Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Brunei Darussalam

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
December 1997
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Information about Asia and the Pacific Asia y el Pacífico
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Table 1.Brunei Darussalam: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators, 1991-96
Area (sq. kilometers)5,765
Population (1996)305,100
GDP per capita (1996; US$)17,315
GNP per capita (1996; US$)26,286
QuotaSDR 150 million
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Output and prices (percent change) 1/
Nominal GDP (B$ million)6,6216,5656,5856,6867,0677,449
Real GDP4.0-1.10.51.82.02.8
Average oil price received (US$ per barrel)20.720.718.817.118.322.0
Consumer prices (period average)1.61.34.32.46.02.0
GDP deflator-2.20.3-0.2-0.33.62.6
Money and Banking (percent change)
Claims on private sector46.05.225.132.8-19.923.4
Broad money4.04.610.738.67.3-2.3
Of which: currency outside banks5.98.62.01.811.15.2
Prime lending rate (end of period)7.06.05.86.06.56.5
Public Finances (percent of GDP)
Total revenue40.635.434.533.634.738.3
Tax22.019.617.316.317.318.9
Nontax18.515.817.317.317.419.5
Transfers 2/..6.217.331.027.712.2
Total expenditure41.746.651.664.162.347.5
Current30.633.936.134.834.433.3
Capital11.112.715.515.817.313.2
Investment in pub. enterprises 3/......13.510.61.1
Fiscal balance (deficit -)-1.1-5.00.30.50.13.0
Fiscal balance excluding transfers (deficit -)-1.1-11.2-17.1-30.5-27.6-9.2
Balance of Payments (US$ million) 4/
Trade balance1,415997456441415100
Exports2,4702,4022,2482,1542,3902,596
Of which: oil and gas2,3892,2842,1662,0092,2212,413
Imports1,0551,4061,7921,7131,9752,497
Investment income, net1,9391,8821,7382,4712,4902,755
Current account balance2,9442,4171,9462,7872,4712,699
Current account balance (percent of GDP)76.860.047.863.749.651.1
Total international reserves (US$ million)2,1342,5732,4794,3825,8746,001
Official5313773551,0651,8332,153
Banking system1,6032,1962,1243,3184,0423,848
Exchange rate
Exchange rate regime: Pegged to Singapore dollar
Brunei dollar per U.S. dollar (period average)1.7281.6291.6161.5271.4171.410
Nominal effective exchange rate 5/90.793.394.797.3100.0102.9
Real effective exchange rate 5/89.290.192.794.4100.0103.2
Sources: Data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

Except where indicated otherwise.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

BIA investment in public enterprises.

Balance of payments data are based on staff estimates of foreign investment income.

Period average; 1995=100

Sources: Data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

Except where indicated otherwise.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

BIA investment in public enterprises.

Balance of payments data are based on staff estimates of foreign investment income.

Period average; 1995=100

Table 2.Brunei Darussalam: Gross Domestic Product in Current Prices by Economic Activity, 1991-96(In millions of Brunei dollars)
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Total6,6216,5656,5856,6867,0677,449
Oil and gas sector3,3352,9842,7532,5412,5352,668
Non-oil and gas sector3,2863,5823,8324,1454,5324,781
Agriculture and hunting119122125128132137
Forestry and logging151617182022
Fishing262832333637
Mining, quarrying, and manufacturing195204208213221230
Electricity production626467707479
Construction303316334364405440
Wholesale trade128137142152163171
Retail trade273285296307325347
Restaurants and hotels73788696108119
Transportation, storage, and communication235252265278299322
Banking and finance236241254274298325
Insurance707477829094
Real estate and business services677073768182
Ownership of dwellings666973768082
Community, social, and personal services1,5681,7831,9482,1532,3902,521
Less: Bank charges149157164176188227
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 3.Brunei Darussalam: Composition of Gross Domestic Product in Current Prices, 1991-96(In percent of total GDP)
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Oil and gas sector50.445.441.838.035.935.8
Non-oil and gas sector49.654.658.262.064.164.2
Agriculture and hunting1.81.91.91.91.91.8
Forestry and logging0.20.20.30.30.30.3
Fishing0.40.40.50.50.50.5
Mining, quarrying, and manufacturing2.93.13.23.23.13.1
Electricity production0.91.01.01.01.01.1
Construction4.64.85.15.55.75.9
Wholesale trade1.92.12.22.32.32.3
Retail trade4.14.34.54.64.64.7
Restaurants and hotels1.11.21.31.41.51.6
Transportation, storage, and communication3.63.84.04.24.24.3
Banking and finance3.63.73.94.14.24.4
Insurance1.11.11.21.21.31.3
Real estate and business services1.01.11.11.11.11.1
Ownership of dwellings1.01.01.11.11.11.1
Community, social, and personal services23.727.229.632.233.833.8
Less: Bank charges2.32.42.52.62.73.0
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 4.Brunei Darussalam: Gross Domestic Product in Constant Prices by Economic Activity, 1991-96(In millions of Brunei dollars)
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Total3,7513,7093,7283,7953,8713,978
Oil and gas sector2,3382,2042,1512,1302,1062,095
Non-oil and gas sector1,4131,5051,5771,6661,7651,883
Agriculture and hunting434344444445
Forestry and logging555666
Fishing9910101112
Mining, quarrying, and manufacturing636364666871
Electricity production313232333435
Construction105106109115125135
Wholesale trade565757596264
Retail trade118119119120123127
Restaurants and hotels323436404449
Transportation, storage, and communication85909499107115
Banking and finance929498104111119
Insurance282930313436
Real estate and business services272728293032
Ownership of dwellings212222242527
Community, social, and personal services7928729339971,0631,138
Less: Bank charges9398104111120126
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 5.Brunei Darussalam: Growth in Gross Domestic Product in Constant Prices, 1991-96(Percent change)
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Total4.0-1.10.51.82.02.8
Oil and gas sector3.1-5.7-2.4-1.0-1.1-0.5
Non-oil and gas sector5.76.54.85.66.06.7
Agriculture and hunting0.20.50.50.70.92.0
Forestry and logging2.01.91.91.91.81.8
Fishing4.86.86.41.07.97.3
Mining, quarrying, and manufacturing3.51.01.32.23.74.1
Electricity production1.03.50.31.63.13.4
Construction2.51.22.76.18.18.1
Wholesale trade0.51.60.93.33.94.1
Retail trade0.90.40.30.72.53.2
Restaurants and hotels5.35.38.09.910.310.2
Transportation, storage, and communication1.45.44.06.27.28.1
Banking and finance0.12.94.06.17.07.1
Insurance1.53.92.15.77.37.4
Real estate and business services0.42.22.23.24.25.3
Ownership of dwellings1.53.43.75.85.96.2
Community, social, and personal services9.910.16.96.96.67.1
Less: Bank charges7.05.45.87.07.55.2
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 6.Brunei Darussalam: Trends in GDP and GNP, 1991-96 1/
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In current prices; In millions of Brunei dollars)
GDP6,6216,5656,5856,6867,0677,449
Net factor payments3,0902,7803,6783,5473,6513,860
GNP9,7119,34510,26310,23410,71811,308
(In current prices; percentage growth)
GDP1.7-0.80.31.55.75.4
GNP-2.6-3.89.8-0.34.75.5
(In prices of 1974; In millions of Brunei dollars)
GDP3,7513,7093,7283,7953,8713,978
GNP5,0804,8775,2425,2205,2935,498
(In prices of 1974; percentage change)
GDP4.0-1.10.51.82.02.8
GNP-1.2-4.07.5-0.41.43.9
(In current prices; In millions of U.S. dollars) 2/
GDP3,8324,0304,0754,3784,9865,283
GNP5,6215,7366,3526,7007,5618,020
(Per capita; U.S. dollars) 2/
GDP14,71215,04914,75015,38716,84417,315
GNP21,57921,42022,98923,55025,54526,286
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and staff estimates.

GNP was calculated on the basis of net factor payments estimated by the staff.

Converted at current exchange rates.

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and staff estimates.

GNP was calculated on the basis of net factor payments estimated by the staff.

Converted at current exchange rates.

Table 7.Brunei Darussalam: Oil and Gas Production and Sales, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
Oil Production(Thousands of cubic meters per day)
Crude petroleum232625262524
Casing head petroleum spirit333333
Total262928282826
(Thousands of barrels per day)
Crude petroleum147165157161157149
Casing head petroleum spirit171718181816
Total165182175178175165
Number of wells720737735741740742
(Millions of cubic feet per day)
Gas Production9409539469851,0791,079
Exports
Volumes
Oil (thousands of barrels per day)162176170174168161
Gas (trillions of BTU per year)275276286283323323
Average prices received
Crude oil (U.S. dollars/barrel)20.720.718.817.118.322.0
Gas (U.S. dollars/million BTU)3.53.33.13.03.43.7
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues); export data from Petroleum Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans, and Statistical Yearbook (various issues); export data from Petroleum Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department.
Table 8.Brunei Darussalam: Labor Force and Employment, 1971, 1981 and 1991 1/
197119811991197119811991
(In persons)(In percent)
Population136,256192,832260,482100.0100.0100.0
Males72,772102,942137,61653.453.452.8
Females63,48489,890122,86646.646.647.2
Employed40,01268,128106,746100.0100.0100.0
Males33,56252,73772,33883.977.467.8
Females6,45015,39134,40816.122.632.2
Unemployed1,0872,5625,209100.0100.0100.0
Males6491,1222,74559.743.852.7
Females4381,4402,46440.356.247.3
Total labor force41,09970,690111,955100.0100.0100.0
Males34,21153,85975,08383.276.267.1
Females6,88816,83136,87216.823.832.9
Total employed106,746100.0
Citizens54,59551.1
Permanent residents7,3446.9
Temporary residents43,99341.2
Excluding temporary residents:
Unemployment rate7.7
Participation rate39.8
Employment
All sectors40,01268,128106,746100.0100.0100.0
Males33,56252,73772,33883.977.467.8
Females6,45015,39134,40816.122.632.2
Private sector24,43336,40248,99861.153.445.9
Males20,13028,49233,15350.341.831.1
Females4,3037,91015,84510.811.614.8
Public sector15,57931,72657,74838.946.654.1
Males13,43224,24539,18533.635.636.7
Females2,1477,48118,5635.411.017.4
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and staff estimates.

Data for census years 1971, 1981, and 1991.

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and staff estimates.

Data for census years 1971, 1981, and 1991.

Table 9.Brunei Darussalam: Private Sector Employment by Major Industry, 1991-96
1991199219931994Est.

1995
Est.

1996
(In persons)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing1,1881,3131,3791,5021,5781,657
Production of oil and natural gas4,2574,2364,1934,1444,3524,570
Sawmilling and timber processing587683716691725761
Other mining, quarrying, and manufacturing5,2446,2945,1617,9818,3808,799
Construction21,53825,73830,56034,19935,90937,704
Wholesale and retail trading7,4358,6688,85010,17710,68511,219
Coffee shops, restaurants, and hotels2,8143,5803,8434,5854,8155,056
Transport, storage, and communication3,8534,0264,1364,6354,8675,110
Financial, insurance, and business services2,9743,2523,4535,3375,6025,882
Community, social, and personal services4,5305,3285,6996,8937,2387,600
Total private sector employment54,42063,11867,99080,14484,15188,358
(In percent of total)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing2.22.12.01.91.91.9
Production of oil and natural gas7.86.76.25.25.25.2
Sawmilling and timber processing1.11.11.10.90.90.9
Other mining, quarrying, and manufacturing9.610.07.610.010.010.0
Construction39.640.844.942.742.742.7
Wholesale and retail trading13.713.713.012.712.712.7
Coffee shops, restaurants, and hotels5.25.75.75.75.75.7
Transport, storage, and communication7.16.46.15.85.85.8
Financial, insurance, and business services5.55.25.16.76.76.7
Community, social, and personal services8.38.48.48.68.68.6
(Percent change)
Total private sector employment1.516.07.717.95.05.0
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues) and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues) and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 10.Brunei Darussalam: Employment Composition, 1991
TotalMalesFemalesTotalMalesFemalesMalayChineseBrunei citizensPermanent residentsTemporary residents
(In persons)(In percent of total employment)
Workers not classifiable by occupation7,0556,7812746.69.40.87.10.97.80.36.2
Legislators, administrators and managers4,6643,8687964.45.32.34.29.75.210.42.3
Professionals7,3344,8662,4686.96.77.27.26.87.74.26.3
Technicians and associate professionals13,1848,2594,92512.411.414.317.29.518.68.65.4
Clerical workers12,6354,5678,06811.86.323.417.311.718.714.83.1
Service workers and shop, market, and related sales workers13,4308,4155,01512.611.614.613.016.713.618.110.4
Agricultural and fishery workers1,3521,1901621.31.60.51.31.41.33.40.9
Production craftsperson and related workers16,07414,7681,30615.120.43.87.430.07.318.823.8
Plant and machine operators and assemblers7,7547,3963587.310.21.07.07.06.58.77.9
Cleaners, laborers and related workers23,26412,22811,03621.816.932.118.36.213.212.733.8
All occupations106,74672,33834,408100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
100.067.832.250.618.651.16.941.2
Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 11.Brunei Darussalam: Population Indicators, 1971-96 1/
Annual average rates or annual averages
1971 Census1981 Census1991 Census199219931994199519961971-811981-911971-91
(In persons)(In percent)
Male72,772102,942137,616141,300145,800150,000156,600161,5003.52.93.2
Female63,48489,890122,866126,500130,500134,500139,400143,6003.53.23.4
Total population136,256192,832260,482267,800276,300284,500296,000305,1003.53.13.3
(In persons)
Annual population growth5,9967,6127,0827,3188,5008,20011,5009,1005,6886,8426,201
-natural increase4,3805,2276,2546,4036,2966,3626,469..4,6545,8485,252
-immigration (+)1,6162,3858289152,2041,8385,031..1,034994949
Live-births5,1815,8787,1067,2907,3147,2707,341..5,3716,6145,998
Total deaths8016518528871,018908872..717766746
of which infants199807970826158..13266100
(In percent of total population)
Crude birth rate38.030.527.327.226.525.624.8..33.229.431.3
Crude death rate5.93.43.33.33.73.23.0..4.53.44.0
Natural rate of increase32.127.124.023.922.822.421.9..28.726.027.4
(In percent of infant live births)
Infant mortality rate38.413.611.19.611.28.47.9..25.010.217.7
(Percentage change from previous year)
Population growth rate4.64.12.82.83.23.04.03.1
Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbooks (various issues).

The years 1971, 1981, and 1991 were census years; for the other years, the numbers are estimates.

Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbooks (various issues).

The years 1971, 1981, and 1991 were census years; for the other years, the numbers are estimates.

Table 12.Brunei Darussalam: Government Sector Employment by Grade, 1991-95
19911992199319941995
(In persons)
Division I: Heads of departments397425434453470
Division II: Senior officers2,6643,1013,3373,7104,021
Division III: Supervisory7,3137,6998,0368,1168,291
Division IV: Clerical and operators9,81510,34810,52810,84811,023
Division V: Clerical and operators13,18513,76814,20514,23614,263
Total government employment33,37435,34136,54037,36338,068
(In percent of total)
Division I: Heads of departments1.21.21.21.21.2
Division II: Senior officers8.08.89.19.910.6
Division III: Supervisory21.921.822.021.721.8
Division IV: Clerical and operators29.429.328.829.029.0
Division V: Clerical and operators39.539.038.938.137.5
(Percent change)
Total government employment0.75.93.42.31.9
Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Source: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues).
Table 13.Brunei Darussalam: Consumer Price Index, 1991-96(Period average and percent change; 1990=100)
All commoditiesFoodClothing and footwearHousingTransportation and communicationMiscellaneous
1991101.61.6102.52.5101.11.1100.90.9101.41.4100.80.8
1992102.91.3103.30.8104.13.0100.7-0.2103.42.0103.22.4
1993107.34.3106.02.6113.18.6106.05.3108.75.1107.74.4
1994109.92.4107.31.3116.32.8109.02.8113.84.7109.92.0
1995116.56.0110.12.6122.75.5111.22.0129.814.1118.88.2
1996118.82.0113.43.0121.3-1.1110.7-0.5134.83.8120.11.1
1995
Q1113.75.2109.42.5121.26.1112.04.3117.27.5118.89.5
Q2117.27.2110.03.2122.75.9111.22.8133.717.0118.89.4
Q3117.26.2110.22.4122.95.1110.31.2134.115.9118.68.6
Q4117.85.3110.92.3123.95.0111.3-0.1134.415.6119.05.3
1996
Q1118.24.0112.73.0119.5-1.5110.7-1.2134.715.0119.20.3
Q2118.00.7112.01.8119.2-2.8110.4-0.7134.90.9119.60.7
Q3119.11.7113.93.3123.10.2110.80.4134.80.5120.41.5
Q4119.71.6114.93.7123.3-0.5111.0-0.3134.70.2121.01.7
Memorandum:
Weights (percent)100.038.76.418.619.916.3
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and Economic Planning and Development Department.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Brunei Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and Economic Planning and Development Department.
Table 14.Brunei Darussalam: Summary Budget, 1991-97
BudgetActualBudgetEst.Budget
1991199219931994199519961997
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Total revenue2,6862,3252,2742,2461,8812,4512,0502,8542,353
Tax1,4591,2861,1371,0929091,2231,0751,4041,186
Non-tax revenue1,2261,0391,1371,1559721,2279751,4501,167
Transfers 1/..4051,1422,072..1,957..907..
Total expenditure2,7603,0573,3974,2854,4814,4034,8793,5404,989
Current2,0242,2242,3752,3272,6672,4302,7392,4782,783
Capital7368331,0221,0571,8141,2262,1409822,206
Investment in pub. enterprises 2/......901..747..80..
Surplus or deficit (-)-74-3281933-2,6004-2,830221-2,636
Surplus or deficit (-),
excluding transfers-74-732-1,123-2,039-2,600-1,953-2,830-686-2,636
(In millions of Brunei dollars; end of period balances)
Consolidated Fund4531861401,109..2,123..2,250..
Development Fund743682523488..225..398..
Government Trust Fund2613207179..153..89..
(Percent change)
Total revenue-0.8-13.4-2.2-1.2-16.39.1-16.416.5-17.6
Total expenditure-1.110.811.126.14.62.810.8-19.640.9
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue40.635.434.533.626.634.727.538.329.9
Of which: Tax22.019.617.316.312.917.314.418.915.0
Total expenditure41.746.651.664.163.462.365.547.563.3
Current30.633.936.134.837.734.436.833.335.3
Capital11.112.715.515.825.717.328.713.228.0
Investment in pub. enterprises 2/......13.5..10.6..1.1..
Surplus or deficit (-)-1.1-5.00.30.5-36.80.1-38.03.0-33.5
Surplus or deficit (-), excluding transfers-1.1-11.2-17.1-30.5-36.8-27.6-38.0-9.2-33.5
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Memorandum items:
Ordinary expenditure1,9442,1362,2812,2352,9242,3693,1252,3433,233
Charged expenditure446460426414448424455490456
Development expenditure3704616907351,1098641,3006271,300
GDP6,6216,5656,5856,6867,0677,0677,4497,4497,879
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

BIA investment in public enterprises.

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

BIA investment in public enterprises.

Table 15.Brunei Darussalam: Composition of Government Revenues, 1991-96
BudgetActualBudgetEst.
199119921993199419951996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Total revenue and transfers2,6862,7303,4164,3181,8814,4072,0503,761
Tax revenue1,4591,2861,1371,0929091,2231,0751,404
Import duty91104105101100164153183
Estate duty11202120
Corporate income tax1,3651,1791,0299898051,0559181,217
Stamp duty22222324
Nontax revenue1,2261,0391,1371,1559721,2279751,450
Licenses66688889
Service receipts556879810
Commercial receipts193243248259272264291286
Property income1,0227848768806859466691,144
Transfers 1/..4051,1422,072..1,957..907
(In percent of total revenue and transfers)
Tax revenue54.347.133.325.348.327.852.437.3
Of which:
Import duty3.43.83.12.35.33.77.54.9
Corporate income tax50.843.230.122.942.823.944.832.4
Nontax revenue45.738.133.326.751.727.947.638.5
Of which:
Commercial receipts7.28.97.36.014.46.014.27.6
Property income38.128.725.620.436.421.532.630.4
Transfers 1/..14.833.448.0..44.4..24.1
(In percent of GDP)
Total revenue and transfers40.641.651.964.626.662.427.550.5
Tax revenue22.019.617.316.312.917.314.418.9
Of which:
Import duty1.41.61.61.51.42.32.12.5
Corporate income tax20.618.015.614.811.414.912.316.3
Nontax revenue18.515.817.317.313.817.413.119.5
Of which:
Commercial receipts2.93.73.83.93.83.73.93.8
Property income15.411.913.313.29.713.49.015.4
Transfers 1/..6.217.331.0..27.7..12.2
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.

Transfers from BIA to the budget and for public enterprises.

Table 16.Brunei Darussalam: Current Expenditures by Ministries and Major Departments, 1991-96 1/
BudgetActualBudgetEst.
199119921993199419951996
Ministries
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Prime Minister’s Office128146157162185164203167
Defense424410378400595405667420
Foreign Affairs788279901048711085
Finance356475580425702559755558
Home Affairs748288881028811188
Education271278285301345311373312
Law1513141624162315
Industry and Primary Resources3540384045394537
Religious Affairs7381899611310011393
Development272292306350389319368279
Culture, Youth, and Sports3844484855485846
Health122125142148168154184156
Communication60697972967911487
Total1,9442,1362,2812,2352,9242,3693,1252,343
(In percent of total “ordinary expenditures”)
Prime Minister’s Office6.66.86.97.26.36.96.57.1
Defense21.819.216.617.920.417.121.317.9
Foreign Affairs4.03.83.54.03.63.73.53.6
Finance18.322.225.419.024.023.624.223.8
Home Affairs3.83.93.93.93.53.73.53.8
Education13.913.012.513.511.813.211.913.3
Law0.80.60.60.70.80.70.70.6
Industry and Primary Resources1.81.91.71.81.51.71.41.6
Religious Affairs3.83.83.94.33.94.23.63.9
Development14.013.613.415.613.313.511.811.9
Culture, Youth, and Sports1.92.12.12.21.92.01.82.0
Health6.25.96.26.65.86.55.96.7
Communication3.13.23.53.23.33.33.73.7
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Major departments
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Education271278285301345311373312
Electrical788381971029210591
Medical and Health122125142148169154184156
Police5161696367617660
Public Works167179193218248192225190
Royal Brunei Armed Forces424410378400488405667420
Religious Affairs7381899611310011393
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

“Current expenditures” are approximated here by the Brunei category of “ordinary expenditures.”

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

“Current expenditures” are approximated here by the Brunei category of “ordinary expenditures.”

Table 17.Brunei Darussalam: Development Expenditures
Fifth NDP 1986-90 allocationSixth NDP 1991-95 allocationSixth NDP 1991-95 actualSeventh NDP 1996-2000 allocation
(B$ mn)(% total)(B$ mn)(% total)(B$ mn)(% total)(B$ mn)(% total)
Industry and Commerce3449.355110.01755.890812.6
Agriculture300.8561.0210.71732.4
Forestry50.1260.5190.61041.4
Fisheries190.5390.7220.7731.0
Commerce451.2571.0120.4540.8
Industrial Development2436.63736.81003.35047.0
Transport and Communications71319.31,10220.071423.61,40219.5
Roads2747:45149.32668.86909.6
Civil aviation842.3891.6411.31051.5
Marine and ports571.5891.6481.61452.0
Telecommunications2887.83937.135111.63955.5
Postal services110.320.010.030.0
Radio and television00.0140.380.3640.9
Social services1,23133.31,61529.31,20839.81,97827.5
Education3038.23847.043014.24075.7
Medical and health531.41031.9431.42122.9
Government housing3038.22614.71234.11241.7
Town and country planning41111.156110.247315.691812.8
Religious affairs371.0561.0481.6520.7
Public facilities1243.42484.5913.02653.7
Public Utilities75520.41,10220.060920.11,57821.9
Electricity2787.559710.835811.81,07514.9
Sanitation752.0821.5260.9951.3
Water supplies3238.73175.81926.33064.3
Drainage802.21061.9331.11021.4
Public Buildings3669.955110.01886.26338.8
Security2807.63867.01183.95287.3
RBAF2556.93506.41013.34666.5
Police250.7360.7170.6620.9
Miscellaneous110.32033.7210.71732.4
Surveys and investigations80.2380.7210.7660.9
Contingency reserves20.11653.000.01071.5
Total3,700100.05,509100.03,033100.07,200100.0
Memorandum item
Total (US$ mn.)1,8393,4791,916..
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh National Development Plans.
Table 18.Brunei Darussalam: Accounts of the Brunei Currency Board, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars; end-of-period)
Assets4765105385506051,258
External assets4124344314464691,071
Of which: Reserve for currency412434431446469533
Liquid assets236213255155197447
Of which: Reserve for currency236213255155197216
Securities173219174290270316
Accrued interest322121
IMF reserve position and holdings of SDRs..........307
Other assets6376107104136187
Of which: Cash at bank6376107104136187
Liabilities4765105385506051,258
Allocation of SDRs in IMF..........307
Currency425460479515573601
Notes406440459493551577
Coins192021222224
Deposits by commercial banks..........310
Other liabilities........2020
Reserve fund515059351220
Memorandum items:
Ratio to demand liabilities of external assets 1/0.970.940.900.870.820.89
liquid external assets 2/0.560.460.530.300.340.36
External assets (net, US$ mn.)253264268305332546
Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.

Ratio of external reserve (for currency) to currency.

Ratio of liquid external reserve (for currency) to currency.

Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.

Ratio of external reserve (for currency) to currency.

Ratio of liquid external reserve (for currency) to currency.

Table 19.Brunei Darussalam: Monetary Survey, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars; end of period)
Net foreign assets3,0274,0473,8475,2926,1856,150
BCB412434431446469764
Commercial banks2,6143,6133,4164,8465,7165,386
Assets2,8043,8343,7085,1385,8565,517
Liabilities190222292292140131
Claims on private sector1,8311,9272,4103,2002,5623,160
Other assets347543335285502673
BCB6376107104136187
Commercial banks283467228181366486
Assets=liabilities5,2056,5176,5918,7779,2499,983
Money2,2332,4462,4584,3904,1263,272
Currency385418426434482507
Demand deposits1,8482,0282,0323,9563,6442,765
Quasi-money2,4242,4262,9353,0833,8944,562
Time deposits1,2881,5221,9352,0182,7263,299
Savings and other deposits1,1369039991,0651,1681,263
Other liabilities5481,6451,1991,3041,2292,149
BCB5150593532350
Commercial banks4971,5951,1401,2691,1971,799
Memorandum items:
Currency with banks404253819194
Broad money4,6574,8715,3937,4738,0207,834
Prime lending rate (end of period)7.06.05.86.06.56.5
(Percent change)
Net foreign assets-11.333.7-4.937.616.9-0.6
Claims on private sector46.05.225.132.8-19.923.4
Money-4.79.50.578.6-6.0-20.7
Currency5.98.62.01.811.15.2
Demand deposits-6.69.70.294.7-7.9-24.1
Quasi-money13.50.121.05.126.317.2
Time deposits17.818.227.14.335.121.0
Savings and other deposits9.0-20.510.66.69.78.1
Memorandum item
Broad money4.04.610.738.67.3-2.3
Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.
Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.
Table 20.Brunei Darussalam: Direction of Loans by Commercial Banks, 1991-96
199119921993199419951996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Total Loans1,8351,9282,4063,2382,5643,160
Agricultural991791618
Credit and Finance3903575991,308259167
Manufacturing152322263640
Transport5432492921116
Construction254281271343514569
General Commerce200251319311340389
Professional Services222232503036
Personal Loans8909541,0971,1631,3481,825
(In percent of total loans)
Total Loans100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Agricultural0.50.50.70.30.60.6
Credit and Finance21.318.524.940.410.15.3
Manufacturing0.81.20.90.81.41.3
Transport2.91.72.00.90.83.7
Construction13.914.611.310.620.018.0
General Commerce10.913.013.39.613.312.3
Professional Services1.21.11.31.51.21.1
Personal Loans48.549.545.635.952.657.8
Source: Data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 21.Brunei Darussalam: Balance of Payments, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Trade balance1,415997456441415100
Exports2,4702,4022,2482,1542,3902,596
Imports1,0551,4061,7921,7131,9752,497
Services, net 1/-311-402-160-1197-8
Receipts631197453562602
Payments374521234171555610
Investment income, net 2/1,9391,8821,7382,4712,4902,755
Receipts2,2152,0941,9272,6222,7312,870
Payments276211188151241114
Current transfers, net 1/-99-60-88-6-441-148
Receipts61111218
Payments10571897461157
Current account balance2,9442,4171,9462,7872,4712,699
Capital transfers, net-19-17-4000
Foreign investment, net-55413824670-63490
Long-term capital, net-2,567-3,148-3,522-4,452-2,993-3,123
Short-term capital, net-2783467591,0321,182549
Overall balance261143726214
External assets BCB (increase -)-26-11-4-37-26-214
(In percent of GDP)
Trade balance36.924.711.210.18.31.9
Exports64.559.655.249.247.949.1
Imports27.534.944.039.139.647.3
Services 1/-8.1-10.0-3.9-2.70.1-0.1
Receipts1.62.91.81.211.311.4
Payments9.812.95.83.911.111.6
Investment income, net 2/50.646.742.756.449.952.2
Receipts57.852.047.359.954.854.3
Payments7.25.24.63.44.82.2
Current transfers 1/-2.6-1.5-2.2-0.1-8.8-2.8
Receipts0.10.30.00.00.40.2
Payments2.71.82.20.29.33.0
Current account balance76.860.047.863.749.651.1
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues) ; data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

There is a statistical break between 1994 and 1995.

Investment income is based on staff estimates.

Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues) ; data provided by the Brunei authorities; and staff estimates.

There is a statistical break between 1994 and 1995.

Investment income is based on staff estimates.

Table 22.Brunei Darussalam: Exports by Commodity, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Total exports4,2673,9133,6323,2903,3883,661
Food and live animals1620211932
Beverages and tobacco611100
Crude material (inedible), except fuel110122
Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials4,1283,7233,5003,0693,1483,402
Animal and vegetable oils and fats000000
Chemicals356645
Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material182922222731
Machinery and transportation equipment5610068118108133
Miscellaneous manufactured articles393315548081
Miscellaneous transactions and commodities not elsewhere classified1101156
(In percent of total exports)
Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials96.795.196.393.392.992.9
(In percent of total non-oil/gas exports)
Food and live animals11.210.315.68.51.40.8
Beverages and tobacco4.50.70.80.20.10.0
Crude material (inedible), except fuel0.70.40.20.50.90.8
Animal and vegetable oils and fats0.10.00.00.00.00.0
Chemicals2.12.74.82.51.51.9
Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material12.815.116.39.811.412.0
Machinery and transportation equipment40.252.950.953.244.951.4
Miscellaneous manufactured articles27.817.511.124.533.431.3
Miscellaneous transactions and commodities not elsewhere classified0.70.40.20.66.42.3
(Percent change)
Total exports6.4-8.3-7.2-9.43.08.1
Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials6.6-9.8-6.0-12.32.68.1
Other0.136.5-30.266.88.57.9
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 23.Brunei Darussalam: Value and Destination of Selected Exports, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Value of major exports
Crude petroleum2,0252,0361,7861,5501,4761,702
Petroleum products206125123106111117
Natural gas1,8971,5621,5911,4131,5611,583
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Crude petroleum1,1721,2501,1051,0151,0411,207
Petroleum products1197676697883
Natural gas1,0989599859251,1021,123
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Major exports by destination
Crude petroleum
Japan626520527385424503
Korea399446391353316437
Philippines1651448251200
Singapore243382291279219216
Taiwan Province of China1141121068884104
Thailand350350360361371420
United States1600000
Natural gas: Japan1,8971,5621,5911,3581,3841,402
Korea00054177181
Petroleum products
Australia6130000
Japan14175103547350
Korea402615453760
New Zealand900000
Sarawak (Malaysia)200005
Singapore000702
Taiwan Province of China000000
United States885000
(In percent of total)
Crude petroleum
Japan30.925.529.524.828.729.9
Korea19.721.921.922.721.426.0
Philippines8.27.14.63.31.30.0
Singapore12.018.816.318.014.812.8
Taiwan Province of China5.65.56.05.75.76.2
Thailand17.317.220.223.325.225.0
United States0.80.00.00.00.00.0
Natural gas: Japan100.0100.0100.096.188.688.6
Korea0.00.00.03.911.411.4
Petroleum products
Japan68.561.683.951.366.343.0
Korea19.421.712.342.433.751.3
Singapore0.00.00.06.30.01.8
United States3.76.43.80.00.00.0
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 24.Brunei Darussalam: Exports by Country of Destination, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
ASEAN8451,014829862752783
Indonesia0001135
Malaysia-West396531322
-Sabah962444
- Sarawak324050361612
Philippines1661458259211
Singapore285463329348313318
Thailand351352360362372421
European Union22915282639
Of which:
France314582
Other3,4002,8902,7892,4002,6102,839
Of which:
Australia11388292242
Japan2,6712,1582,2211,7981,8831,955
Korea439472406452531678
Taiwan Province of China1141121068884104
United States453622466776
Total4,2673,9133,6323,2903,3883,661
(In percent of total exports)
ASEAN19.825.922.826.222.221.4
Indonesia0.00.00.00.00.40.1
Malaysia-West0.10.20.21.60.40.6
-Sabah0.20.20.10.10.10.1
- Sarawak0.71.01.41.10.50.3
Philippines3.93.72.31.80.60.0
Singapore6.711.89.110.69.28.7
Thailand8.29.09.911.011.011.5
European Union0.50.20.40.90.81.1
Of which:
France0.10.00.10.10.20.0
Others79.773.876.872.977.077.6
Of which:
Australia2.62.20.80.00.70.0
Japan62.655.161.154.655.653.4
Korea10.312.111.213.715.718.5
Taiwan Province of China2.72.92.92.72.52.9
United States1.10.90.61.42.02.1
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 25.Brunei Darussalam: Imports by Commodity, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
Total imports1,9222,4163,0552,7602,9543,714
Food and live animals247239229327324381
Beverages and tobacco465453606799
Crude material (inedible), except fuel24402869111149
Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials12112551614
Animal and vegetable oils and fats78791011
Chemicals121140134143166217
Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material527545602630909951
Machinery and transportation equipment7361,0611,5141,1721,0341,465
Miscellaneous manufactured articles194300449339303407
Miscellaneous transactions and commodities not elsewhere classified9161271420
(In percent of total imports)
Total imports100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Food and live animals12.99.97.511.811.010.3
Beverages and tobacco2.42.31.82.22.32.7
Crude material (inedible), except fuel1.21.70.92.53.84.0
Mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials0.60.50.80.20.50.4
Animal and vegetable oils and fats0.30.30.20.30.30.3
Chemicals6.35.84.45.25.65.8
Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material27.422.619.722.830.825.6
Machinery and transportation equipment38.343.949.642.435.039.4
Miscellaneous manufactured articles10.112.414.712.310.311.0
Miscellaneous transactions and commodities not elsewhere classified0.50.60.40.20.50.5
(Percent change)
Total imports6.025.726.4-9.67.025.7
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 26.Brunei Darussalam: Imports by Country of Origin, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of Brunei dollars)
ASEAN6958589221,3181,4881,683
Indonesia324292996157
Malaysia-West157207244335336387
- Sabah95561815
- Sarawak1974195272
Philippines2544718
Singapore4245465247689371,013
Thailand5245498676122
European Union459510825505480577
Of which:
Denmark52109253412
France206220243138
Germany8298363114131116
Italy85135159556286
Netherlands503587612641
United Kingdom135148130192167259
Other7691,0481,3089389861,453
Of which:
Australia424876969499
China5550384989101
Hong Kong3445502981117
Japan303374286279261241
Korea122027264252
Taiwan Province of China263128435250
United States263444766313261648
Total1,9222,4163,0552,7602,9543,714
(In percent of total imports)
ASEAN36.235.530.247.750.445.3
Indonesia1.71.73.03.62.01.5
Malaysia-West8.28.68.012.111.410.4
- Sabah0.50.20.20.20.60.4
- Sarawak1.00.30.10.71.81.9
Philippines0.10.20.10.10.30.5
Singapore22.122.617.227.831.727.3
Thailand2.71.91.63.12.63.3
European Union23.921.127.018.316.315.5
Of which:
Germany4.24.011.94.14.43.1
United Kingdom7.06.14.26.95.77.0
Other40.043.442.834.033.439.1
Of which:
Japan15.815.59.410.18.86.5
United States13.718.425.111.38.917.4
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 27.Brunei Darussalam: International Reserves, 1991-96
19911992199319941995Est.

1996
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Brunei Currency Board253264268305332546
Of which: liquid assets145129159106139319
Consolidated Fund278113877591,5011,608
Official reserves5313773551,0651,8332,153
Commercial banks1,6032,1962,1243,3184,0423,848
International reserves2,1342,5732,4794,3825,8746,001
(In months of imports of goods and services)
Official reserves4.22.42.16.58.78.3
International reserves16.916.214.626.727.823.0
Memorandum items:
Imports of goods and services (US$ mn.)1,4291,9272,0261,8842,5303,107
Brunei dollar/U.S. dollar (end of period)1.6311.6451.6081.4611.4141.400
Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Sources: Brunei Currency Board, Annual Report (various issues); and data provided by the Brunei authorities.
Table 28.Brunei Darussalam: Exchange Rates, 1991-96 1/
Brunei dollar perYen per Brunei dollarBrunei dollar per ECUBrunei doliarSingapore dollar
U.S. dollarSDREffective exchange ratesReal effective exchange rate 2/
Nominal 2/Real 2/
Period averageEnd of periodPeriod averageEnd of periodPeriod averageEnd of periodPeriod averageEnd of periodPeriod averagePeriod averagePeriod average
19911.7281.6312.362.3378772.142.1990.789.292.2
19921.6291.6452.292.2678762.111.9993.390.194.0
19931.6161.6082.262.2169701.891.8094.792.794.9
19941.5271.4612.192.1367681.821.8097.394.498.4
19951.4171.4142.152.1066731.851.86100.0100.0100.0
19961.4101.4002.052.0177831.791.75102.9103.2103.4
1995
Q11.4421.4192.152.2167631.831.9099.397.8100.1
Q21.3961.3972.192.1960611.861.8898.899.498.9
Q31.4141.4212.152.1466691.861.8799.8100.399.9
Q41.4171.4142.122.1072731.871.86102.2102.6101.1
1996
Q11.4141.4082.072.0675751.821.81102.4102.7102.7
Q21.4081.4102.042.0376781.771.77102.9103.2103.5
Q31.4121.4082.052.0377791.791.77102.9103.3103.1
Q41.4051.4002.032.0180831.771.75102.3103.7104.3
Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and staff estimates.

Exchange rates for the Brunei dollar are based on Singapore dollar rates reported to IMF, International Financial Statistics.

1995=100

Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics; and staff estimates.

Exchange rates for the Brunei dollar are based on Singapore dollar rates reported to IMF, International Financial Statistics.

1995=100

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