331730
Information1613011813049270092700
Public Works and Transport134117294322020441202346120
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries187813217113023733035716120
Justice21100513006240071600
Education, Youth and Sport1028020201561123536166121387022413653350
Commerce211004130062410152930
Industry, Mine and Energy31110412105131072420
Planning21100211003120041300
Health4411331012612621501021479901421682440
Tourism21100514006150091810
Public Worship and Religion11000111002110031200
Posts and Telecommunication542280241142360762922700432400
Culture and Fine Arts32100532007340093500
Social Affairs, Labor and Vocational
Training4811451191216026232203024240
Environment11100211004130051300
Rural Development611041612012816001421020
Woman Affair and Veteran10000441111153115106315570
Urbanization and Constitution10000211004230052300
Water Resources and Metrology3030061500101810
National Election Committee32032002120031200
Other0000020020335001830348108571325
(In percent of total budgetary expenditure)
Memorandum items:
National Defense30482560254623502040196016381040
Interior16191837011181141919910818710
Economy and Finance101522541016381861628011310
Public Works11016211191115011140
Agriculture21213213202131021340
Education10185201222923112383013259110
Industry00010000100011000100
Health42900102150237316408314140
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Commitment basis.

Excludes externally financed capital expenditure.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Commitment basis.

Excludes externally financed capital expenditure.

Table 14.Cambodia: official External Assistance to the Budget, 1995–2001
1995199619971998199920002001
Budget
(In billions of riels)
Total official external financing559.3674.2445.9505.4515.4707.5813.1
Budget support108.6149.996.01.54.4113.2125.0
Grants68.975.846.21.54.423.80.0
Loans39.774.049.80.00.089.4125.0
World Bank39.774.07.20.00.036.9125.0
Asian Development Bank0.00.042.50.00.052.50.0
Project aid450.7565.8350.8503.9511.0594.4700.0
Grants349.2429.8244.6340.7337.4360.0400.0
Loans105.0137.297.0168.9166.8232.5300.0
World Bank20.534.166.456.369.897.8200.0
Asian Development Bank84.5103.130.6112.696.9134.7100.0
Pending−3.5−1.29.2−5.76.81.90.0
Amortization−41.4−0.90.00.00.0−11.9
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 15.Cambodia: Profile of the Commercial Bank System(As of end-November 2001)
Name Of BanksNumber of BranchesAuthorized Capital (000 US$)Date of OperationMajority

Shareholder
State-owned banks (1)
Foreign Trade Bank50 billion rielsOct. 10, 1979State owned
Foreign bank branches (5)
Krung Thai Bank Public Co. Ltd.13,000Sep. 25, 1992Thai
Credit Agricole Indosuez13,000Mar. 1, 1993French
May Bank13,000Dec. 28, 1993Malaysian
First Commercial Bank13,000Sep. 23, 1998Taiwan POC
Standard Charted Bank13,000Feb 25, 1999British
Other private banks (12)
Cambodia Commercial Bank113,000Jul. 1, 1991Thai
Canadia Bank Ltd.213,000Nov. 11, 1991Cambodian/Canadian
Cambodia Public Bank13,000May. 25, 1992Malaysian
Cambodia Asia Bank13,000Feb. 23, 1993Malaysian
Singapore Banking Corp.13,000Oct. 27, 1993Singaporean
Singapore Commercial Bank13,000Dec. 25, 1993Singaporean
Union Commercial Bank513,000Apr. 20, 1994Hong Kong
First Oversea Bank313,000May 30, 1994Malaysian
Emperor International Bank13,000May 31, 1994Hong Kong
Cambodia Mekong Bank613,000Jim. 4, 1994Cambodian
Cambodia Agricultural Industrial and Merchandise Bank413,000Jun. 29, 1996Japanese
Advanced Bank of Asia Ltd.13,000Oct. 25, 1996Korean
Specialized Bank
Rural Development Bank10 billion rielsJun. 22, 1998State owned
ACLEDA Bank74 billion rielsOct. 6, 2000Cambodian
Peng Heng SME Bank3.5 billion rielsMar. 6, 2001Cambodian
Closed banks (12) 1/
Bangkok Bank Public Co. Ltd.Sep. 26, 1992Thai bank branch
Thai Farmers Bank Public Co. Ltd.Aug. 21, 1992Thai bank branch
Agricultural and Commercial Bank of CambodiaJul. 9, 1992Thai
Angkor BankFeb. 4, 1998Cambodian
Cambodia International BankJun. 30, 1994Singaporean
Cambodia Fanners BankApr. 5, 1992Thai
Chansavangwonk BankMay. 19, 1993Thai
Global Commercial BankApr. 26, 1994Thai
Great International BankMay 30, 1994Australian
Pacific Commercial BankMay 28, 1994Cambodian
Phnom Penh City BankSep. 15, 1993Thai
Rich Nation BankJan. 25, 1994Hong Kong
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Banks closed between November 1999 and November 2001.

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Banks closed between November 1999 and November 2001.

Table 16.Cambodia: Monetary Survey, 1997–2001
19971998199920002001
DecemberMar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Nov.
(In billions of riels, end of period)
Foreign assets (net)1,1721,7282,01923732,5102,4512,5882,7332,8072,9513,051
Foreign assets1,5972,2032,5082,8662,9752,9273,0473,2323,3073,5133,573
Foreign liabilities425475489493465476459498500561523
National Bank (net)8081,4251,6492,0062,1152,0972,1022,1982,2572,3132,363
Assets1,0331,6751,9242,2792,3792,3892,3892,5032,5492,6452,679
Liabilities225251275273264292286305292332316
Deposit money banks (net)363304370367395354486535550638688
Assets564528585587596538659729757867895
Liabilities200224214220201184173194208229207
Domestic assets (net)−109−498−576−640−679−659−758−834−821−827−857
Credit to the economy (net)697839876883909942904837866927918
Government (net)54179103944163−69−82−73−49
National Bank58182107954274−69−82−73−69
Deposit Money Banks−4−4−40000000−1
Public enterprises661098431187
Private sector637655763779860932898905947992981
Other items (net)−805−1,337−1,453−1,523−1,588−1,601−1,662−1,672−1,687−1,754−1,775
Capital and reserves−875−1,387−1,451−1,489−1,552−1,506−1,541−1,510−1,604−1,671−1,688
Other7050−2−33−36−95−121−162−84−83−88
Broad money1,0631,2301,4431,7331,8311,7921,8311,8991,9852,1242,194
Narrow money385543532550546540540548544569589
Currency in circulation356509490505505496495511510535559
Demand deposits2934424541444537353431
Quasi-money6786879111,1831,2861,2521,2911,3511,4411,5551,604
Time deposits1320323733344648525854
Foreign currency deposits6656678791,1461,2531,2181,2451,3031,3901,4961,551
(Changes in percent of beginning of year broad money stock; unless otherwise indicated)
Memorandum items:
Foreign assets (net)32.252.423.624.634.129.939.57.911.919.825.3
Foreign assets40.457.124.824.832.429.037.410.114.225.428.7
Foreign liabilities85.04.71.20.2−1.7−0.9−2.12.22.25.63.5
Domestic assets (net)−15.6−36.6−6.3−4.4−7.1−5.7−12.6−4.2−3.5−3.8−5.4
Domestic credit (net)14.213.43.00.52.34.62.0−3.7−2.11.20.8
Credit to government (net)−8.111.7−6.1−0.6−4.3−6.7−6.9−4.0−4.6−4.2−4.0
Other22.31.79.21.06.511.38.90.32.55.44.7
Other items (net)−29.7−50.1−9.4−4.9−9.4−10.3−14.5−0.50.10.10.0
Broad money16.615.717.320.127.024.226.93.78.516.019.8
Money6.114.9−0.91.20.90.60.50.40.31.62.7
Quasi-money10.50.818.218.926.023.626.43.38.214.417.1
Foreign currency deposits (in millions of U.S. dollars)193176233300324314318333354379395
Nominal GDP (billions of riel)9,14910,54311,64611,71511,78411,85311,92312,16812,41712,67212,845
Velocity 1/1010988777776
Exchange rates (riels/U.S. dollar, end of period)3,4523,7803,7753,8203,8653,8803,9103,9153,9203,9453,930
Source: Data provided by the national bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Ratio of nominal GDP to average stock of broad money.

Source: Data provided by the national bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Ratio of nominal GDP to average stock of broad money.

Table 17.Cambodia: Reserve Money, 1997–2001
19971998199920002001
DecemberMar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Nov.
(In billions of riels; end of period)
Reserve money5458039301,2121,2161,1611,1611,1761,2041,2291,299
Currency outside banks356509490505505496495511510535559
Currency in banks108201828303430423837
Bank deposits179285420690683635633635653656703
Required44638399104107109119117123128
Other 1/136222337591579528524516536533575
Foreign assets (net)8081,4251,6492,0062,1152,0972,1022,1982,2572,3132,363
Foreign assets1,0331,6751,9242,2792,3792,3892,3892,5032,5492,6452,679
Gold0434439424448427427406424458431
Bank accounts658490471539518421740625883768847
Foreign exchange2541375444131849475450
SDR holdings4137201976145133
IMF reserve position00000000000
Other 2/3096739561,2431,3621,5221,2021,4191,1901,3521,347
Foreign liabilities225251275273264292286305292332316
IMF225251275273264292286305292332316
Domestic assets (net)−263−622−719−794−899−936−941−1,022−1,053−1,085−1,064
Credit to government (net)58182107954274−69−82−73−69
Claims211289283278278279272272272272272
Deposits1531061761832362722683413543453/
Claims on banks (net)−51−67−77−78−80−81−69−81−69−76−79
Claims on banks6855561616565353
Restricted deposits4369767779808497858993
Loans from deposit money banks146666600000
Due to FTBC 3/00000000404040
Other items (net)−270−738−749−811−861−862−877−873−902−935−916
Assets121102121113110113124116120127126
Liabilities3928408709239719751,0009881,0221,0621,042
(Changes in percent of beginning of year reserve money stock)
Memorandum items:
Foreign assets (net)61.3113.027.938.450.148.248.88.313.318.122.5
Domestic assets (net)−40.0−65.8−12.1−8.0−19.4−23.3−23.9−6.9−9.6−12.3−10.6
Claims (net)−8.819.9−10.7−1.4−7.4−11.2−10.2−7.3−7.4−7.3−7.2
Credit to government (net)−16.422.9−9.4−1.3−7.0−10.8−11.1−6.2−7.4−6.6−6.2
Claims on banks (net)7.6−2.9−1.2−0.1−0.4−0.40.9−1.00.0−0.6−0.9
Other items (net)−31.2−85.8−1.4−6.6−12.0−12.1−13.70.3−2.2−5.0−3.4
Reserve money21.247.215.930.430.824.824.91.33.75.811.9
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Effective May 1994, deposits required of new commercial banks prior to their commencing operations.

Consists mainly of holdings of short-term securities issued by foreign governments.

Related to the reacapitalization of the Foreign Trade Bank of Cambodia (FTBC).

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Effective May 1994, deposits required of new commercial banks prior to their commencing operations.

Consists mainly of holdings of short-term securities issued by foreign governments.

Related to the reacapitalization of the Foreign Trade Bank of Cambodia (FTBC).

Table 18.Cambodia: consolidated balance Sheet of Deposit Money banks, 1997–2001
19971998199920002001
DecemberMar.JuneSept.Dec.Mar.JuneSept.Nov.
(In billions of riels; end of period)
Foreign assets (net)363304370367395354486535550638688
Foreign assets564528585587596538659729757867895
Foreign liabilities200224214220201184173194208229207
Domestic assets (net)1447179109158225113134169180129
Claims on government (net)−4−4−40000000−1
Claims00000000000
Deposits44411111001
Claims on public enterprises661098431187
Claims on private sector 1/637655763779860932898905947992981
Claims on National Bank (net)14141195385434545
Claims2120191816141413535354
Liabilities7689101168989
Other assets (net)−509−599−702−688−714−714−796−777−822−866−903
Assets229248251277281241207180172187212
Fixed assets1101201091101089910110096100115
Interbank claims3255577476664915162018
Other assets8873869397755765606878
Liabilities7388479539659959551,0039579941,0531,114
Capital603690767755778761791792828878937
Restricted deposits44422222222
Interbank liabilities2629495972674510101410
Other105125132148144125164153154158166
Reserves200346504753773717737719758771818
Cash108201828303430423837
Deposits at National Bank190338484735745687703689716733781
Other credits to National Bank00000000000
Deposits7077219531,2291,3271,2951,3361,3881,4761,5891,635
Demand deposits2934424541444537353431
Time and savings deposits1320323733344648525854
Foreign currency deposits6656678791,1461,2531,2181,2451,3031,3901,4961,551
Source: Data provided by the national bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Predominantly in foreign currency.

Source: Data provided by the national bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Predominantly in foreign currency.

Table 19.Cambodia: Interest Rates, 1996–2001 1/(In percent; end of period)
199619971998199920002001
Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.Jun.Sep.
Deposit rates
Riel savings deposits8.87.47.57.37.37.26.65.95.15.13.3
Riel term deposits2/0.90.90.90.70.70.70.50.50.51.73.0
Foreign currency savings deposits2.52.42.52.22.22.22.22.32.32.22.0
Foreign currency term deposits3.73.94.03.53.53.53.83.73.93.73.3
Lending rates 3/
Foreign currency loans: rates charged to private enterprises18.618.417.617.317.317.317.817.417.117.015.5
Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Simple averages of rates reported by the ten commercial banks with the largest deposits.

The average rate shown is that reported for three-month riel deposits. The volume of total riel deposits has been small throughout 1996–01.

Virtually all loans to the private sector in Cambodia are denominated in foreign currencies.

Source: Data provided by the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC).

Simple averages of rates reported by the ten commercial banks with the largest deposits.

The average rate shown is that reported for three-month riel deposits. The volume of total riel deposits has been small throughout 1996–01.

Virtually all loans to the private sector in Cambodia are denominated in foreign currencies.

Table 20.Cambodia: Prudential Regulations(As of December 2001)
RegulationsMain FeaturesDate of Relevant Regulations 1/
Large exposureBanks are not allowed to grant credit to an individual customer exceeding 20 percent of their net worth.Dec. 29, 1997

Feb. 17, 2000
LicensingAll entities that conduct banking activities must be licensed by the NBC. The NBC determines the conditions for licensing.Oct. 25, 1996
LiquidityBanks must at all times have a liquidity ratio of at least 100 percent.Feb. 9, 2000
Loan/deposit ratio for banks and financial institutionsThe total amount of domestic deposits must be greater than or equal to the sum of domestic loans, deposits with other local banks and the NBC, and vault cash.Aug. 28, 1998
Maintenance of required reserves against deposits and other borrowingReserve requirements of 8 percent are levied on deposits in both foreign and domestic currency. Reserves are defined as cash-in-vault or unremunerated deposits at the NBC, are calculated on the basis of average daily deposit liabilities over successive 28 day periods, and must be met on an average basis over the period. Penalties for noncompliance are imposed by charging 1/10 of the latest refinancing rate per day on the deficiency.Dec. 30, 1993

Jan. 1, 1998
Minimum capitalLocally incorporated banks and foreign bank branches must have paid up minimum capital equal to at least CR 50 billion. In addition, each bank must maintain 10 percent of authorized capital in a special capital account at the NBC, as a form of security. The first 5 percent is unremunerated. The second 5 percent is remunerated at a rate that follows SIBOR.Jan. 1, 1994

Jan. 1, 1998

Feb. 9, 2000
Monitoring banks open foreign exchange positionsBanks are required to observe a limit on the long or short position in each currency not exceeding 5 percent of the net worth, and a limit on the, aggregate short position not exceeding 15 percent of the net worth.Jan. 16, 1995
Provisions for bad and doubtful debtsBanks are required to classify their assets and off-balance sheet commitments into the four classifications (standard, substandard, doubtful, and lost), and the specific provisioning shall be recorded depending on the classifications in the account and charged to the profit and loss account in the month identified.Dec. 31, 1994

Feb. 17, 2000
Solvency ratio (capital adequacy)Banks must maintain solvency ratio (net worth divided by the aggregate of assets and off balance sheet commitments) at the minimum level of 20 percentMay 22, 1995

Feb. 16, 2000
Fixed assetsThe total amount of fixed assets must not exceed 30 percent of net worth.Dec. 29, 1997
Banks are not allowed to acquire fixed assets except for operating purposes.Nov. 8, 2001
Other operational regulations for banks and financial institutionsBanks must maintain their net worth at least equal to their paid-up capital. Banks are not allowed to grant credit to their own shareholders, members of board of directors, managers, individuals or legal entities who participate in their establishments.

Banks are not allowed to use demand deposits to grant long-term credit.
Dec. 29, 1997
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes regulations, Prakas (announcements), and circulars.

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

Includes regulations, Prakas (announcements), and circulars.

Table 21.Cambodia: Balance of Payments, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
Current account excluding official transfers−514−493−246−224−276−316
Current account including official transfers−168−193−37−30−55−42
Trade balance−446−476−263−227−259−336
Exports7986187868679711399
Domestic exports 1/2682955346047091103
Re-exports530322252263261296
Imports, f.o.b.−1,244−1,093−1,050−1,094−1,230−1,734
Of which: retained imports, f.o.b.−714−771−798−831−968−1438
Services and income (net)−99−63−43−57−87−50
Services (net)−67−284−9−1032
Receipts121187191174194286
Of which: tourism53826866119178
Payments−188−215−187−183−205−254
Income (net)−32−35−47−48−76−82
Receipts81114161830
Payments−40−46−61−64−94−111
Of which: interest−11−14−17−18−11−11
Private transfers (net)314660607070
Official transfers (net)346299210194220274
Capital and financial account88123−44−66−31−5
Medium- and long-term loans−40−56−77−69−57−23
Disbursements797538465791
Amortization−119−131−115−115−114−114
Foreign direct investment151294168121146110
Short-term flows and errors and omissions 2/−23−115−135−117−119−92
Overall balance−78−70−81−96−86−47
Financing787081968647
Change in gross official reserves−82−52−28−11−32−63
Debt rescheduling2700000
Change in arrears (- = reduction)91122109108110105
Use of Fund credit4200−184
Purchases/disbursements420001111
Repurchases/repayments000137
Memorandum items:
Current account balance
Excluding official transfers (in percent of GDP)−16.7−15.5−7.9−8.0−9.0−10.2
Including official transfers (in percent of GDP)−5.4−6.1−1.2−1.1−1.8−1.4
Gross official reserves 3/182234262390422485
In months of imports of goods and services1.52.12.43.53.32.8
Net international reserves110164197323349411
External debt 4/ (in percent of GDP)181966737271
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for unrecorded forestry exports.

Believed to be primarily short-term capital and unrecorded transactions.

Includes $I 17 million associated with the return of Cambodian gold holdings by the BIS in 1998.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiation and rescheduling.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for unrecorded forestry exports.

Believed to be primarily short-term capital and unrecorded transactions.

Includes $I 17 million associated with the return of Cambodian gold holdings by the BIS in 1998.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiation and rescheduling.

Table 22.Cambodia: Merchandise Exports, 1995–2000
Unit199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
Total exports7986187868679711,399
Domestic exports2682955346047091,103
GSP (incl. Garment)281022793925641,012
Logs and sawn timber 1/18514822417811149
Rubber 1/413223272830
Volume(’000 MT)403228575859
Unit price($/MT)1,026985799469487514
Fish233336
Volume(’000 MT)122144
Unit price($/MT)1,9761,8621,6111,9258651,441
Agricultural products (incl. rice)71012
Others1234314
Re-exports530322252263261296
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for illegal exports.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes estimates for illegal exports.

Table 23.Cambodia: Merchandise Imports, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total imports, f.o.b. 1/1,2441,0931,0501,0941,2301,734
Total imports, c.i.f.1,3521,1881,1411,1891,3371,885
Freight and insurance on imports−108959195107151
Taxable imports955739740553720793
Cigarettes19320918814411970
Motorcycles361817443631
Beer15145323
VCRs1561212
TV sets17136566
Audio cassettes432233
Gold3064113632834
Vehicles222526152723
Construction materials19201981313
Clothing172118223346
Cloth13104443
Petroleum products10012891111131175
Sugar61315142210
Cement121516132027
Steel45111921
Other176199196163258327
Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes imports for re-exports.

Sources: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Includes imports for re-exports.

Table 24.Cambodia: Investment Approvals by Sector, 1995–2000 1/
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total2,240762744853456220
Agriculture5926150104
Industries30143851665222667
Agro Industry12642306
Building Material1169107
Cement13672055460
Energy401801700
Food Processing383069120
Garment3046971277537
Petroleum252232111
Tobacco4222700
Wood Processing520747179140
Others2161342558716
Services4251121253919669
Construction1972813180
Education9800200
Infrastructure1170211001
Telecommunication633530190
Transporation41001150
Others342501415468
Tourism1,510119421122580
Hotel140101401062571
Tourism Centre Others1,37071609
Others0110000
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Including only total fixed assets approved.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Including only total fixed assets approved.

Table 25.Cambodia: Investment Approvals by Investor Country of Origin, 1995–2000 1/
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total2,240762744853456218
Cambodia33214416629626058
Foreign1,908618578557196160
America148897112013
United States10958652012
Canada39311601
Asia1,560534437534171124
Thailand195227332126
Malaysia1,41119466124142
Singapore10433152118
Indonesia11316115
Vietnam000010
Taiwan9164441445519
China337361084628
Hong Kong12246991305
Korea151785019
Japan1110120
Europe1995598423
United Kingdom233960217
France175101115
Switzerland060510
Portugal101100
Others12135411
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance

Including only total fixed assets approved.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance

Including only total fixed assets approved.

Table 26.Cambodia: Foreign Debt, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Est.
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Total external debt outstanding 1/5626172,0502,1102,2002,195
Multilateral187258287348536529
World Bank60103126156221221
Asian Development Bank538595128209209
IMF7470666410194
Bilateral3753581,7631,7621,6641,667
New debt1616
Rescheduled debt2627
Nonrescheduled debt1,6211,623
Total disbursements12175414669104
Multilateral1047539456797
World Bank264328152936
Asian Development Bank363211302648
IMF420001111
Bilateral1702126
Total amortization119131115116118121
Multilateral000137
World Bank000000
Asian Development Bank000000
IMF000137
Bilateral119131115115114114
New debt00
Rescheduled debt00
Nonrescheduled debt114114
Total interest678888
Multilateral123344
World Bank011111
Asian Development Bank001122
IMF111111
Bilateral555544
New debt011100
Rescheduled debt111111
Nonrescheduled debt433333
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiations and rescheduling.

Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Starting in 1997, includes $1,346 million owed to countries of the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. This amount is indicative and subject to negotiations and rescheduling.

Table 27.Cambodia: Previously State-Owned Enterprises and Assets Sold to the Private Sector(As of October 2001)
BusinessMinistryCountry of buyerDate of saleSale price (US$)
Total34,627,590
Flour FactoryIndustryJuly 24, 1991450,000
Soap FactoryIndustryCambodiaOctober 25, 199185,800
Mechanical Factory #2IndustryNovember 14, 1991360,000
Mechanical Factory #4IndustryCambodiaNovember 14, 1991225,000
Battery ShopIndustryNovember 14, 1991156,000
Tire ShopIndustryCambodiaNovember 14, 199140,000
Mechanical Factory #3IndustryNovember 15, 1991440,000
Mechanical Factory #9IndustryNovember 15, 1991420,000
Mechanical Factory #7IndustryNovember 29, 1991155,000
KM 6 StoreIndustryCambodiaJuly 30, 199256,000
Rubber WarehouseIndustryCambodiaJuly 30, 199225,000
Bata Shoe FactoryIndustryAugust 24, 1992140,000
Soap FactoryIndustryCambodiaAugust 24, 199272,000
Kbal Thnal StoreIndustryCambodiaDecember 8, 1992170,000
Print ShopCultureCambodiaJune 15, 1993
Agriculture Material ManufacturerIndustryCambodiaJune 17, 1994
Print ShopCultureCambodiaJune 17, 1995
CKCCommerceCambodiaMarch 11, 199610,680,000
Battery ManufacturerIndustryNovember 14, 199680,000
SOKLAIT (Warehouse and plant)IndustryCambodiaOctober 21, 19961,250,000
Tobacco ManufacturerIndustryCambodiaJanuary 26, 19963,400,000
CKCCommerceCambodia199710,680
Zeam Conte Garages 2CommerceCambodiaJanuary 27, 1997200,000
Vacant Land near the Cigarette FactoryIndustryCambodia1997132,000
Bran Oil FactoryIndustryCambodiaDecember 4, 19971,020,000
Zeam Conte Garages 1PlanningCambodiaOctober 24, 1997200,000
Gas Station in Seam Reap ProvinceFinanceCambodiaOctober 8, 199740,000
Taprum HotelFinanceCambodiaMarch 13, 199770,000
Warehouse of Crop Company GroupCommerceCambodia199863,600
Warehouse in Posat ProvinceCommerceCambodiaApril 2, 199821,980
Pail in Hotel in Batambang ProvinceCommerceCambodiaFebruary 18, 199845,666
Vacant Land behind Council of MinistersCouncil of MinistersCambodia1998800,000
Focker AirplaneCouncil of MinistersCambodiaNovember-98663,970
Peace HotelFinanceCambodiaJuly 30, 199840,000
Chinese HospitalHealthCambodia19982,345,324
Beng Trabek GarageIndustryCambodiaJanuary 26, 19981,185,000
Beverage FactoryIndustryCambodiaJuly 20, 1998630,000
Phnom Kamchay HotelInteriorCambodiaJune 15, 1998155,516
Vacant Land in Kampong Speu ProvinceInteriorCambodiaApril 30, 199871,160
Warehouse of Acid WaterPublic WorksCambodiaJuly 21, 1998352,000
KAMTRANSHIPPublic WorksCambodiaMay 18, 1998543,000
Driving School DepartmentPublic WorksCambodiaDecember 5, 1999250,000
Goods Transport CompanyPublic WorksCambodiaDecember 22, 20001,189,878
Vacant Land in Phnom Penh Health DepartmentPhnom Penh MunicipalityCambodiaApril 18, 200041,198
Youth ClubPhnom Penh MunicipalityU.S. Govt.September 26, 20005,839,000
Warehouse in Construction CompanyCommerceCambodiaJune 29, 2001377,355
Second Cotton Warehouse in KampexinCommerceCambodiaJune 21, 2001135,462
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 28.Cambodia: State-Owned Enterprises Leased to the Private Sector(As of October 2001)
Number of LeasesDuration of Lease
1–14 years15–20 years>20 years
By type of asset
Beverage companies1010
Brick, ceramics, stone manufacturers7016
Car repair, ship repair4103
Chemical plants4031
Garages, gas stations16088
Land, buildings5281430
Leather, textile manufacturers190109
Mechanical plants4031
Miscellaneous manufacturing271620
Restaurants, guest house221615
Sawmills9072
Shops, offices2611015
Tire factories6042
Warehouses2201012
Total2192273124
By government agency
Agriculture22110111/
Commerce130491/
Council of Ministers3003
Culture51041/
Defense1422101/
Education4202
Finance0000
Foreign Affairs8521
Health10011/
Industry51030211/
Information4112
Interior20111/
Planning0000
Public works and transport1511041/
Post and telecommunications2110
State secretariat of civil aviation111100
Tourism661/
Urbanization551/
Phnom Penh Municipality53415341/
Total219
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Including unknown duration.

Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Including unknown duration.

Table 29.Cambodia: Proposed Privatization Decisions(As of October 2001)
Type of EnterpriseTotal Number of EnterprisesDecisions
To be LiquidatedTo be PrivatizedTo be Retained
Total38111017
Chemical industry11
Construction6321
Ferry boat11
Fisheries44
Goods transport11
Port activities66
Passenger transport11
Printing, video312
Rubber plantations716
Service industries6231
Trade11
Utilities, post, and telecommunications22
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 30.Cambodia: Joint Ventures Entered Into by the State(As of October 2001)
Share Retained by the State

(In Percent)
Private Interest
CompanyBusinessMinistryNationalityShare in percent
CASOTIMWood ProcessingAgriculture20Russia80
COLEXIMWood ProcessingAgriculture51Japan49
Royal Air CambodgeAirlineCouncil of Ministers60Malaysia40
Cambodia Samart CommunicationTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications30Thailand70
Cambodia Shinawatra Co.TelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications30Thailand70
CAMTELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications30Thailand70
SOCITELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications30Thailand70
Telstra International Ltd.TelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications40Australia60
CAMINTELTelecommunicationsPost & Telecommunications51Indonesia49
Cambodia Pharmaceutical EnterpriseMedicine ProcessingHealth48China52
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Source: Data provided by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Table 31.Cambodia: General Education, 1995/96–2000/01
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/002000/01
Number of students 1/2,093,7062,246,0512,314,8232,402,1672,553,2292,796,773
Primary education 2/1,805,6311,918,4852,011,7722,094,0002,211,7382,408,109
Secondary education288,075327,566303,051308,167341,491388,664
Junior high school 3/235,155265,895229,102226,057233,278283,578
Senior high school 4/52,92061,67173,94982,110108,213105,086
Number of schools5,2875,3565,5015,6435,7776,130
Primary education 1/4,8454,8995,0265,1565,2745,468
Secondary education442457475487503662
Junior high school 2/350351350355363511
Senior high school 3/92106125132140151
Educational personnel65,87467,85269,68471,54373,30476,120
Primary education 1/45,75347,14748,46049,40050,18852,168
Secondary education20,12120,70521,22422,14323,11623,952
Junior high school 2/11,31517,45917,38817,57018,02018,952
Senior high school 3/8,8063,2463,8364,5735,0965,000
Memorandum items:
Students per educational personnel323333343537
Primary education 1/394142424446
Secondary education141614141516
Junior high school 2/211513131315
Senior high school 3/61919182121
Source: Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports.

Excluding technical and vocational education and higher education.

First to sixth grade.

Seventh to ninth grade.

Tenth to twelfth grade.

Source: Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports.

Excluding technical and vocational education and higher education.

First to sixth grade.

Seventh to ninth grade.

Tenth to twelfth grade.

Table 32.Cambodia: Public Health Sector, 1995–2000
199519961997199819992000
Number of health personnel18,37719,07518,59417,960
Doctors1,1171,2471,4061,6801,7641,878
Pharmacists296327325391381362
Dentists506458706985
Nurses8,4328,4098,4618,8018,3128,160
Other 1/8,1278,1338,0687,475
Number of health establishments1,4551,4371,2601,3291,2961,185
Phnom Penh888888
Other1,4471,4291,2521,3211,2881,177
Number of medical beds11,40011,90011,10011,00010,40010,900
Phnom Penh1,8001,7001,9001,9001,9001,900
Other9,60010,2009,2009,1008,5009,000
Memoranda items
Population10.210.310.411.411.612.0
Number of inhabitants per doctor9,1328,2927,3746,8086,5756,390
Sources: Ministry of Public Health; and Fund staff estimates.

Including assistant doctors and pharmacists, midwifes, and other health Workers.

Sources: Ministry of Public Health; and Fund staff estimates.

Including assistant doctors and pharmacists, midwifes, and other health Workers.

Table 33.Cambodia: Cambodia: Employment by Sector of Activity, 1995–2000
1995 1/1996 2/1997 3/1998 4/1999 5/2000 6/1995 1/1996 2/1997 3/1998 4/1999 5/2000 6/
(In thousands)(In percent of total)
Total employment4,931,8124,456,1684,429,6864,909,2185,519,0165,275,177100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries4,013,5383,482,4583,491,9293,770,9824,213,6203,889,04881.478.178.876.876.373.7
Industry141,647211,063210,135216,348352,512444,1862.94.74.74.46.48.4
Services776,627762,647727,622921,888952,884941,94315.717.116.418.817.317.9
Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries4,013,5383,482,4583,491,9293,770,9824,213,6203,889,04881.478.178.876.876.373.7
Agriculture and forestry3,964,2083,388,7623,412,7823,698,1454,108,9683,741,76980.476.077.075.374.570.9
Fisheries49,33093,69679,14772,837104,652147,2791.02.11.81.51.92.8
Industry141,647211,063210,135216,348352,512444,1862.94.74.74.46.48.4
Mining and quarrying5,5551,0178,0106,3855,5083,3280.10.00.20.10.10.1
Manufacturing108,452168,754144,391158,969258,876367,2862.23.83.33.24.77.0
Utilities9343,2623,8313,2785,5083,7990.00.10.10.10.10.1
Construction26,70638,03053,90347,71682,62069,7730.50.91.21.01.51.3
Services776,627762,647727,622921,888952,884941,94315.717.116.418.817.317.9
Trade350,242394,307349,182341,351402,084436,3087.18.87.97.07.38.3
Hotels and restaurants11,2236,9755,78915,28127,54018,7940.20.20.10.30.50.4
Transport and communications64,12966,09781,486118,001121,176119,5961.31.51.82.42.22.3
Financial intermediation4,9333,79510,7881,4335,5088,2350.10.10.20.00.10.2
Real estate, renting13,9039,1895,9622,98311,0168,4010.30.20.10.10.20.2
Public administration169,848143,271138,219221,966187,272146,9863.43.23.14.53.42.8
Education86,25261,81255,60281,07388,12887,3851.71.41.31.71.61.7
Health and social work21,94315,53318,10826,21927,54030,2350.40.30.40.50.50.6
Other social services33,34315,83620,05168,31138,55640,0980.70.40.51.40.70.8
Other20,81145,83242,43545,27044,06445,9050.41.01.00.90.80.9
Source: Data provided by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Based on the results of the Demographic Survey of Cambodia (Apr. 1995-Mar. 1996).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1996).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1997).

Based on the results of the 1998 Population Census.

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1999)

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Cambodia (LFS 2000).

Source: Data provided by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

Based on the results of the Demographic Survey of Cambodia (Apr. 1995-Mar. 1996).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1996).

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1997).

Based on the results of the 1998 Population Census.

Based on the results of the Socioeconomic Survey of Cambodia (SESC 1999)

Based on the results of the Labor Force Survey of Cambodia (LFS 2000).

ANNEX I Summary of the Cambodian Tax System

(As of October 2001)

TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionsRates
1. Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains
Tax on salariesA monthly tax on income from salaries (including remuneration, bonuses, overtime compensations, and fringe benefits), withheld at source. The tax applies to all salaries received in Cambodia if the employer is a Cambodian resident and to salaries received abroad by Cambodian nationals.Exempted from tax on salaries are: (i) salaries of diplomatic and other foreign officials, such as international organization representatives, (ii) real refunds on professional expenses, (iii) indemnity for the layoff provided under the Labor Law, (iv) additional remuneration with social characteristics provided under the Labor Law, (v) uniform and professional equipment provided by employers, and (vi) travel expense allowance.Progressive rates applied to monthly income are as follows: (i) CR 0–500,000,0 percent; (ii) CR 500,001–1,250,000 riel, 5 percent; (iii) CR 1,250,001–8,500,000 riel, 10 percent; (iv) CR 8,500,001–12,500,000 riel, 15 percent; and (v) CR 12,500,000 and over, 20 percent.
Deductions of CR 75,000 from the tax base per month are allowed for each minor dependent child and a spouse without occupation.
Tax on property rentalA tax on receipts from rents on land and buildings. The tax is paid by the ownerProperty owners whose monthly income from rent is below 500,000 riel are exempted.10 percent
Tax on profitsA monthly tax on the profits of businesses, including interest, rent and royalty received, and capital gains from the sale of assets. An enterprise under the real regime system is subject to accounts-based profit taxes, and an enterprise under the estimated regime system is subject to a proxy profits tax based on estimated turnover.Exemption from tax on profits provided under the Law on Taxation are: (i) the income of the Royal Government and institutions of the Royal Government, (ii) the income of religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational organization, (iii) the income of labor organization, chamber of commerce, industry or agriculture, and (iv) the profit from the sale of agricultural produce. In addition, under the Law on Investment, exemptions can be granted by the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC) to investing enterprises for up to 8 years, commencing the year the investment project first becomes profitable.For corporation, the tax rates applied to annual profits are as follows: (i) an investment enterprise during the period of tax exemption, 0 percent; (ii) and investment enterprise after the period of tax exemption, 9 percent; (iii) enterprises engage in production or exploitation of oil, gas, natural resources including timber, ore, gold, and precious stones, 30 percent; (iv) other legal person, 20 percent.
For noneorporation, progressive rates applied to annual profits are as follows: (i) CR 0–6,000,000,0 percent; (ii) CR 6,000,001–15,000,000, 5 percent; (iii) CR 15,000,001–102,000,000 riel, 10 percent; (iv) CR 102,000,001–150,000,000 riel, 15 percent; and (v) 150,000,000 and higher, 20 percent.
Deductions allowed from tax on profits are: (i) interest expenses, (ii) depreciation of tangible, and intangible property, and natural
2. Patent taxAn annual registration or license fee levied on all businesses, industries, and services. The base is the previous year’s turnover, or estimated turnover. New businesses are taxed on the basis of a provisional estimate.Farmers and business under the family kind are not subject to the tax.For business and industries, the patent is levied according to annual turnover as follows: (i) CR 0–7,500,000, CR 15,000; (ii) CR 7,500,001–12,500,000, CR 21,000; (iii) CR 12,500,001–25,000,000, CR 27,000; (iv) CR 25,000,001–30,000,000, CR 40,000,000; (v) CR 30,000,001–37,500,000, CR 60,000,000; (vi) CR 37,500,001–50,000,000, CR 90,000,000; (vii) CR 50,000,001–62,000,000, CR 140,000; (viii) CR 62,000,001–75,000,000, CR 180,000; (ix) CR 75,000,001–1 million, CR240.000, (x)CR 100,000,001–1 billion (max.), 0.1 percent of turnover.
For services, the patent is levied according to annual turnover as follows: (i) CR 0–3,000,000, CR 15,000; (ii) CR 3,000,001–5,000,000, CR 21,000; (iii) CR 5,000,001–10,000,000, CR 27,000; (iv) CR 10,000,001–12,000,000, CR 40,000,000; (v) CR 12,000,001–15,500,000, CR 60,000,000; (vi) CR 15,000,001–20,000,000, CR 90,000,000; (vii) CR 20,000,001–24,800,000, CR 140,000; (viii) CR 24,800,001–30,000,000, CR 180,000; (ix) CR 30,000,001–40,000,000, CR 240,000, (x) CR 40,000,001–400,000,000 (max.), 0.25 percent of turnover.
3. Taxes on domestic goods and services
VATValue added tax, applied to any person subject to the real regime system. It covers both goods and services, extending through all stages of importation, production and distribution.Exempted from the VAT are: (i) public postal service, (ii) hospital, clinic, medical and dental service, and the sale of medical and dental goods, (iii) public transportation service, (iv) insurance service, (v) primary financial service, (vi) the import of goods for personal use exempted from customs duties, (vii) nonprofit activities in the public interest, (viii) the import of goods for or by foreign diplomats and consular missions, international organization and agencies of technical cooperation of other governments for use in the exercise of their official function.Uniform rate of 10 percent
The calculation of tax payable in a tax period, a credit is allowed to the taxable person for the tax payable in respect of: (i) all taxable supplies made to that person during the tax period, (ii) all imports of goods by that person during the tax period. The credit is only allowed if the supply or import is for use for taxable supplies of the taxable person.
Shall not be allowed input tax credit for any tax paid on: (i) purchases or imports of automobiles, unless the taxable person is in the business of dealing in, or hiring such automobiles, (ii) Entertainment, amusement and recreation expenses, unless the taxable person is in the business of providing entertainment, amusement and recreation, (iii) Purchases of petroleum products for use as road fuel, unless the taxable person is in the business of supplying petroleum products.
Turnover taxA monthly tax on business turnover, applied to any person subject to the estimated regime system.Agricultural products sold by primary producers (but not sold by traders); and mobile traders and small permanent establishments, as determined by the Minister of Economy and Finance. Enterprises operating under the Law on Investment are not exempted from the turnover tax.Uniform rate of 2 percent
Excise taxA tax levied on select products, both locally produced and imported.None.
Airline tickets and telecommunication services:2 percent
Motor vehicles ((smaller than 2000 cc):45 percent
Automobiles (2000 cc and larger):80–110 percent
Spare parts for motor vehicles (125 cc and larger):15 percent
Spare parts for motor vehicles (2000 cc and larger):25 percent
Cigarettes:33.33 percent
Alcoholic products (including beer):33.33 percent
Gasoline:25 percent
Lubricating oil:25 percent
Stamp taxTax payable in the form of stamps affixed to some documents.None.Specific small amounts depending on the type of document, ranging from CR 100 for school registration to CR 2,000 riel for investment authorizations.
4. Slaughter taxTax levied on slaughterhouses based on llie value of the livestock that is slaughtered.Exempted from slaughter tax are livestock (i) slaughtered for celebrating national tradition, (ii) slaughtered for research uses, and (iii) killed in accident.Uniform rale of 3 percent of the set price for each animal.
5. Registration tax (Taxes on property transfer)Tax levied on the transfer of land, buildings, motor vehicles, motorcycles, and ships.Transfers of property ordered by the State are exempted, as are government transfers, public utilities, and charitable organizations. The sale of motor vehicles is also exempted if the seller is subject to the turnover tax or the profits tax.Tax is paid by purchaser at 3 percent of presumptive values.
6. Taxes on international trade
Taxes on imports
- Import dutiesEffective January 2000, a general tariff (based on the Harmonized System classification) has been levied on all imports. All rates are ad valorem and duties are levied on c.i.f. basis, except for petroleum products, chemical fertilizers for which values for duty purposes are fixed by the Minister of Economy and Finance.Exempted from import duties are:

(i) imports for projects and investments approved by the CDC, on approval at the time of import; (ii) fuel for Royal Air Cam bodge, up to a ceiling of 2,000 tons of aviation fuel; (iii) insecticides, pesticides, and agricultural machinery (excluding tractors); and (iv) imports of embassies, international organizations providing humanitarian aid, and projects financed through bilateral grants and aid.
There are essentially four rate categories:

(i) 0 percent for essential goods and basic raw materials; (ii) 7 percent for intermediate goods seed and others; (iii) 15 percenl for machinery and equipment; and (iv) 35 for luxury goods including automobiles.
Petroleum products:

(i) Gasoline: 35 percent of the prescribed value of $320 per ton.

(ii) Diesel: 15 percent of the prescribed value of $275 per ton.
Export taxes
- Tax on timberAd valorem tax levied on the value of processed woods at export. Exports of woods are limited to those cut on government-agreed concessions. An export ban on all logs was introduced on December 31, 1996.None.0, 5, and 10 percent
- Tax on rubberAd valorem tax levied on rubber.None.7 percent.
- Other productsAd valorem tax levied on livestock and precious stonesNone.0, 5, 10, and 50 percent
7. Other taxes and fees
Motor vehicle taxAnnual levy automobiles and boats.None.
Lorry:160,000 riel
Motor car:
up to 9 horsepower37,500 & 50,000 riel
9–12 horsepower50,000 & 75,000 riel
over 12 horsepower87,500 & 125,000 riel
Motorcycles3,000–7,500 riel
Small power boat5,000 riel
Cargo ship (over 2,000 tons)1,200,000 riel
Sea-going fishing boat (over 500 horsepower)300,000 riel
Tax on unused landTax levied on land in specified cities and areas where there is no construction or with construction but not in use.None.Tax is paid by purchaser at 2 percent of presumptive values.
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Cambodian authorities.

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